Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2021
Volume 66, Number 5
Saturday–Tuesday, April 17–20, 2021; Virtual; Time Zone: Central Daylight Time, USA
Session K09: Cosmology with Gravitational WavesLive

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Sponsoring Units: DAP Chair: Michele Vallisneri, JPL/Caltech 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 1:30PM  1:42PM Live 
K09.00001: Dark Sirens to Resolve the HubbleLemaitre Tension Ssohrab Borhanian, Arnab Dhani, Anuradha Gupta, K.G. Arun, B.S. Sathyaprakash The planned sensitivity upgrades to the LIGO and Virgo facilities could uniquely identify host galaxies of dark sirenscompact binary coalescences without any electromagnetic counterpartswithin a redshift of $š§ = 0.1$. This is aided by the higher order spherical harmonic modes present in the gravitationalwave signal, which also improve distance estimation. In conjunction, sensitivity upgrades and higher modes will facilitate an accurate, independent measurement of the host galaxy's redshift in addition to the luminosity distance from the gravitational wave observation to infer the Hubble constant $H_0$ to better than a few percent in five years. A possible Voyager upgrade or third generation facilities would further solidify the role of dark sirens for precision cosmology in the future. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 1:42PM  1:54PM Live 
K09.00002: Probing the standard cosmological model with the population of binary blackholes Jose Maria Ezquiaga Gravitationalwave (GW) detections are rapidly increasing in number, enabling precise statistical analyses of the population of compact binaries. In this talk I will show how these population analyses cannot only serve to constrain the astrophysical formation channels, but also to learn about cosmology. The three key observables are the number of events as a function of luminosity distance, the stochastic GW background of unresolved binaries and the location of any feature in the source mass distribution, such as the expected pair instability supernova (PISN) gap. Given data from LIGOVirgo observations, I will present constraints in cosmological modifications of gravity. I will also discuss future prospects on measuring $H_0$ given a possible population of black holes above the PISN gap. These novel tests of the standard cosmological model require GW data only and will become increasingly relevant as GW catalogs grow, specially if multimessenger events remain elusive. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 1:54PM  2:06PM Live 
K09.00003: Gravitational wave friction in light of GW170817 and GW190521 Christos Karathanasis, Simone Mastrogiovanni, LeĆÆla Haegel, Ignacio Magana Hernadez, Daniele Steer In this talk I will present results on constraining cosmological parameters and theories of gravity beyond General Relativity (GR) using gravitational waves (GW). Specifically, we use the GW events GW170817 and GW190521, together with their proposed electromagnetic counterparts, and consider models with a timevarying Planck mass, large extradimensions, and a phenomenological parametrization covering several beyondGR theories. In all three cases, this introduces a friction term that effectively modifies the GW luminosity distance. We set constraints on LambdaCDM and GR deviation parameters using two sets of priors on the Hubble constant and matter energy density. With priors set to the measured Planck's values, the inclusion of GW190521 improves the two GR deviation parameters constraints by a factor $\sim 10$. We report a number of spacetime dimensions compatible with $4$ with an precision of $2.5\%$ (at 95\% CL) and an upper limit to the variation of Newton's constant at the epoch of GW170817 of $<20\%$. With wide priors we find that the constraints on GR deviation parameters are a factor $26$ worse than the ones obtained using the restricted priors. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 2:06PM  2:18PM Live 
K09.00004: Estimating $H_0$ in nonstationary noise Simone Mozzon, Laura Nuttall, Andrew Williamson Gravitationalwave observations of binary neutron star mergers and their optical counterparts provide an independent measurement of $H_0$. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the source of systematic uncertainty for gravitationalwave observations is crucial. Estimating the properties of gravitationalwave signals measured by groundbased detectors requires an understanding of the characteristics of the detector noise. The most commonly used likelihood assumes that the noise is Gaussian and stationary. However, data from groundbased detectors can be highly nonstationary, which means the broadband detector noise can change on the order of tens of seconds. Variations in the detector noise could bias the estimation of the properties of the gravitationalwave sources. This talk will characterize how nonstationary noise affects the parameter estimation of gravitationalwave signals in LIGO and Virgo data from the third observing run and how this may affect the estimation of $H_0$. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 2:18PM  2:30PM Live 
K09.00005: Measurement of the Hubble Constant from Gravitational Waves and Supernova Theory Karan Jani, Kelly HolleyBockelmann Gravitationalwave detections of compact binaries provide a powerful independent technique to measure the expansion rate of the Universe. Using the recent binary black hole events from LIGOVirgo detectors, we provide a unique set of correlation between the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and the pairinstability supernovae massgap. Our results do not rely on electromagnetic counterparts to gravitationalwave events, nor associating host galaxies. We discuss the implications of our results in context of the existing constraint on $H_0$. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 2:30PM  2:42PM Live 
K09.00006: Constraining Startrack Binary Evolution with Gravitational Wave Observations Vera Del Favero "Gravitational wave observations can now strongly differentiate between assumptions for how binary compact objects form. Different models for compact binary formation can be ranked by their similarity to GW observations, as a marginal likelihood. In this work, we show how to carefully interpolate this marginal likelihood between model parameters, enabling posterior distributions for these model parameters. Using the StarTrack binary evolution code, we compare models with three dimensions of variability to the compact binary mergers reported in GWTC1 as well as the O3a Catalog. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 2:42PM  2:54PM Live 
K09.00007: Inference of the neutron star equation of state from cosmological distances CarlJohan Haster, Katerina Chatziioannou, Andreas Bauswein, James Clark Finitesize effects on the gravitational wave signal from a neutron star merger typically manifest at high frequencies where detector sensitivity decreases. Proposed sensitivity improvements can give us access both to stronger signals and to a myriad of weak signals from cosmological distances. The latter will outnumber the former and the relevant part of signal will be redshifted towards the detector most sensitive band. I will present a study of the redshift dependence of information about neutron star matter and find that singlescale properties, such as the star radius or the postmerger frequency, are better measured from the distant weak sources from $z\sim 1$ [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 2:54PM  3:06PM Not Participating 
K09.00008: Gravitational radiation from MHD turbulence in the early universe Alberto Roper Pol The generation of primordial magnetic fields and its interaction with the primordial plasma during cosmological phase transitions is turbulent in nature. I will describe and discuss results of direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the early universe and the resulting stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB). In addition to the SGWB, the primordial magnetic field will evolve up to our present time and its relics can explain indirect observations of weak magnetic fields coherent on very large scales. I will apply the numerical results to magnetic fields produced at the electroweak and the QCD phase transitions and show that these signals may be detectable by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and by Pulsar Timing Array. The detection of these signals would lead to the understanding of cosmological phase transition physics, which can have consequences on the baryon asymmetry problem and on the origin seed of observed magnetic fields coherent over very large scales at the present time. [Preview Abstract] 
Sunday, April 18, 2021 3:06PM  3:18PM Live 
K09.00009: Measuring the primordial gravitationalwave background in the presence of astrophysical foregrounds Sylvia Biscoveanu, Colm Talbot, Eric Thrane, Rory Smith Primordial gravitational waves are expected to create a stochastic background encoding information about the early Universe that may not be accessible by other means. However, the primordial background is obscured by an astrophysical foreground consisting of gravitational waves from compact binaries. In this talk, we will present a new Bayesian method for estimating the primordial background in the presence of an astrophysical foreground. Since the background and foreground signal parameters are estimated simultaneously, we avoid astrophysical contamination of the primordial measurement. Additionally, since we include the nonGaussianity of the astrophysical foreground in our model, this method represents the statistically optimal approach to the simultaneous detection of a multicomponent stochastic background. [Preview Abstract] 
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