Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2020
Volume 65, Number 1
Monday–Friday, March 2–6, 2020; Denver, Colorado
Session U70: Frontiers in Interdisciplinary Theory and Phenomena 
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Sponsoring Units: DCMP DCOMP Room: 208 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 2:30PM  2:42PM 
U70.00001: NoGo Experiment Confirms Superdeterminism Loophole Manuel Morales Nonlocal hidden variables of motion served to obtain absolute internal validity in a twelveyear nogo experiment (20002012) that confirmed it is impossible for a test taker to conduct experiments or observations without the mechanical functions of direct or indirect selection. In other words, the natural world prohibits the will of the test taker from conducting any and all experiments prior to the predetermined firstorder functions of selection. Therefore, the mechanisms of selection, commonly known as choice or free will, are mandatory functions not a freedom. In physical terms, external validity of the findings means that effects of existence such as energy and mass are not conserved because they are predetermined effects of how they are determined, i.e., superdeterminism as predicted by John S Bell. The unambiguous empirical evidence obtained from the nogo experiment confirmed that Albert Einstein was indeed correct to suspect that quantum mechanics is not a fundamental theory due to hidden variables at play. However, he was incorrect as to the domain of their origin. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 2:42PM  2:54PM 
U70.00002: A Covariant Field Reformulation of Classical Electrodynamics William Bryan Maier Classical electrodynamics is here reformulated as a field theory rather than a particle and field theory. Electromagnetic fields are taken to be continuous and differentiable everywhere. Maxwell’s equations are assumed to be valid at all scale lengths, and second order variations on the vector potentials A_{k }are used to obtain fundamental equations from a covariant action in which the usual term involving particle mass m has been replaced by the covariant mass density µ associated with the fields. Point, line, and surface charges are not allowed. Stable charge distributions having finite extent and charge of only one sign are found. These bodies are stabilized by the charge motion in the distribution’s selffield. Their mass is finite and equivalent to the energy of the electromagnetic field integrated over all space. Spin, magnetic moment, and electric dipole and quadrupole moments of these bodies can be calculated. The Lorentz force law plus radiation reaction is shown to govern the motion of these charged objects in an imposed electromagnetic field. Ordinary classical electromagnetism is thus reproduced, and the classical structures of fundamental charged bodies are obtained. Structures of the electron and proton in this theory are briefly discussed. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 2:54PM  3:06PM 
U70.00003: A New, Unified, NonRelativistic Quantum Quaternal Physics Claude Massot Despite its impressive results, the relativistic Standard Model, remains unrealistic because of quantum incompatibilities. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 3:06PM  3:18PM 
U70.00004: Mikowski Space may be interpreted as a Theory of Orbitals Richard Kriske When one compares the work of Kepler, with Mikowski Space, they are both Cones joined at a nexus. In Kepler Space, one is viewing the Cones from the outside, and there are three types of Conic Sections, the Ellipse, the Parabola, and the Hyperbola. In Aeronautical Engineering, they are the Elliptical Orbit, the Parabolic Orbit, and the Hyperbolic Obital. The Minkowski Diagram is somewhat in error, in that the observer views one cone as the future and one cone as the past. We know from Quantum Mechanics that an observation is a measurement. So the nexus is not a point, but is planck's constant / two, as a minimum overlap. This over lap is an elliptical orbital, so the Conservation of Angular Momentum comes about due to Special Relativity, and the overlap of the Minkowski Space Cones. The Parabolic Orbital is the Speed of Light in a Vacuum. The Hyperbolic Orbital is the a Quantum Leap. An Electron Changing Orbitals needs only the Speed of Light as the escape velocity. Where does on see the Hyperbolic Orbital? That occurs when an Electron or other Elementary particle is measured from its wavefunction and collapses into a particle, far from its origin. This new view of Mikowski Space may solve the problem of Unitary Entities comprising Space Time, they are in orbit like planets 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 3:18PM  3:30PM 
U70.00005: Anomaly of the Electromagnetic Duality of Maxwell Theory ChangTse Hsieh, Yuji Tachikawa, Kazuya Yonekura Every physicist knows that classical electromagnetism is described by Maxwell's equations, and that it is invariant under the electromagnetic duality S: (E, B) → (B, −E). The properties of the electromagnetic duality in the quantum theory, represented by an SL(2, Z) group acting on the lattice Z^2 of the electric and magnetic charges, might not be as well known to physicists in general. This is particularly true when going around a nontrivial path in the spacetime results in a duality transformation. In this work, we uncover a feature of the Maxwell theory and its duality symmetry in such a situation, namely that it has a quantum anomaly. We find that the anomaly of this system in a particular formulation is 56 times that of a Weyl fermion. The interpretation of this result is twofold: one is by using the bulk symmetryprotected topological phase in 4+1 dimensions characterizing the anomaly, and the other is by considering the properties of some (5+1)dimensional superconformal field theory. Our result reproduces, as a special case, the known anomaly of the allfermion electrodynamics—a version of the Maxwell theory where all particles of odd charge are fermions—discovered in the last few years. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 3:30PM  3:42PM 
U70.00006: A Number of Early 20th Century Important Physics Formulas, Some Nobel Prize Winning, Must Be Slightly Corrected Because They Lack Rotational and Vibrational Factors Not Known To Be Necessary When
The Formulas Were Discovered Stewart Brekke In 1905 Einstein derived the total energy of a mass at slow speeds to be E= mc^{2} + ½mv^{2}. Later,in the 20th century it was discovered that all masses can also be rotating and vibrating. Thus, the total energy of a mass at slow speeds must be E=mc^{2} + ½mv^{2}+ 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 3:42PM  3:54PM 
U70.00007: A quantum interpretation of the physical basis of massenergy equivalence Donald Chang We know energy and mass of a particle can be connected by E = mc^{2}. What is the physical basis behind this relation? Historically, it was thought that it is based on the principle of relativity (PR). However, a careful examination of the literature indicated that this relation was not directly derived from PR. Instead, Einstein came to this conclusion mainly based on his intuitive thinking that radiation and matters behave similarly. Following this hint, we suspect that the massenergy equivalence could be based on the quantum principle of waveparticle duality. It is well known that both photon and electron can behave as a particle as well as a wave. Using a wave model which treats particles as excitations of the vacuum, we show that the relations E = mc^{2} can be directly derived from Planck’s relation. This wave hypothesis has several advantages; not only can it explain naturally why particles can be created in the vacuum; it also predicts that a particle cannot travel faster than the speed of light. This hypothesis can also be tested in experiment. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 3:54PM  4:06PM 
U70.00008: Adding a Dynamic to Gravitation Reveals How Extra Gravity Halos are Projected from Galactic Cores John Huenefeld It is unfortunate that the term dark matter was used to describe the extra gravity observed in galaxy clusters. The name presupposes a material answer, but the only thing actually observed is an Extra Gravity Halo (EGH). The mysterious source of this extra gravity remains unresolved. Or does it? 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 4:06PM  4:18PM 
U70.00009: The Higgs Boson  It’s a Matter of Time Rich Aquilina Each Force has a function. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 4:18PM  4:30PM 
U70.00010: From QED to the Schrödinger equation Spyros Efthimiades Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the fundamental theory of electromagnetic interactions. Thus, the Schrödinger equation, which yields the electron wavefunction in low energy electromagnetic interactions, must be a condition that can be derived from the fundamental QED theory. Due to the small value of the electromagnetic coupling constant, we can adequately describe lowenergy interactions by classical potentials. Furthermore, the dominant (lowest order) term of the electron wavefunction is a superposition of plane waves. As a result, we show that to fulfill the total energy relations, the electron wavefunction must satisfy at each spacetime point the Schrödinger, Pauli, and Dirac equations. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 4:30PM  4:42PM 
U70.00011: Mathematical proof of electromagnetic wave nature of photons in hydrogen emission spectrum and theoretical derivation of Planck’s constant Junho Jeong The photons emitted from electron transitions are electromagnetic waves, but there is no mathematical demonstration as to why this is so. According to the electromagnetic theory, electromagnetic radiation is emitted as magnetic dipole radiation when a charge revolving in an orbit of radius r_{0} flows as an alternating current. This paper presents a mathematical proof for the emission of infraredtoultraviolet electromagnetic waves of the hydrogen emission spectrum when an alternating current is generated by the oscillation and revolution of an electron around a hydrogenatom proton at a radius r_{nor} due to external energy. The mathematical results have demonstrated that the photon is not wave–particle duality of light but an electromagnetic wave of energy form, and the empirical Planck’s constant, h, is mathematically derived for the first time. Therefore, the electromagnetic spectrum above the infrared region can be explained with oscillating and revolving particles with a constant electric charge. 
Thursday, March 5, 2020 4:42PM  4:54PM 
U70.00012: Wavefunction; Guided Energy of Wave Desmond Agbolade Ademola This paper expound on true nature of wavefunction and answered questions that arise from quantum foundation. The fundamental analysis presented in this work show that mathematical formalism of wavefunction was wrongly formulated. On this basis, we therefore mathematically formalized new wavefunction equation which applicable to any forms of particles. We further introduced diffraction concept which mathematically establishes spacetime quantization. We further show that wavefunction does not collapse, only converges and diverges gradually. The gradual process of divergence of wavefunction display how particlelike behavior return to wavelike behavior, and the gradual process of convergence of wavefunction also display how wavelike behavior return to particlelike behavior. The fundamental equations and analysis presented in this work hereby provides single description for both wave properties of smallest tiny particles (e.g. electrons) and matter properties of large particles (celestial bodies). The fundamental analysis presented here confirms that quantum mechanics needs to be profoundly modified to absorbs ideas of fundamentals analysis presented in this paper so that it might become a unique theory that accounts for dynamics behaviors of all particles regardless of sizes. 

U70.00013: Primordial Black Holes and Gravitational Waves from Doubleinflectionpoint Inflation TieJun Gao We propose a double inflection point inflationary model. In which one of the inflection point predicts the power spectra consistent with CMB observations at large scales and the other generates a large peak in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations at small scales.Such a peak allows for the generation of primordial black holes at small scales, which can account for a significant fraction of dark matter. We also calculate the energy spectrum of induce gravitational waves from primordial scalar perturbations and find that the gravitationalwave signal can be detected by future spacebased laser interferometers. 
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