Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2019
Volume 64, Number 3
Saturday–Tuesday, April 13–16, 2019; Denver, Colorado
Session K01: Poster Session II (14:0017:00)Poster

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Room: Sheraton Plaza Foyer 

K01.00001: RADIATION SOURCES


K01.00002: Speed of Light from Cyclotron Radiation Oktay Joseph Demir, Robert Zachary Cortes There have been several claims about speed of light measurements grater than c for cyclotron radiation. We have studied theoretical electromagnetic wave formation of electromagnetic waves from cyclotron based sources. It is our understanding that the light produced from cyclotron is formed under different conditions than ordinary electromagnetic wave formation. 

K01.00003: A Multiphysics Simulation Tool for Vacuum System Design and Optimization for Next Generation Light Sources Nicholas Goldring, David L. Bruhwiler, Robert Nagler, Zhigang Wu, Jason Carter, Jason Lerch, Kamlesh Suthar, Patric Den Hartog Fourth generation storage ring light sources are creating ordersofmagnitude brighter xrays by reducing horizontal emittance via multibend achromats. This requires the bending magnet pole tips to be closer to the electron beam axis, which in turn requires smaller vacuum chambers. The resultant design challenges are dictated by complex and coupled physical phenomena including high thermal stresses and photon stimulated desorption. To better analyze and optimize nextgeneration vacuum systems, the authors are developing and benchmarking a suite of COMSOL Multiphysics models, which include the production, propagation, reflection and absorption of synchrotron xrays, as well as the resulting physical phenomena noted above. These coupled physics models are benchmarked against the open source codes SynRad and MolFlow. Finally, the models are embedded within an open source browserbased GUI, enabling scientists and engineers to execute simulations on a parallel cloudbased server. 

K01.00004: ACCELERATORS AND STORAGE RINGS


K01.00005: MultiObjectPlane Phase Retrieval for Plasma Density Profile Reconstruction Xiang Chen, Michael Dennis Litos Plasma Wakefield Accelerators (PWFA) can accelerate electron beams with gradients that are hundreds of times greater than conventional RF accelerators. The ability to preserve the beam emittance depends strongly on the longitudinal density profile of the plasma source. One method of generating the plasma source is to ionize a gas (argon or helium) with a high intensity laser pulse. This plasma source recombines on the order of nanoseconds, and is a filament that is tens of centimeters long, less than a millimeter wide, which has a density in the range 10^15 – 10^17 cm^3. In order to measure the shottoshot variation in the plasma source, an ultrafast diagnostic is needed. Here, I will present simulations and measurements of a laser phase retrieval diagnostic that utilizes the densitydependent index properties of the plasma to reconstruct the plasma density profile on a single shot . An ultrashort, low energy laser pulse is sent through the plasma source, after the pulse is split and focused onto multiple CCD, each one imaging a different plane inside plasma. A phase retrieval algorithm is applied to intensity patterns, and an index profile is generated. Then, a density profile can be calculated. Sensitivity and resolution of the diagnostic will be assessed. 

K01.00006: Measurement of PWFA plasma source density using Stark broadening Shao Xian Lee, Joshua Portnoy, Xiang Chen, Michael Gerard, Christopher E Doss, Keenan Huntstone, Robert Ariniello, Michael Dennis Litos Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) is an advanced accelerator technique, which utilizes the oscillations of plasma electrons created by a relativistic electron beam to accelerate another relativistic electron beam up to tens of GeV within centimeters of distance. To accurately predict the accelerating gradient of a PWFA and the beam emittance preservation during the acceleration process, we must accurately measure the PWFA plasma source density profile. However, measuring the density of shortlived (tens of nanoseconds), low density (10^1517 cm^3), narrow (<1 mm) and long (>10 cm) PWFA plasma source is difficult. In this poster, I will demonstrate the technique to measure PWFA plasma source density using Stark broadening, which is a spectralline broadening phenomenon caused by nonzero local electric field produced by plasma ions and electrons. Here I will present experimental results of measuring the density profile of a laserionized gas (Ar or He) PWFA plasma source using Stark broadening. The results are compared to theoretical models and the uncertainties due to time integration of the signal during the plasma decay process are estimated. 

K01.00007: Computed Tomography Density Diagnostic for Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Josh Portnoy, Michael Dennis Litos, Michael Gerard, Xiang Chen, Shao Xian Lee Plasma Wakefield Accelerators (PWFA) can produce accelerating gradients orders of magnitude greater than conventional metallic accelerators and thus are attractive for nextgeneration lepton colliders. The plasma source density profile determines the total energy gained in the accelerator as well as the degree of beam emittance growth throughout the acceleration process. Density diagnostics for PWFAs are a challenge due to the low density (~10^{16} cm^{3}) and unique geometry of the plasma, with thickness of less than one millimeter and a length of roughly 2050 cm. This requires diagnostics capable of detecting small density fluctuations and/or curvature over a relatively long region of interest. Computed tomography (CT) from direct optical imaging of the plasma glow provides a largescale density diagnostic for reconstructing the plasma density profile over a large region of interest, limited only by the camera’s field of view. Direct imaging of the plasma filament at varying background gas densities will be analyzed using the developed CT algorithm to produce 3D profiles of intensity contours. This data will be compared with the density profile from laser ionization simulations and the reconstructed plasma profile will be used in PWFA simulations to test its performance capability. 

K01.00008: Langmuir Probe Techniques for a SubMillimeter Plasma Filament Used in Plasma Wakefield Acceleration. Michael Jeffrey Gerard, Michael Dennis Litos, Robert Ariniello, Christopher E Doss, Keenan HuntStone, Joshua Portnoy, Xiang Chen, Shao Xian Lee Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) is an advanced linear particle acceleration technique that may be instrumental in the design of a future lepton collider. Its high acceleration gradients are observed in the nonlinear wave structure that exists in the wake of an electron beam moving through a plasma. A major challenge with a PWFA device is the preservation of beam emittance. The main solution to this problem consists of establishing a density ramp up regime where the electron beam enters the plasma. To achieve this, there must be a reliable method to profile the longitudinal plasma density. This is a challenge for many traditional plasma diagnostics due to the rapid decay rate (tens of nanoseconds) of the plasma, the relatively low initial density of 10^{1517} cm^{3}, and the narrow, submillimeter width of the plasma filament. In this poster we present measurements obtained from the use of double and triple Langmuir probes to measure the density and temperature profile of a laserionized Ar or He PWFA plasma source. We compare the results to a model that includes the initial plasma density and temperature profile expected from the laser ionization process as well as the decay process due to diffusion and recombination. 

K01.00009: ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS


K01.00010: EOSBPM: A new diagnostic for PWFA experiments. Keenan D HuntStone, Robert Ariniello, Christopher E Doss, John Robert Cary, Michael Dennis Litos A beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) utilizes two electron bunches. A "drive" beam creates a wake in the PWFA plasma source, blowing out plasma electrons and leaving behind a stationary ion column. A “witness” beam is injected behind the drive bunch and feels a high accelerating gradient throughout the PWFA. The energy gain in a PWFA depends on the longitudinal displacement of the witness beam from the drive bunch. Additionally, to avert hosing instability the beams must be well aligned transversely. Diagnostics providing information on relative beam positions will be an integral tool in future PWFA research. One design for such a diagnostic is the electrooptic sampling beam position monitor (EOSBPM). The setup consists of two EO crystals positioned on either side of the beamline. The EO signal from each crystal measures same beam current profile, and the relative strength of the signal is correlated with the nearness of each bunch to either crystal. From the combined temporally resolved signals of the crystals, the transverse position of each bunch can be independently determined. Simulations of an EOSBPM using beam parameters for upcoming experiments at the SLAC linac are presented. 

K01.00011: PARTICLES AND FIELDS


K01.00012: GeFiCa–Germanium detector Field Calculator(GEMADARC Student Education Package) Jianchen Li Germanium detector Field Calculator (GeFiCa) is used to calculate electrostatic potentials and fields inside highpurity germanium detectors with various geometries. It provides generic numerical calculations based on the successive overrelaxation method. GeFiCa is written in C++ , it is provided as an extension to the ROOT libraries widely used in the particle physics community. Calculation codes for individual detectors are provided as ROOT macros and python scripts distributed along with the GeFiCa core library, serving as both examples showing the usage of GeFiCa and starting points for customized calculations. The numerical results are saved in a ROOT tree, making full use of the I/O optimization and plotting functionalities in ROOT. The speed and precision of the calculation are comparable to other commonly used packages, which qualifies GeFiCa as a scientific research tool. However, the main focus of GeFiCa is to clearly explain and demonstrate the analytic and numeric methods to solve Poisson's equation, practical coding considerations as well as visualization methods, with intensive documentation and example macros. It serves as a onestop resource for people who want to understand the operating mechanism of such a package under the hood 

K01.00013: NOvA Neutron Test Beam Brinden Carlson, Daniel Moshe Kaplan The Fermilab Test Beam Facility is dedicated to detector research, and in our 

K01.00014: Commissioning the Belle II VerteX Detector (VXD), at KEK Center, Japan, With Comic Rays Ahmed Halawani, Rachid Ayad, Mohammed A. Albalwi
Belle & BaBar had been cited as main contributors to the 2008 Nobel Prize on elementary particles symmetries flourished in 1973 by a paper explaining the theory of CP violation phenomenon in the standard model. The CP violation phenomenon is important in explaining the dominance of matter in the universe & complete absence of antimatter. KEKB collider is being upgraded to a collider called SuperKEKB with 40X more luminosity. At that luminosity envisaged for SuperKEKB, the BelleII subdetectors close to the beam pipe are faced with extremely high hit rates, caused by beamrelated background hence Belle is upgraded to BelleII detector to cope with the additional high background rate. Belle VXD is used to reconstruct the decay vertices of the Bmesons produced at e+e collisions needed to study CP violation. VXD was mainly made by silicon strips detectors that are assembled in 4 layers of silicon detector modules to form SVD. In BelleII VXD is upgraded with what called PXD made of 2 more layers of pixel modules, made of DEPFET sensor which is the best candidate due to its low leakage current hence well suitable to cope with the high radiation environment at~2cm from the SuperKEKB Interaction Point. We discuss the cosmic rays results, especially at the SVD & PXD alignment level. 

K01.00015: Design and Production of the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter Mockup Modules Kamal Lamichhane During the LHC long shutdown 3 (20242026), the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will replace its current endcaps with a high granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) that comprises ~6M silicon cells and ~400K scintillator tiles. HGCAL will operate at 30 C in order to keep electronics noise low and charge collection efficiency as high as possible to maintain MIP calibration capability. A mockup program for siliconbased modules is underway to optimize materials and construction techniques to meet the challenges of cold operation. We present the current design, material choices, assembly process, and results of thermal and mechanical studies to date. 

K01.00016: Exploring the timing capabilities of the High Granularity Calorimeter Saptaparna Bhattacharya, Michael Schmitt The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will replace the present endcap Electromagnetic (ECAL) and Hadron calorimeters (HCAL) for the High Luminosity LHC (HLLHC). One of the unique features of the HGCAL is its ability to measure the time of fight of showers precisely. We will present results on the timing performance of the HGCAL with respect to electromagnetic and hadronic showers. We will also explore the timing performance of the detector in 140 and 200 pileup scenarios. 

K01.00017: Determination of Data Quality for the NOvA experiment Chatura D Kuruppu NOvA is a longbaseline neutrino oscillation experiment with two functionally identical detectors that uses Fermilab's NuMI beam. NOvA is designed to measure the neutrino mixing angles and to discover the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe leptonic CP violation by measuring the oscillation of muon (anti)neutrinos to electron (anti)neutrinos between the Near Detector at Fermilab and the Far Detector in Ash River, Minnesota. It is essential to have accurate and automated detector and data monitoring systems to ensure that issues which could affect data quality are identified and to remove affected data from the physics analysis data set. To this end, NOvA uses a combination of online and offline methods to monitor beam quality and detector stability and to determine the impact on recorded data. This poster will explain the set of techniques for determining good data and calculating the datataking efficiency. 

K01.00018: ATLAS Online Trigger Rate Monitoring System Nicholas Felice, Andrew Aukerman, Tae Min Hong We present an overview of operations and online monitoring with rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A twolevel trigger system reduces the LHC’s bunchcrossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations towards the end of Run 2. 

K01.00019: Measurement of Flow Impedance in Radon Trap for LZ Michael J Reh, Wolfgang B Lorenzon The LUXZEPLIN (LZ) Experiment is a dark matter direct detection experiment searching for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using liquid xenon as the detection medium. As for any rare event search experiment, LZ requires very low backgrounds. Radon is a dominant radioactive background, which is emanating from the detector components and needs to be continuously filtered to maintain high detector sensitivity. The University of Michigan group has developed a radon reduction system in an effort to filter radon backgrounds from the LZ detector. Characteristics of the radon reduction system, including flow impedance measurements as a function of charcoal trap temperature, will be presented. 

K01.00020: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN


K01.00021: Simulating Liquid Xenon Interactions with the Noble Element Scintillation Technique (NEST) Vetri Velan I will be presenting the latest release of the Noble Element Scintillation Technique (NEST). Noble element target media have become common in rare event searches, and an accurate comparison model is critical for understanding and predicting signals and unwanted backgrounds. Like its predecessors, NESTv2.0 is a simulation tool written in C++ and is based heavily on experimental data, taking into account most existing ionization and scintillation data for solid, liquid, and gaseous xenon. Due to the large amount of data for liquid xenon, most theoretical models in NEST have been replaced with simple, wellbehaved, empirical formulas, such as sigmoids and power laws. NESTv2.0 incorporates an empirical, nonbinomial, recombination fluctuations model. In addition, NESTv2.0 simulates S1 and S2 scintillation signals with correct energy resolutions in dualphase xenon timeprojection chambers, and this is done without using an external package. While NEST can be used with GEANT, NESTv2.0 is fully capable of operating as a standalone commandline tool. 

K01.00022: Understanding the Schrödinger Description of UltraLight Scalar Field Dark Matter John T Giblin Jr., Daniel Grin, Sarah M Murphree, Tristan Smith The mystery of Dark Matter has piqued the interest of many astronomers and physicists for decades. Despite that long history, most popular models of dark matter lack experimental verification. In recent years, the idea that dark matter is comprised of ultralight scalar field(s) (ULSF) dark matter has gained attention. Simulating ULSF dark matter in a cosmological context has significant challenges, due to the vast difference in scales between mass of the field and the Hubble parameter. One solution to this problem is to convert the problem to a nonrelativisitc one and evolve the system according to the Schrödinger equation. In this poster, we will discuss progress we have made toward understanding that translation and commenting on its validity as well as presenting results from simulating the Universe with plausible ULSF dark matter. 

K01.00023: LBECA  a dualphase xenon ionization chamber for hiddensector dark matter search Jingke Xu Noble liquid dualphase time projection chambers (TPCs), when treated as lowthreshold ionization detectors, have demonstrated exceptional sensitivities to both lowmass WIMPs and certain hiddensector darkmatter candidates. However, current xenon TPCs were not designed for optimal performance in the ionizationonly search mode, and consequently exhibited excessive electron backgrounds, which limit their applications in this darkmatter search channel. The Low Background Electron Counting Apparatus (LBECA) is a newly proposed compact xenon TPC experiment, specifically designed to achieve extremely low ionizationonly background rates down to the singleelectron level. It aims to exploit the ultimate sensitivity of the xenon TPC technology. The technical challenges and the potential scientific reach of this experiment in both dark matter and neutrino detection will be discussed. 

K01.00024: Recent results and R&D of the Generation2 Axion Dark Matter Experiment Thomas Braine The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) is a search for the dark matter axion. The axion, if discovered, solves both the strong CP problem and the dark matter problem. ADMX seeks to detect axions by the resonant conversion of axions into microwave photons in a high Q cavity in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Because the expected signal is of yoctowatt order, Generation2 ADMX (G2) employs a dilution refrigerator and quantum noise limited SQUID amplifiers to achieve its necessary subkelvin cavity temperature and low noise sensitivity. This poster highlights axion exclusion limits from previous runs, future run plans, and the R&D work to achieve them. 

K01.00025: Constraints on Axion Dark Matter from Searches for Radio Signals from Neutron Stars Joshua W Foster Axions, which can solve the Strong CP problem, and axionlike particles (ALPs), which arise naturally in many models of highscale physics, provide theoretically compelling dark matter candidates. Axions and ALPs which couple to photons have been shown to produce observable radio emission through their conversion to photons in the magnetospheres of neutron stars, providing a means of indirect detection. In this work, we analyze 1 hour of radio data collected by the Effelsberg 100m Radio Telescope to place novel constraints on $\mu \mathrm{eV}$ axion dark matter. We also briefly discuss implications of dark matter substructure for this search strategy. 

K01.00026: On Novel Superfluids Inside Of Dark Matter Halos Athira Sanal, Evan McDonough, Stephon Alexander We study dark matter models admitting phase transitions to novel superfluid states. We demonstrate that this can occur in broad classes of both fermionic and bosonic dark models, and focus on axion dark matter with higher derivative interactions. These higher derivative terms impact the symmetry breaking phase transition, and are encoded in physical properties of dark matter halos (e.g. the density profile). We identify observable signatures from both the late and early universe, providing a suite of complimentary observable to probe the superfluid nature of dark matter. 

K01.00027: Superconducting resonant cavity R&D for dark matter axion experiment at CAPP Danho Ahn, Ohjoon Kwon, Wonjun Jang, Dojun Youm, Woohyun Chung, Doyu Lee, Jhinhwan Lee, Yannis Kyriakos Semertzidis The IBS Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP) in Korea is searching for axions using a tunable resonant cavity and conducting an R&D to enhance axion to photon conversion rates to a detectable level. The deposition of superconducting thin films on the inner surface of the cavity increases the Q factor and thereby enhances the conversion power significantly. However, in order to make superconducting cavity works in the experimental condition, especially in high DC magnetic field (> 8 T), we have to exploit the magnetic property of type II superconductors. Type II superconductors have a relatively high critical field (> 1 T) due to its magnetic vortex formation rather than type I superconductor. Still, we have to solve other problems due to vortex vibration and field penetration into the substrate by the resonant mode. They are the main factors to decrease Q factor. In this work, we will present various RF characteristics related to NbTi film and YBCO film on the inner wall of the sample cavities at the various temperature and the varied DC magnetic field, and describe the behavior of vortex loss and penetration length. From the result, we will discuss the way to make better performance. 

K01.00028: Neutrino Event Reconstruction with Machine Learning on NOvA Micah Groh, Fernanda S Psihas The NOvA experiment has detected the disappearance of muon (anti)neutrinos and the appearance of electron (anti)neutrinos in the NuMI beam at Fermilab and have made measurements of parameters related to neutrino oscillations including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the CP violating phase. Key to these measurements is the identification of neutrino events and the reconstruction of their energies, for which NOvA has developed some of the first machine learning implementations in the field. Further applications of machine learning are possible using new algorithms in semantic segmentation, a technique for classification of individual elements of an image, which are also applicable to neutrino events. I will present an application of machine learning for doing full neutrino event reconstruction utilizing instance aware semantic segmentation. 

K01.00029: Neutrino Energy Estimation using CNNs in the NOvA Experiment Nitish Nayak NOvA is a longbaseline neutrino oscillation experiment that is designed to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing structure by looking for a ν_{e} appearance signal. It uses two functionally identical liquid scintillator detectors 14mrad offaxis from the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, allowing for a tightly focused ν_{μ} flux peaked at around 2 GeV. In order to make oscillation parameter measurements with high precision, it is important to reconstruct neutrino energies with good resolution as the oscillation probability is a function of neutrino energy. This is not straightforward due to complicated event topologies and large uncertainties on the underlying interaction models. To address this, NOvA has developed a deep learning based CNN that is able to estimate ν_{e} energies nonparametrically. This approach not only gives superior energy resolutions to traditional kinematicbased estimations, but also shows better behavior under changes to the interaction model; thus enabling us to reduce systematic uncertainties on the final measurement. 

K01.00030: Cherenkov Light in Liquid Scintillator at the NOvA Experiment Shiqi Yu NOvA is a longbaseline neutrino experiment. Its physics goal is to measure $\theta_{23}$ and $\delta_{CP}$ values and to determine the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. NOvA has two functionally identical detectors, both of which are fine segmented and filled by liquid scintillator. In NOvA oscillation analyses, the systematic uncertainty contributed from scintillator response is one of the significant systematic contributions. There are two main models in NOvA detectors light response simulation. One is Birks suppression, which is optimized to improve the data and MonteCarlo (MC) agreement for energy loss along particle tracks. The other one is Cherenkov model, which corrects the radiation response of NOvA detectors by capturing the Cherenkov radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through the detectors at a speed greater than the velocity of light in that medium. In general, Cherenkov effect will compensate with Birks model. Introducing these two models and performing a joint fit gives us a better agreement between our observed data and simulated MC events. In this poster, I will present the details of the datadriven tuning of the Cherenkov model and the impact of the new scintillator model on oscillation results. 

K01.00031: Order and Transport Properties of Glassy Solids: Importance of Topological Defects Caroline S Gorham, David E Laughlin The topological origins of the solidification of crystalline and noncrystalline states, and their inverse thermal transport properties are considered herein, making use of a quaternion orientational order parameter. Owing to the 4D nature of the quaternion numbers, quaternion ordered systems that exist in 4D/(3D+1t) must be considered to exist in ``restricted dimensions’’ (MerminWagner). This is owing to the pointlike nature of available third homotopy group topological defects in fourdimensions. Dual BerezinskiiKosterlitzThouless (BKT) transitions are anticipated, defectdriven and particledriven, to allow for the existence of crystalline and noncrystalline solid states. A full phase diagram for solidification is presented that includes frustration, in the range of finite kinetic and potential energy effects. The inverse thermal transport properties, above ~50K, are compared with the electrical transport properties of O(2) Josephson junction arrays (JJA) across the superconductortoinsulator transition. 

K01.00032: Role of the Quanta of Sound in an Atom Hassan Gholibeigian The vibration modes and frequencies observed in a system can reveal much about forces acting within and on it. In this way, the nucleons vibrate at extremely high frequencies which are deduced by two sets of causes; their internal and external excitation. At the internal excitation of nucleons, it seems that the interaction (collision) of the quark gluon, beta decay and changes of quarks flavor, generate quanta of sound in nucleons. Generated acoustic waves propagate in the space time of nucleons and also in moving boundary of quark gluon and transmit across their boundaries. On the other hand, generated quanta of sound can propagate on across the nucleons’ spherical boundaries and in turn, increase their vibration energy and also help to deformation of them from a spherical to an ellipsoidal. At the external excitation of nucleons in spacetime of the atom, in general, nuclear vibrations are excited by bombarding nuclei with high energy photons or other particles which in turn, can generate quanta of sound too. Both of the internal and external excitation of the nucleons including resonated quanta of sound, which are continuously interacting with each other, can determine the quantum states of the fundamental particles and also atomic nuclei in an atom. 

K01.00033: Photonics of Loopons William B Webb The Loopon Model blends Special Relativity into atoms. The Loopon Model provides details of how photons are generated and emitted from atoms. Dewarping Loopon electrons use specialrelativityinreverse to tangentially delaminate photons. For Loopon electrons that totally dewarp and surrender all of their wave energy, the ratio of their photon wavelength to Loopon wavelength is the same as the ratio of their relativistic speeds. 

K01.00034: Results from the CMSTOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) Cristian X Baldenegro Barrera We will describe recent results from the CMSTOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS). Specifically, we will discuss results on the process pp → p l^{+} l^{} p^{(*)} with l^{+}l^{} a muon or an electron pair produced at midrapidity with mass larger than 110 GeV at 13 TeV. One of the two scattered protons is measured in the forward spectrometer, which operated for the first time in 2016, while the second proton either remains intact or is excited and then dissociates into a lowmass state p^{*} , which is undetected. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb^{1} collected during standard highluminosity LHC operation. The present result constitutes the first observation of protontagged γγ collisions at the electroweak scale. Prospects for future measurements with proton tagging will be discussed. 

K01.00035: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN


K01.00036: Oscillons in Models of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking? Patrick H Shaw, Tom Giblin, Scott Watson, Goksu Toga One major focus of contemporary fundamental physics is understanding the origin of the Higgs mass and the mechanism behind electroweak symmetry breaking. A novel approach to this problem is to investigate the fine tuning of Standard Model parameters by studying the dynamics of the phase transition. When other degrees of freedom are coupled to the Higgs, as is common in many extensions of the standard model, the electroweak phase transition can exhibit nonlinear physics that might lead to nontrivial phenomenology. Here we employ cosmological lattice simulations to study the degrees of freedom that would have participated in such a scenario. We investigate a simple model wherein the Higgs field is coupled to a scalar modulus (possibly inflaton) field, which leads to rich field dynamics. Specifically, we are interested in investigating the formation of oscillons (nonlinear, stable solutions). Do they form and do they decay? Understanding these structures allows us to better understand the limitations of these models to explain electroweak symmetry breaking. 

K01.00037: Counting the Quanta of Sound Inside the Proton and Neutron Hassan Gholibeigian Collision of two bodies is usually accompanied by a snapping sound. The snap is produced by sound waves within the material that can also interact with the bodies. Now it seems that, interaction (collision) of the fundamental particles to each other can generate acoustic waves inside a proton. These produced waves can propagate in spacetime of the proton and interact with weak and strong interactions, quarks and gluons and generate vibration in quarks and the strong interaction field. Also, these waves propagate in moving boundary of quark–gluon and transmit across the boundaries and can affect to the interaction between quarks and gluons. In this case, interaction of quanta of acoustic waves with the weak interaction may affect to the process of the beta decay and changing the flavor of quarks. On the other hand, a portion of energy of the quarks’ virtual sea in proton may be deduced by quantized sound waves which resulted from interaction of the fundamental particles with each other inside the proton. In addition, the proton’s vibration can be increased, when the quantized sound waves interact with the strong interaction field inside the proton’s space–time. In this hypothesis, interaction of the quanta of sound on the spin may be a nice challenge in future. 

K01.00038: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS


K01.00039: OnDemand Distributed Computing Workflow for Physics Analysis at the CMS Experiment Diyaselis Marianela Delgado The CMS experiment is a strong contributor to the CERN Open Data Portal. CMS Open Data project releases data collected from protonproton collisions at the LHC to the public. It publishes research level data together with the environment, software and instructions. These data can be used by the scientific community and the general public for physics analysis. This talk will describe the development and tests of simplified examples for the use of open data, analysis preservation and a new reproducible research data analysis platform. 

K01.00040: Parallelizing Mie Scattering Calculations of Aerosol Extinction and Absorption Evan g Norris, George Marcus Aerosol particles play an important role in absorption and scattering of light in the atmosphere. A Mie scattering model can be used to find optical parameters of systems of strongly absorbing particles. The goal of this work is to develop parallel computing methods to increase the computational efficiency of such a model. The key area that benefits from parallelization is the calculation of the extinction and absorption spectrum. Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is used to implement a parallel solution for the generation of these spectra. 

K01.00041: Structural Properties of waterpropanol system using molecular dynamics Abdalla A Obeidat Structural properties of waterpropanol mixture such as: radial distribution function, distinct radial distribution function, structure factor and coordination number have been estimated as a function of temperature using OPLSAA potential function for propanol and SPC\Ewater. Computer experiments using Gromacs package is used for a range of temperature from 200K to 300K. In our computer experiments, the system is equilibrated for 4 ns and the data are collected for 6 ns. The temperature is controlled using NoseHoover thermostat and the pressure is controlled using Berendsen algorithm. Our system consists of 1000 molecule placed in a box with different sizes according to mole fraction of propanol. Finally, the results are compared with experimental work. 

K01.00042: FLUKA Simulation of sFLASH Experiment Ricardo Alberto Gonzalez, Dmitri Ivanov, John Matthews The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere. It consists of a surface detector of plastic scintillation counters overlooked by 3 fluorescence detector sites. TA measures cosmic rays from 1 PeV to 100 EeV and higher by observing extensive air showers in the atmosphere. To determine the shower energy, it is important to understand the fluorescence yield (FY), which is a conversion factor from the energy deposition in air to the fluorescence light. sFLASH is an auxiliary experiment of TA that measures FY in air produced by high energy electrons in an air volume called the active region. In this work, we report the results of a FLUKA simulation of sFLASH to gauge our understanding of the energy deposition in the experiment. We compare our FLUKA simulation results with an alternative simulation that uses Geant4 software, implemented by a different team within the sFLASH collaboration. Preliminary results show that both results agree to within 3%. The sFLASH FY systematic uncertainty will be reduced using the energy deposition of our sFLASH FLUKA simulation. This will improve the energy estimation of the high energy cosmic rays by the experiments such as TA and Auger. 

K01.00043: A MultiMaterial Exact Intersection ALE Hydrodynamics Code for Existing and Emerging Architectures Patrick C Payne, Marc Charest FleCSALE is a software package developed to study multimaterial continuum dynamics problems, like fluid flow. Continuum dynamics simulations often require intensive calculations, some of which are beyond the capabilities of existing supercomputers. To accommodate emerging architectures, FleCSALE has been built on FleCSI, the Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure, which is designed to allow flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations. The current FleCSALE framework uses a pure Lagrangian solver; but in many complex problems, large distortions in the mesh can cause the Lagrangian solver to fail. A conservative, intersectionbased remapping Arbitrary LagrangianEulerian (ALE) algorithm was implemented to solve this problem by remapping the mesh to an improved mesh after each Lagrange step. Remapping the solutions between the meshes was facilitated by Portage, a C++ library for remapping distributed solutions from one mesh to another. The work presented here details the implementation of Portage within FleCSALE: how Portage was implemented in FleCSALE and the advantages of using this library. We also present numerical results from the ALE implementation of FleCSALE in the context of common test problems. LAUR1831860 

K01.00044: Prediction of bond orders using deep neural networks Sergey I Magedov, Benjamin Nebgen, Nicholas Lubbers, Kipton Barros, Sergei Tretiak It has been shown in previous works that machine learning (ML) can be utilized to correctly predict atomic partial charges. This success has paved the way for predicting more advanced molecular properties. The hierarchical interacting particle neural network (HIPNN) provides a model framework to predict covalent, ionic, and total bond order matricies. Utilizing HIPNN, we were able to predict, with high efficiency, the coefficient bond order matrix with reference to density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The neural network was trained to a set of different molecular arrangements of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen atoms. By training HIPNN to this large set of DFT computed training molecules we were able to reduce the error between the outputted values of the coefficient bond order matrix and the values predicted by DFT to only be on the scale of 1e3. This error reduction, combined with computational speed, demonstrates that ML could be a potential avenue for computing bond order matrices for molecules. 

K01.00045: Data Quality Control for the Muon g2 Experiment Julia M Masciarelli, Frederick E Gray In the Muon g2 experiment, parameters such as the voltages applied to the focusing electric quadrupoles can affect the recorded time spectrum of positrons from muon decay. When a spark occurs in the quadrupole system, the voltages must be reduced and brought back up before collection of valid data resumes. A data quality control process eliminates these intervals of unstable quadrupole voltages to produce a usable time spectrum for analysis of the muon spin precession frequency. Using Python libraries numpy, scipy, and matplotlib to interact with a PostgreSQL database, optimal settings for the parameters in the selected timeframe are found from a histogram and a time series plot. The data set is divided into time intervals on the order of 10 seconds, known as subruns. The data quality algorithm determines if each subrun is acceptable for use based on the optimal settings that were found. This process can be used on any parameter that may introduce a systematic error into the physics result. 

K01.00046: Spacetime Discretization Methods for Numerical Relativity Soham Mukherjee, Erik Schnetter Conventional approaches to numerical relativity (NR) rely on a 3+1 decomposition of spacetime that requires choosing a particular gauge which fixes the foliation of the spacetime. While the 3+1 approach has been known to work very well, e.g., for computing gravitational waveforms, it is not wellsuited for a study of the strong field region near singularities. We investigate a different approach towards discretizing spacetime using spacetime volume elements that do not require an a priori choice of the foliation and are easier to adapt to complex geometries, e.g., in a binary black hole merger. We also explore spacetime elements with null or spacelike boundaries that lead to a significant reduction in the communication overhead in parallel calculations, compared to conventional 3+1 NR codes which—due to the presence of timelike boundaries between grid components—require nearestneighbour communication at every time step. 

K01.00047: GRAVITATION


K01.00048: Computation of the Early and Late Time Particle Production for a 4D NonRotating Black Hole That Forms From Collapse Raymond Daniel Clark, Paul R Anderson, Michael R Good, Alessandro Fabbri Black hole evaporation is studied in the case of a 4D nonrotating black hole that forms from the collapse of a null shell. Expressions for the exact Bogolubov coefficients for a massless minimally coupled scalar field are given and techniques used for their numerical computation are discussed. Results for the swave case are computed and analyzed in detail. These coefficients are used to compute the particle production which occurs during and after the collapse. 

K01.00049: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN


K01.00050: Gravitational radiation and nuclear fusion Stanislav Fisenko Earlier papers propose a model of a particle that enables calculation of the quantum states generated by the gravitational interaction. It results n a spectrum of stationary states in the proper gravitational field at numerical values of K~5.1*10^{31} Nm^{2}kg^{2} and L=4.4*10^{29} m^{2}. It is believed that according to GR, only system with variable quadrupole or higher multipole moments can generate gravitational radiation. The fallacy of this formula lies not in using the quadrupole approximation but rather in the calculation scheme. The presence of stationary states in the proper gravitational field makes it possible to calculate the power of gravitational radiation using the constant K. A system can emit only in certain quantum states. No gravitational waves with the constant G allegedly emitted by a system of bodies with a variable yet arbitrary quadrupole moment exist or can exist. Gravitational radiation can be excited in a dense hightemperature plasma. Its amplification will cause the radiating system to compress. The quantitative characteristics of the spectrum of gravitational radiation can be determined by the broadening of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. The plasma compression by a radiated gravitational field can be used for the purpose of thermonuclear fusion. 

K01.00051: Reconciliation of quantum theory and general relativity via redefinition of time in a nondiscrete compressible fluid model of the universe with interactions governed by the WheelerFeynman transactional framework. Moses Turkle Bility This work proposes that the philosophical assumptions concerning the concept time as constituting the major barrier in reconciling quantum theory and general relativity. The suggestive idea is proposed that time should be redefined as a measure of the magnitude of change in the location of a demarcated physical structure (a clock), within a nondiscrete compressible fluid physical universe, that is an enclosed structure (a closed ball). Consequently, time and length are not just related, but are in fact one and the same. Matter and vacuum, along with other components of the universe are manifestations of differential “specific energy” densities due to compressions and rarefactions. Demarcation (detection/interaction) and analysis of the dynamics of said demarcated physical structures is governed by the framework of the WheelerFeynman transactional (quantum handshake) theory, wherein energy exchange is restricted to supersymmetric partnerwavefunctions (fermionscompressions and bosonsrarefactions). The dynamics of demarcated physical structures within the universe is termed an emergent equilibrium state, which is model onedimensionally as a longitudinal wave and analyzed using the wave equation and perturbation theory in a novel framework, termed equilibrium theory. 

K01.00052: Quantum Enigmas: Physics Encounters Consciousness & Earthquake Hints Shantilal Goradia We propose our consciousness related hypothesis, “Orchestrated Subjective Experience (ORCH SE)” as described in our 9/2018 open access article, “The Quantum Theory of Entanglement and Brain Physics in the J of Clinical Review & Case Reports, 2018, Volume 3/Issue 7.” It contains a 0,1 (OFF and ON) and superposition of information linked to our 2007 probabilistic gravity, with implications for neuron coherence, and dark matter. We further substantiate our ORCH SE by saying that underground dynamics, prior to an earthquake moving the Earth’s crust, transmit information in the sky by changing the otherwise normal distribution of the particle interactions (constants of Nature) in the atmosphere, causing electromagnetic anomalies in the sky. Whether or not the technology enables the detection of the anomalies for predicting earthquakes, the subject information gives physical basis for the observations reported in the 10/2018 issue of Scientific American article; “Earth quakes in The Sky  The best early warnings of a big disaster may appear 180 miles above the ground, a controversial new theory says.” The enigmas of consciousness and earthquake hints supplement and complement each other with a probabilistic gravity base. If it looks, talks and walks like a duck, it must be a duck. 

K01.00053: Qualitative dynamics of quantum cosmology from loop quantum gravity BaoFei Li, Parampreet Singh, Anzhong Wang In this talk, I shall present our recent studies on qualitative dynamics of three different quantizations of the flat FLRW universe in loop quantum gravity (LQG) from an effective description of the quantum spacetime derived by using the geometric quantum mechanics of 

K01.00054: QuasiParticle Production During Gravitational Collapse of a ReissnerNordtromAdS Domain Wall Eric S Greenwood The of investigation quasiparticle creation during gravitational collapse is essential for understanding the thermal nature of the radiation and the information loss paradox. In this poster we investigate the gravitational collapse of a ReissnerNorstromAdS domain wall for both a nonextremal and overcharged case. In the overcharged case, the domain wall oscillates about a radius outside of the naked singularity, abiding by the cosmic censorship conjecture, due to the competition between the Coulomb repulsion and the gravitational attraction. Due to the periodic behavior of the collapsing domain wall, the quasiparticle production acquires a Berry Phase, which is a real, measurable phase. 

K01.00055: Rotational superconducting gravitational wave detectors based on Cooperpair electronic transducers Armen M Gulian, Joe Foreman, Vahan Nikoghosyan, Chris Burdette, Jeff M Tollaksen, Shmuel Nussinov We report here on experimental and theoretical developments of a new method for gravitational wave (GW) detection. It's principal steps are: 1) conversion of the GW action into rotational motion and 2) conversion of the rotational motion into an electric current. The ability to detect extremely tiny currents via superconducting electronics empowers this approach. Preliminary experiments confirm the theoretical expectations and suggest that gravitational waves far beyond the reach of LIGO can be detected. We came to the conclusion that very efficient allsolidstate detectors may be achieved utilizing Cooper pairs as transducers. The advantage of superconductivity is in the exponential reduction of noise, which will require relatively low, operating temperatures. Besides superior sensitivity, the devices will have very moderate, meterrange sizes, which will make it possible to place them on orbital platforms and orient so as to maximize the signal from selected sources. As our roomtemperature experiments have demonstrated, having duplicate detectors or duplicate elements in one detector, in close vicinity to each other, yields effective suppression of the seismic noise, as well as the stray field pickup, thus achieving sensitivity close to the theoretical limits. 

K01.00056: Measurement of quantum back action in the audio band at room temperature Nancy Aggarwal The Heisenberg uncertainty principle dictates that as the precision of a measurement of an observable (e.g. position) increases, back action creates increased uncertainty in the conjugate variable (e.g. momentum). In interferometric gravitationalwave (GW) detectors, higher laser powers reduce the position uncertainty created by shot noise but necessarily do so at the expense of back action in the form of quantum radiation pressure noise (QRPN). There exist several proposals to improve the sensitivity of GW detectors by mitigating QRPN, but until now no platform has allowed for experimental tests of these ideas. Here we present a broadband measurement of QRPN at room temperature at frequencies relevant to GW detectors [1]. The obtained noise spectrum shows effects due to QRPN between about 2 kHz to 100 kHz, and the measured magnitude of QRPN agrees with our model. We now have a testbed for studying techniques to mitigate quantum back action, such as variational readout and squeezed light injection, with the aim to improve the sensitivity of future GW detectors. [1] https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.10069 

K01.00057: A Realistic Analytic Model for Complete Gravitational Wave Templates Dillon P Buskirk, Maria C Babiuc Gravitational waves are produced by orbiting massive binary objects, such as black holes and neutron stars. 

K01.00058: Testing EinsteinAether Theory by Gravitational Wave Observations Anzhong Wang Gravitationally bound hierarchies containing three or more components are very common, and many of them should be detected by the advanced LIGO/Virgo, KAGRA and LISA. In this talk, I present our recent studies on the emissions of periodic gravitational waves (GWs) in Einsteinaether theory, which violates the Lorentz symmetry, yet satisfies all the theoretical and observational constraints carried out so far. 

K01.00059: Computation of highly eccentric EMRIs to characterize background confusion noise in LISA Aaron D Johnson, Alex M Osborne, Daniel Oliver, Alex Hixon, Daniel Kennefick Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) result when stellar mass compact objects orbiting a supermassive black hole (SMBH) undergo radiation damping. Such systems are prime sources for the proposed spacebased gravitational wave detector LISA. However, highly eccentric EMRIs produce significant gravitational radiation only when the orbiting body is at closest approach to the SMBH. While a single source is not likely to be detectable, an ensemble of many such sources may cause background confusion noise that could mask sources that LISA would otherwise detect. We solve the Teukolsky equation using a frequency domain hypergeometric approach to probe the gravitational radiation produced by highly eccentric EMRIs in hopes of characterizing this signal confusion background. This code is programmed in a new programming language called Julia which is syntactically similar to Python but comes close to the speeds of C or Fortran for numerical computation. Additionally, we discuss possible methods of skipping evaluation of small modes to speed up computation times. 

K01.00060: Numerical Simulation Infrastructure For Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Derek White, Jocelyn Read The first gravitational waves from a merger of a binary neutron star system were detected less than a year ago, on August 17th 2017. This is still the only detection of gravitational waves involving neutron stars to date. Like binary black holes (BBH), investigations of binary neutron stars (BNS) rely on numerical simulations for the most accurate understanding of waveform dynamics at merger. Driven by several BBH detections to date, infrastructure for this analysis has been developed primarily for BBH. Meanwhile, infrastructure for BNS waveforms have not yet been fully incorporated. Using a standalone Python script, numerical binary neutron star mergers from third parties can now be converted into a format that can be uploaded and used inside the collaborative LALSuite/PyCBC projects to analyze the effects of numerical merger on searches and parameter estimation. The first examples of hybrid waveforms have also been generated using this system. 

K01.00061: Parameter Estimation of Gravitational Waves of Binary Neutron Star Mergers Using LALInference Erick Leon The first gravitational waves emitted by a neutron star binary coalescence was detected on August 17, 2017. Being able to estimate the parameters of such a system including mass, and tidal deformation is an important factor in understanding the physics of neutron stars. LALInference is a parameter estimation tool used to estimate parameters from gravitational wave signals. By using other computational methods to create fake gravitational wave signals we can test the capability of LALInference to predict the correct parameters of these gravitational waves for some given noise spectrum. In my project, I ran LALInference parameter estimation on several fake gravitational wave signals and compared the predicted parameters with the ones used to create the fake signals. This research can be used to predict the scientific capabilities of future observing runs for advanced interferometers. 

K01.00062: Investigation of Noise Transients in the Advanced LIGO Calibration Model Jane B Glanzer, Thomas D Abbott, Gabriela Gonzalez LIGO searches for gravitational waves in calibrated data using timedependent calibration parameters. In this project, we looked for significant fluctuations in these parameters during the second observing run. Large fluctuations in these parameters may indicate a significant error in the Advanced LIGO strain calculations during a gravitational wave measurement, which would impact the determination of the astrophysical source that produced the gravitational wave signal. 

K01.00063: Diamonds in the Rough: Characterizing the Effect of Noise Transients on GravitationalWave Data Laurel White During its ﬁrst two observing runs, LIGO detected gravitational waves from the merging of binary black holes and neutron stars. The collaboration operates two detectors and has multiple methods used to locate signals in the detector data, but this presentation will focus on one search known as PyCBC, which identiﬁes potential signals and produces triggers to ﬂag them. While it finds signals, it also sometimes flags noise transients. The LIGO detector characterization group works to distinguish these transients, called glitches, from real signals. Glitches can be separated into categories, as is done in the GravitySpy webbased citizen science project. In my research, I analyzed the PyCBC triggers produced by GravitySpy glitch categories. I ﬁrst compared glitches to real signal models. I then identiﬁed the astrophysical system that would produce a signal most closely resembling a glitch of a given type and plotted the characteristics of the systems to look for commonalities in the triggers produced by each glitch class. I lastly produced plots showing the probability that a certain glitch type will produce a trigger resembling a signal of certain characteristics. Such numbers will help LIGO determine whether a trigger is a glitch or a real signal. 

K01.00064: Searches for Fast Radio Bursts in LIGO and Virgo data Ryan P. Fisher


K01.00065: Optical followup of gravitational wave events with the Dark Energy Camera during LIGO O1/O2 Kenneth Herner, Marcelle SoaresSantos, James Annis We present a summary of the DESGW program to search for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events during the first two LIGO observing runs from 2015 to 2017. We will describe the decisionmaking process of whether or not to follow up.a given event, formulation of the observing plan for followup, the image processing pipeline, and lessons learned from followup of four binary black hole mergers and one binary neutron star merger, including how we plan to apply them during the next LIGO observing run. 

K01.00066: GaussBonnet Theorem for Analysis of Warp Metric Topologies Matthew Gorban, William Julius, Brandon Mattingly, Abinash Kar, Caleb Elmore, Cooper Watson, Bahram Shakerin, Eric Davis, Gerald B. Cleaver The GaussBonnet Theorem (GBT) relates the geometry of a manifold, such as a wormhole or Alcubierre warped spacetime, to the manifold’s Euler characteristic chi = 2 (1 – g), which is a topological invariant. (The genus g denotes the number of handles/throats of the manifold). GBT specifies the volume integral of the Gaussian curvature k (= 8 mu + ½ h^{2}) as the lower limit to 2 pi chi. Here, k is expressed in terms of the energy density u and the trace of the 2^{nd }fundamental form h [1]. Wormholes have an Euler characteristic of at least 1 and the specific Euler characteristics for many wormholes are well known. We apply the GBT to each of three representative warp drive metrics (Alcubierre, Van Den Broeck, and Natário) to determine (i) which, if any, of these warp metrics produce a local change in the topology of spacetime, and (ii) for those that do produce topological change, which wormholes possess matching topology. [1] Ida, D., and Hayward, S. A., “How much negative energy does a wormhole need?,” Phys. Lett. A, Vol. 260 (1999) pp. 175181. 

K01.00067: A TwoCharge Theory of Gravity Hyung S Choi, Ye Jin Han, Draven W Houser Our current standard theory of gravity is unable to fully explain the accelerating expansion of the universe. This expansion seems to imply a repulsive force associated with gravitational interaction. We propose a 2charge theory of gravity based on the Quantum Field Theory applied to a second rank tensor field that allows for an attractive force between like charges and a repulsive force between opposite charges. This model could partly explain matterantimatter asymmetry, the smallness of the cosmological constant, and the accelerating expansion of the universe. Our calculations of a lattice model with a billion points show that a net gravitational force at any spacetime point would be slightly repulsive. This new model is also consistent with the local physics described by the standard theory of gravity. Our theory may be experimentally supported by results from the ALPHA Collaboration. 

K01.00068: Magnetosphere Dynamics of Single and Binary Black Holes Maria C Babiuc Collisions of black holes immersed in external magnetic fields are prime candidates for coincident detection in both gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We present work in progress to model the magnetospheres surrounding such systems, in order (1) to characterize the nonlinear interaction between the source and its surrounding magnetosphere, and (2) to evaluate the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves, including the production of collimated jets. We apply our recentlyreleased General Relativistic ForceFree Electrodynamics opensource code GiRaFFE to single and binary black holes immersed in an external magnetic field, to test our implementation and study the dynamics of the magnetosphere and its role in producing electromagnetic counterparts, a mechanism not entirely elucidated. We analyze the emission of light in terms of the Poynting luminosity, to reveal the effects of (1) strong gravitational fields, (2) rotation, and (3) tilt between the magnetic field lines and rotation axis, all on the amplification and collimation of Poynting jets. We find that the geometry brings the magnetosphere to stability, and that the spin and the tilt affect the amplitude of the flux, with no indication of high spin threshold for jet formation. 

K01.00069: Modeling BlackHole/NeutronStar Binaries with Rapid BlackHole Spins Jennifer H Sanchez LIGO and Virgo have observed gravitational wavesripples of curved spacetimefrom binary black holes and from binary neutron stars. Looking forward, we hope to observe black holeneutron star mergers, which (like binary neutron stars) are potential multimessenger sources, emitting both electromagnetic and gravitational waves. Highly accurate models of these waves are important for helping to detect as many gravitational waves from merging black holes and neutron stars as possible while learning as much as possible about the waves' sources. I will discuss the progress of new simulations, using the Spectral Einstein Code, of black holeneutron star mergers with rapidly rotating black holes, an astrophysically interesting but technically challenging case. 

K01.00070: Poseidon: A Relativistic Gravity Solver for Core Collapse Supernova Simulations James N Roberts II, Anthony Mezzacappa, Eirik Endeve, Eric Lentz The Poseidon code is being developed to solve the system of nonlinear elliptic equations that define the general relativistic metric terms given by the Conformally Flat Approximation (CFA) to the Einstein equations. The code discretizes the CFA system of equations on a spherical polar grid using a mixed method consisting of an angular decomposition using spherical harmonic functions and a radial finite element expansion using Lagrange polynomials. The resulting system is then solved using a NewtonRaphson scheme Poseidon is being developed to run within the CHIMERA core collapse supernova simulation code. Therefore, it has been designed to run on shared and distributed memory systems. This parallelization is achieved using MPI and OpenMP directives, and a distributed linear solve from the PETSc library. Results will be presented showing comparisons between Poseidon’s CFA treatment and the so called “effective” potential currently used in CHIMERA, which is a modified Newtonian potential whose monopole moment is corrected using the TolmanOppenheimerVolkoff (TOV) potential. 

K01.00071: Exotic Spacetime Topology as an Alternative to Dark Matter and Energy Gregory Kuri, James M. Overduin, Richard C Henry Dark matter and energy are widely accepted features of the current cosmological standard model, but they suffer from troubling questions of theoretical interpretation and a lack of direct experimental support. The standard model is based on Einstein’s general relativity, which implicitly assumes that spacetime in locally inertial frames is Euclidean. It may instead be smooth, but topologically exotic (homeomorphic, but not diffeomorphic to Euclidean spacetime). Since gravity is the physical manifestation of spacetime curvature, such a change could mimic the effects of dark matter and/or energy (Brans conjecture). Exotic versions of Euclidean space exist in the case of four dimensions, where there are uncountably many of them. If this is a coincidence, it is surely a remarkable one. Recently, C. Duston has used techniques pioneered by C.H. Taubes to derive metrics for two such exotic smooth manifolds. We revisit the classical light deflection test of general relativity with one of these metrics and use observational data on gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters in an attempt to put quantitative constraints on exotic topology as an alternative to dark matter. 

K01.00072: Converged Gravitational Field Flux Lines in Disk Galaxies: An Alternative View of Mass Discrepancy Problem from Generalizing Gauss's Law of Gravity TeChun Wang Starting from a generalized Gauss's law of Gravity, a 1/r field dependence causing flat rotation curve of disk galaxies are shown by a Gaussian surface with cylindrical symmetry where the gravitational flux distribution is converged along the radial direction of the disk plane. A spherical to cylindrical transition of the Gaussian surface symmetry across a critical field ~10^{10 }N/Kg is shown to give the exact M~V^{4} TullyFisher relation, as presented in astrophysics session of this conference. In this report, some gravitational field flux related practical questions is discussed, including:1. Can 1/r field be proved to be equivalent to F=ma^{2}/a_{0} of MOND theory below the critical field at galactic scale? 2. Can the FaberJackson relation of elliptical galaxies be modeled by the flux line converging sinario? 3. Can the average kinetic energy <T>=<V>/2, which has been derived from Virial theorem of 1/r^{2} field, be enhanced by the 1/r field or converged gravitational flux lines to meet the highly nonNewtonian dynamics in galaxy clusters? 4. Can the role of M mass points be replaced by 4πGM gravitational flux lines in cosmic scale to match the gravitational lensing observed distribution of dark matter?


K01.00073: Gravitational ponderomotive forces and linear gravitational waves in matter Deepen Garg, Ilya Y Dodin Recent detection of electromagnetic waves accompanying gravitationalwave (GW) emission by astrophysical sources has reinvigorated interest in the problem of GW coupling with plasma surrounding the sources. Existing theories of such coupling are cumbersome and not directly applicable to the GWs of interest that are inhomogeneous in space and have more general polarization than in vacuum. We propose an alternative, variational formulation of this problem, which also leads to the prediction of the nonlinear ponderomotive force that a GW pulse exerts on massive particles. This force is calculated explicitly for the first time. Developing on our variational method, we also propose a geometricaloptics theory for collective matter oscillations in selfconsistent metric with general polarization. Electromagnetic interactions can be added similarly, leading to a generalized theory of plasma waves in astrophysical context. 

K01.00074: The Effect of Gravitational Waves on a Ring of Test Masses from Inspiraling Compact Binary System Parker Cline Objects in orbit produce gravitational waves; however, waves are only large enough to measure when they are produced from a sufficiently large system. A system of two massive objects spiraling in toward each other, such as neutron stars, produce large enough waves that they can be measured. Our Vpython simulation demonstrates the effect of this wave on a ring of test masses, scaling up the effect so that the ring is visibly distorted. 

K01.00075: Shortrange gravity search with opticallylevitated nanoparticles Evan Weisman Optically levitated dielectric particles are a promising tool for use in precision experiments. Since they are decoupled mechanically from the environment optically levitated particles can have very large quality factors enabling ultrasensitive force detection. We describe progress on an experiment using silica nanospheres trapped in an optical lattice to search for deviations from Newton’s inverse square law at the micron scale where we have achieved zeptonewton force sensitivity. Recent modifications to the experiment include a fiber based dipole trap, and solid invar cavity. 

K01.00076: Test of Violation of Einstein's Equivalence Principle By Galactic Dark Matter Dawson J. Huth, Maneesh Jeyakumar, Tsitsi MadziwaNussinov, Michael D. Abercrombie, Adam J. Archibald, Nadathur Krishnan, Kasey R. Wagoner, Ramanath Cowsik We report here the results of operation of a torsion balance with a period of ∼ 1.27 x 10^{4} s. The analysis of data collected over a period of ∼ 115 days shows that the difference in acceleration towards the Galactic Center of test bodies made of aluminum and quartz was (0.8 ± 1.3) x 10^{15} ms^{2}. This sets a bound on the violation of the equivalence principle by forces exerted by Galactic dark matter, expressed as an Eötvös parameter η_{}_{DM} = (1.7 ± 2.8) x 10^{5}, and improves upon the earlier bounds significantly. We also present preliminary results on the violation of the equivalence principle by forces exerted by the sun. 

K01.00077: Suppression of tiltinduced low frequency noise at Ligo Livingston Observatory Eyal Schwartz A well known fact is that horizontal seismometers are have sensitivity to ground rotation at low frequencies. Conventional tiltmeters and seismometers cannot discern between rotation of the ground and horizontal acceleration. This is especially problematic for seismic isolation in current gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitationalwave Observatory (aLIGO), where rotation noise poses limits to duty cycle of the detectors. Earthquakes, High Wind and High Microseism cause significant downtime of both detectors. All are primarily related to the problem of tilthorizontal coupling producing too much ISI motion. 

K01.00078: KQTG  Kinetic Theory as an Approach to a Quantum Theory of Gravity George S Schuhmann
Let us begin with observed results: The relative strength of EM and gravity differ by a factor of 10^{39} based on those forces between the proton and electron in hydrogen. Electromagnetic gravitational waves both travel at the speed of light. Apply six propositions: Gravitons exist. Gravitons share two qualities with photons: zero rest mass (under E=m_{o}c^{2}), and relativistic energy (under E = pc). Based on the relative strength of EM and gravity fields, graviton momentumenergy (pE) is 10^{39} that of an equivalent photon. Gravitons transfer pE to mass when they scatter off mass. Because of their lower pE, more gravitons can emerge from the vacuum energy process by a factor of 10^{39}. So, many, many more gravitons exist than photons. Mathematically, by vectorizing gravitons with magnitude of momentum and direction of motion, gravity can be addressed as the flux of gravitons, with the gradient of the flux indicating the strength and direction of the gravitational field. Gravitons exist in a spectrum similar to that of photons where E= `hν, where `h is expected to equal Planck’s Constant h x 10^{39}.
This scenario envisions gravitons transferring momentum to mass so that gravity is not a force of attraction at distance but a force resulting from the transfer of momentum locally pushing the masses together. Translating this into QFT is a work in progress.
Kinetic Quantum Gravity in a Nutshell: Gravity is a push rather than a pull.

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