Bulletin of the American Physical Society
2024 Spring Meeting of the APS Eastern Great Lakes Section
Friday–Saturday, April 12–13, 2024; Kettering University, Flint, Michigan
Session E01: Poster Session (4:30 pm  6:30 pm ET) 
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Room: Kettering University Asahi Kasei Traverse 

E01.00001: Validating a measure of STEM Students' SE for a Mixed Methods Research Design John Byrd, Carissa Myers, Vashti Sawtelle, Rachel J Henderson Selfefficacy, crucial for academic achievement in STEM, is typically assessed using prepost measurements from surveys. However, developing a way to assess inthemoment impacts to students' selfefficacy would create many opportunities for further study and intervention. With this goal, we devised a mixedmethods approach combining the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) with individualized daily journal prompts. While rich, this design poses validation challenges. To address these challenges, we analyzed three ESM survey questions, indicative of tasklevel selfefficacy, for skewness. Deviations from normal distributions suggest that traditional validation techniques may not apply. We further examined the Pearson's coefficient of skewness for each item and participant that does not assume the normal distribution of data. We would expect that if all ESM survey items are aligned with selfefficacy then the skewness for each individual should be consistent across those items. In this [talk/poster], we will present the shifts in skewness between items and discuss the data from validation interviews that expand on our quantitative findings. 

E01.00002: Leveraging the BernsteinVazirani Algorithm for Intuitive Quantum Computing Education Ethan Lohman, Christopher M Stanley The Deutsch algorithm has been the algorithm of choice for those seeking to educate the public and undergraduate students about quantum computing. For a single, selfcontained introductory lecture, it has no equal. However, while the algorithm itself was a groundbreaking achievement and a valuable teaching tool, its results can seem abstract and unsatisfying to students. We argue that the BernsteinVazirani algorithm can pick up where the Deutsch algorithm left off. That is, it is an algorithm that might be mathematically more complex, but is likely to be seen as more intuitive; as well as a more satisfying demonstration of the superiority of quantum computing. Furthermore, in the context of a full undergraduate course, the BernsteinVazirani algorithm can be broken down into a series of programming assignments, each of which will force the student to confront fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. We present a detailed summary of the BernsteinVazirani algorithm and compare its complexity to the classical analog. 

E01.00003: Exploring Scientific Ethics Requirements for U.S. Undergraduate Students in Physics Allie Muschong, Marshall Thomsen In the scientific professions, ethics address interpersonal topics (e.g., equity and inclusion; workplace conduct) as well as topics surrounding scientific conduct (e.g., preventing data falsification). The APS Ethics Committee was established in 2018 in order to address these issues within the American physics community. Additionally, the APS adopted a robust written stance on scientific ethics in 2019 with Statement 19.1, Guidelines on Ethics. As professional scientific bodies work towards creating a more ethicsconscious community, one might wonder whether U.S. colleges are preparing STEM students to join such a community. At Eastern Michigan University, PHY 406: Ethical Issues in Physics is required for a B. S. in Physics. We examined whether this is a common requirement of Bachelor degrees in Physics among 10 institutions in each of four categories: large private, large public, small private, and small public. Searching each course catalog for physics courses using keywords "ethics," "research conduct," etc. yielded few results: when available, these courses tend to be electives–not requirements. We repeated this process for Biology and Chemistry B.S. degrees. Our data suggest that when scientific ethics courses are offered, they tend to be offered only to Biology or Chemistry students; when they are offered to Physics students, such courses are not required for graduation. 

E01.00004: Cybersecurity of Process Control Systems Helen Durand, Kip Nieman, Keshav Kasturi Rangan, Henrique Oyama Chemical processes are controlled using control systems. However, these can be attacked. In this poster, we will highlight our group's work in using the process dynamics as a means to aid with cyberattack detection, including strategies for handling attacks on all sensors and simultaneous actuator and sensor attacks. 

E01.00005: Unlocking the Future of Phibits: Advancing QuantumInspired Computing Abrar Nur E Faiaz, Akinsanmi S Ige, Kazi T Mahmood, Jake Balla, M Afridi Hasan, M Arif Hasan, Pierre Deymier, Keith Runge, Josh Levine Understanding the control of phibits, akin to qubits, is crucial for developing quantuminspired computing. Phibits, or two states of an acoustic wave in coupled waveguides, can be in a superposition of states. Our experiments showed that external drivers' frequency, amplitude, and phase influence phibit states. We developed a discrete element model to predict phibit responses under varying nonlinear conditions, influenced by the intrinsic medium coupling the waveguides and external factors like signal generators and transducers. The study reveals that nonlinearity and damping significantly affect the amplitude and phase of phibit states, with a notable impact on their predictability and stability, particularly at high damping levels. These findings are crucial to manipulating phibits for quantuminspired information processing, highlighting the importance of optimizing nonlinearity and damping to control phibit states. 

E01.00006: Advances in Next Generation CyberPhysical Systems: Cybersecurity and Quantum Computing Keshav Kasturi Rangan, Helen Durand Two topics of my doctoral thesis will be discussed in this work. The first topic develops cybersecure control strategies by taking advantage of process physics based on the conservation of mass and energy. Theoretical guarantees of safety and stability are made while accounting for practical challenges such as handling process disturbances, noise and changing process dynamics. The processes considered are characterized by nonlinear dynamics, which represent the majority of realworld processes, using a control algorithm based on an optimizationbased model predictive control algorithm that is modified to also detect for cyberattacks. Multiple detection strategies, such as comparing state predictions/estimates to measurements or regularly probing for cyberattacks on control elements. The comparison of state predictions/estimates to measurements has seen limited success in terms of the duration for which theoretical guarantees hold, especially when changing process dynamics are considered. The detection strategy that probes for cyberattacks has seen significant use in making longterm guarantees of stability and feasibility until a cyberattack is detected. 

E01.00007: Exploration of the Quantum Coherent States Through HertzType Classical Nonlinearity Kazi Tahsin Mahmood, M Arif Hasan In quantum computing and information technology, the coherent superposition of states is an essential topic for realizing the physical state of data processing and storage. The fundamentals of current technology, a quantum bit, have limitations due to the collapse and decoherence of wave function, which hinders the superposition of states. We eliminate the limitations by introducing the elastic bit generated through the Hertztype nonlinearity of granular beads. This study shows the experimental formation of the elastic bit in a coupled granular network manipulated by external harmonic excitation. The excitation generates a phasedependent dynamic movement, and mapping onto the energy states of the linear vibration modes forms the coherent superposition of states. This state vector component comes from the amplitude of the coherent states, which is projected into the Hilbert space through time dependency. The coherent states represent an actual amplitude, which makes the elastic bit susceptible to decoherence. The elastic bit also demonstrates quantum operation, showcasing the Hadamard gate, which maps one superposed state to another. These characteristics of the elastic bit pave the way for sustainable quantum computation and data storage. 

E01.00008: PIC Simulations to Investigate the Influence of Initial Target Conditions on ShortPulse Laser Neutron Production Nicholas S Haught, Ronak Desai, Chris Orban, Joseph R Smith, Michael L Dexter, Anil K Patnaik Neutrons generated through tabletop laserdriven interactions offer benefits and complement traditional methods, allowing for progress in many applications such as neutron imaging and nextgeneration medical treatments. This study utilizes ParticleInCell (PIC) simulations to explore how initial conditions influence neutron generation from interactions between highintensity, shortpulse lasers and deuterium oxide (D2O) targets. Several initial conditions were investigated, including the target thickness, target temperature, and chamber background pressure. Additional features were added such as heating profiles to mimic laser prepulse heating within the target. Findings indicate that these initial conditions play a significant role in neutron yield. Future work will further explore initial conditions and work towards benchmarking simulation results with experimental data to enhance neutron production for realworld applications. 

E01.00009: MetaAnalysis of LaserIon Acceleration Aditya Shah, Nicholas S Haught, Joseph R Smith We showcase indepth data extraction and analysis of existing laserion particle accelerator experiments, utilizing tools like Plot Digitizer for accurate data extraction from graphs. We compiled over 400 data points from 26 scientific papers on laser proton acceleration. Features collected include wavelength, intensity, pulse duration, target thickness, and the resulting maximum proton energy for each experiment. This will be the largest publicly available dataset, which will ensure organization and accessibility for ongoing and future research. We analyzed this dataset using a variety of statistical methods including correlation matrices, principal component analysis, and linear regression to uncover underlying patterns, outliers, and insight into designing future experiments, simulations, and machine learning models. 

E01.00010: Impact of Nuclear Level Densities on Astrophysical Reaction Rates Grace Kessler Nuclear Level Densities (NLDs) are key inputs for calculating reaction rates for uses in astrophysics, medical physics, and industry. The NLD is defined as the number of energy levels per energy interval for a nucleus, which increases as energy increases. We calculate NLDs for various energy levels using the Moments Method. We then use our results and the program TALYS in order to calculate nuclear reaction rates in astrophysical environments. More specifically, we calculate the cross sections of (n,gamma) reactions, describing the probabilities of the reaction occurring under given conditions. These reactions take place in environments with an abundance of neutrons, such as neutron stars, core collapse supernovae, and neutron star mergers. We compare our cross sections from TALYS with available experimental data as well as other theoretical models, including the Fermi Gas model and the Constant Temperature model. 

E01.00011: Numerical Solutions to McVittie Timelike Geodesics Zachary Tyler Numerical solutions are provided to timelike geodesics within the Schwarzschild and McVittie metrics. The Schwarzschild metric represents a static, nonspinning black hole. The McVittie metric appears to be Schwarzschild close to the origin, but an expanding FLRW space (cosmology) far away. The main goal of this research is to show the difference in the orbital and gravitational wave patterns between static and expanding spacetimes. Both FLRW and SchwarzschildDeSitter spacetimes are discussed within the numerical context of calculating geodesics. The numerical method used is an 8th order RungeKutta coded within Python. 

E01.00012: Detection of NearEarth Asteroids Using the LISA Spacecraft Nicholas Ford In this project, I will examine a secondary of the European Space Agency's future space mission, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), as an asteroid detection device. To this end, I will create a simulation of the LISA spacecraft and an asteroid with variable mass and orbit. To analyze the model and the detection of the asteroid, I will measure the gravitational acceleration of each individual spacecraft due to the asteroid using the orbital parameters of various known asteroids. Using this data, I will examine the influence of mass and closestapproach distance on the gravitational force applied to the spacecraft. Based on my simulation results and analysis, I will determine the validity of this use case of LISA. If LISA can reasonably be used in this manner, I will report the limitations found in testing. With a positive yield of data, this project can contribute to filling NASA's SmallBody Database and give LISA the secondary purpose of detecting asteroid threats to Earth. 

E01.00013: Simulations of Interference Effects of Dual Laser Pulse Plasma Interactions Lucas Young, Joseph R Smith We used the opensource simulation code WarpX to model dual lasers colliding with a thin plasma target. These simulations are useful for studying high magnetic fields like those expected with magnetic reconnection in stars. We explore how changing the separation between the interaction points of the lasers affects magnetic fields and particle dynamics. We find that the lower the separation, the higher the particle energy generated. 

E01.00014: Measurement of the Optical Transfer Function Using Single Pixel Imaging Tyler Blanker, Neha Sunil, Edward Carlo C Samson An optical transfer function is a function that describes how well a system can capture different spatial frequencies and it is possible to calculate the optical transfer function of any system with just four images. We started by projecting 4 sinusoidal illumination patterns with phase shifts of π/2 onto the object plane of the camera lens and by choosing a single pixel on all 4 images we then calculated the optical transfer function. Then we calculated the inverse Fourier Transform of the optical transfer function to determine the point spread function of the camera lens. Furthermore, by testing multiple different points on a set of images it is possible to prove that the choice of pixel while imaging is arbitrary and all pixels in the image work equally as well. Lastly, by performing the process over a large range of the sinusoidal frequencies the performance at higher frequencies can be determined because as spatial frequency increases high detail imaging becomes more difficult. 

E01.00015: Electrical Anisotropy in InSe/MoO3 heterostructure 2D Field Effect Transistor Omar A Ahmed, Evelyn Deagueros, Xuan Gao, Sukrit Sucharitakul


E01.00016: Fractional Resistivity Change Of Au(111) Thin Films Dosed With Diethyl Disulfide Dennis E Kuhl, Aaron Rohr At a base pressure of 2.5 x 10^{10} Torr, the surfaces of 150 nm thick Au(111) films were Ar+ ion sputter cleaned and annealed to ~500℃. The resistance change of the Au(111) films due to diethyl disulfide dosing was measured using a fourprobe, lockin technique. The adsorbateinduced change in resistance determined the fractional change in resistivity. Auger spectroscopy determined surface composition, and the effect of cleanliness of the sample on the fractional change in resistivity was studied. 

E01.00017: Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Battery Systems Colin Walters, Xiangbo Meng As the demand for portable devices and electric vehicles continues to skyrocket, there is an urgent need to develop rechargeable batteries with enhanced capabilities. These include high energy density for extended runtimes, increased cycle life for longer usage, advanced discharge performance to provide an optimal power output, low thermal decay to protect internal stability, minimal environmental impact and ethical resource collection, and many more. 

E01.00018: Practical Control Laws with Quantum Computation Jihan Abou Halloun, Keshav Kasturi Rangan, Helen Durand Quantum computing has been receiving interest in chemical engineering. Chemical engineering involves a broad range of science and engineering problems related for example to transport phenomena, optimization, design and modeling of complex systems. In addition, quantum computing has been receiving engineering attention for applications such as control, where proportional control algorithms implemented on quantum computers were investigated. In this presentation, we will discuss how an integer program might be developed for attempting to learn an algorithm for quantum chemistry computations for a single qubit, and how the single qubit would not be able to take advantage of all of the properties of quantum computers. We expand the discussion here to present how integer programs might in general be developed for gate selection for specific state measurement/control output relationships to find the gates which can represent a specific action desired by a control law. However, we also will discuss how this does not constitute learning an "algorithm" like the Quantum Fourier Transformbased addition algorithm, because such algorithms are able to adapt a relationship that can be coded to different numbers of total qubits and should correspond to different state/input relationships without the need to "recode" them. 

E01.00019: Predicting Synthesis–Structure Relationships in Epitaxially–Grown Semiconductors with Quantum and Classical Supervised Learning Andrew S Messecar, Steven M Durbin, Robert A Makin In this work, data detailing hundreds of plasma–assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) thin film material growth experiments each of ZnO and various nitride semiconductors have been organized into separate, composition–specific data sets. For each experiment, the complete set of PAMBE growth parameters are associated with binary measures of crystallinity (1 for monocrystalline, 0 for polycrystalline) and surface morphology (1 for atomically–flat, 0 for uneven) as determined by reflection high–energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. Additionally, a Brag–Williams measure of lattice disorder (S^{2}) is included as an additional figure of merit for investigation. Quantum as well as conventional supervised learning algorithms – including logistic regression, tree–based algorithms, and quantum support vector machines – are trained on the data to study which growth parameters are most statistically important for influencing crystallinity, surface morphology, and S^{2}. The probabilities of obtaining monocrystalline and atomically flat thin film crystals are predicted across processing spaces of the two most statistically significant synthesis parameters. S^{2} is also predicted across the same growth spaces. The predictions indicate that different growth conditions are of interest depending on whether a single crystalline sample, a flat surface, or a well–ordered lattice is desired. 

E01.00020: Considerations of Closedloop Control on Quantum Computers using a Modified Grover's Algorithm for Simulation of a Chemical Process Kip Nieman, Helen Durand Quantum computers are of increasing interest in engineering applications such as modeling, optimization, and machine learning. Another field is process control, which involves the use of automated computer systems to manage process operation, where the method by which quantum algorithms might be implemented is unclear. The use of quantum computations in control may introduce factors that need to be accounted for such as nondeterminism, noise, and rounding effects. Our initial research sought to understand the effects of rounding and nondeterminism when implementing control on quantum computers. This was addressed though the design of a quantum circuit, which utilized many sequential Grover’s algorithm gates to encode a lookup table representing a controller, and through a controltheoretic study using an advanced control framework called Lyapunovbased economic model predictive control. This work focuses on extending our work through the application of the algorithm and theory using a chemical process example. This includes multiple objectives, namely concerns raised from the creation of the lookup table, a method of modifying the quantum circuit to prevent selecting unwanted control inputs, and the use of auxiliary classical control to ensure system stability. 

E01.00021: Determining the Motion of an Anisotropic Particle Around an Optical Nanofiber Kelsey McEwen, Cody Leary We theoretically explore the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and an optically small anisotropic particle by deriving the torque and force due to any electromagnetic field on such a particle. We apply the general torque and force equations derived to the case of an evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber. We analytically determine and graph the particle orientation and velocity vs. time for various polarization states of the electromagnetic field. We find that, for all polarization ellipticities ranging from linear up to and including a nearly circular threshold state, an anisotropic particle will assume an equilibrium orientation with respect to the polarization ellipse of the electric field, and the particle will move along a helical path at a constant speed. For a purely circular polarized field, an anisotropic particle will spin at a constant rate, but the trajectory remains helical. For polarization ellipticities between threshold and purely circular, an anisotropic particle will spin at a nonconstant rate, and a component of the velocity will vary sinusoidally with time. 

E01.00022: Active Phytochemical Components in the Momordica Charantia and Alkaloids for the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Na Yul Kim, Richard Kyung Momordica charantia has been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This therapeutic effect is attributed to its rich content of bioactive phytochemical components and alkaloids. The active compounds in Momordica charantia help improve insulin sensitivity and offer potential protective effects against diabetesinduced complications via various biochemical pathways. This paper studied how Charantin acts synergistically with other compounds in bitter melon and contributes to its hypoglycemic effects by enhancing glucose uptake and metabolism. Vicine, which is a pyrimidine nucleoside that occurs naturally in Momordica charantia, was also studied to determine the genetic effect. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, there is evidence suggesting that vicine induces hypoglycemia by mimicking insulin action. 

E01.00023: Biophysical Properties of Nanoparticles Used in Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Juhyung Park, Seo Hyun Park, Richard Kyung Dyshomeostasis of redoxactive metals and subsequent detection of elevated levels of redoxactive metals such as iron and copper in the brain suggests that such metals play a significant role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Iron homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining brain health and preventing common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD), as well as macular degeneration. Under the circumstance that iron is not properly stored away or exported inefficiently, there can be various neuronal complications as a result of an accumulation of redoxactive metals. Excess iron can lead to overabundant reactions in the brain, which in turn produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals. These cause not only DNA and protein damage but also lipid peroxidation and even cellular death, all of which can contribute to detrimental neurodegenerative diseases. 

E01.00024: AGN Photometry: UVIR Color Relations & Automation Agrim Gupta This research project involves the analysis of 27 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) sources with Ultraviolet (UV) data obtained from a pipeline in various filters. The primary objective was to reproduce the pipeline data using the Swift UVOT software and its diverse methods. However, discrepancies between the measured magnitudes and the original pipeline data were observed, indicating potential differences in aperture sizes. 

E01.00025: Using a lightsensitive reactiondiffusion system to visualize the black hole horizon effect Taliah G Lansing, Daniel CohenCobos, Veran Stanek, Niklas Manz We are using lightsensitive chemical reactiondiffusion waves to visualize a black hole event horizon. The event horizon of a black hole is the radius from its center of gravity at which not even light can escape its gravitational pull, but light is able to enter this region. In our tabletop analog, we employ a lightsensitive chemical BelousovZhabotinsky (BZ) reaction to create visible fronts moving in a quasitwodimensional system. The black hole is created through a radially symmetrical light gradient with increasing intensity going outward until the black hole horizon, where the light intensity drops back to zero. BZ waves created outside our circular light gradient can pass the sharp intensity jump and enter the center regions. Outward moving BZ waves, created at the center, experience an uphill light intensity gradient and die before reaching the maximal radius. Our experiments are supported by Python simulations using a twovariable, lightsensitive reactiondiffusion model, replicating our experimental observations. 

E01.00026: The Search for Nuclear Isomers in Neutron Star Mergers Using GRBs Joseph I Powell, Maria C Hamilton The observation of the binary neutron star merger GW170817A, marked by both gravitational waves and electromagnetic signals, including the gammaray burst GRB 170817A, presents a unique opportunity to study these astrophysical events. The gammaray spectrum of GRB 170817A features two distinct components: a hard short pulse followed by a softer thermal emission, with the origin of the hard pulse still widely debated. Our research explores the hypothesis that gammaray deexcitations from isomeric transitions contribute to this spectral feature. By establishing a selection criterion for isomers based on solar element abundances, we aim to match the observed GRB spectral characteristics. An interactive, python based webpage has been developed to display gammaray spectra from key isomers, enhancing our understanding of nuclear processes in cosmic events. This study not only sheds light on the intricate mechanisms behind gammaray bursts but also contributes valuable insights to the field of astrophysics. 

E01.00027: Optical absorption of a stack of razor blades: theory and application Hannah E Williams, John H Huckans We have analyzed the optical absorption properties of the surface of a stack of doublesided razor blades.Our analysis predicts the amount of light absorbed as a function of the angle of light incidence.In addition, we explore the effect of varying cavity wedge angles.All internal reflections are assumed to be specular.Reflection off of blade edges is ignored, as are any cavity resonance conditions.The predictions are compared to detailed measurements using a laser beam. We relate our findings to issues of laser safety, reference blackbodies, and discuss specialty coatings such as Vantablack. 
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