Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2023
Volume 68, Number 6
Minneapolis, Minnesota (Apr 1518)
Virtual (Apr 2426); Time Zone: Central Time
Session DD01: V: Poster Session I (11:30am12:30pm CDT)Poster Undergrad Friendly

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Chair: Magdalena Waleska Aldana Segura, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala; Marek Szczepanczyk, University of Florida Room: Virtual Room 1 

DD01.00001: V: NUCLEAR PHYSICS


DD01.00002: AlphaCrystal: A Simple Model for Nuclear Structure Alan M Kadin When nuclear structure models were first derived in the 1930s, it was believed that nucleons were elementary particles similar to electrons, so that a nucleus should be analogous to an atom. For this reason, a shell model analogous to atomic orbitals was proposed for the nucleus. But since the 1970s, it has been understood that nucleons are composed of quarks, and are therefore analogous to atoms, so that a nucleus is more analogous to an atomic cluster. With that in mind, a new simple conceptual picture of the nucleus is proposed, which is suitable for instruction to undergraduates. Given the great stability of alpha particles, and the observation of alpha emission from radioactive nuclei, it is natural to propose that a large nucleus is composed primarily of alphas. I suggest a closepacked “crystal” of alphas, with at most one “partial alpha” at the outer surface. Furthermore, given the strong electric potential in the center, the alphas in the center may convert to 4 neutrons, forming a “neutron core” providing excess neutrons for large nuclei. One can further approximate such a structure with spherical charge distributions, and derive simple analytical equations for the excess neutrons and the binding energy per nucleon, similar to those observed. Such a simple model may also offer insights into nuclear stability, fission, and other nuclear phenomena. 

DD01.00003: Analytic Evolution of Parton Distribution Functions Matthew R Markovych We apply an analytic method to describe the evolution of parton distribution functions (PDF). Previously, it was shown that this method successfully describes the evolution of singular distribution amplitudes in the DGLAP region. We illustrate the method by applying it to a PDF in the form of $(1x)^3$. Our approach has advantages over the widely used numerical and analytic methods which mostly require great computational power and computational time. It is observed in our method, that calculation of one or two iterations is enough to describe the evolution of PDFs. 

DD01.00004: Mass Correction in $AAA$ Model for $nnp$ and $ppn$ Systems Igor Filikhine, Vladimir M Suslov, Branislav Vlahovic Within the framework of the isospin formalism, the neutron and proton are indistinguishable particles (I=1/2) having different masses. 3$N$ theoretical considerations often ignore the difference in masses, considering the particles to be identical within the framework of the $AAA$ model. Based on the Faddeev differential equations for the $AAA$ model, we perform AV14 calculations for $^3$H and $^3$He nuclei varying the averaged nucleon mass and scaling the pair potential depth to show the massenergy compensation effect. Comparing the results of different authors, we conclude that the contribution of the threebody attraction potential to the Hamiltonian can be compensated by increasing the nucleon mass. Thus, the effective nucleon mass is determined (see also [1]). The theoretical explanation for this approach is based on the wellknown mass correction for the $AAA$ model [2]. This correction imitates the natural $AAB$ model for the $nnp$ and $ppn$ systems by correcting the averaged nucleon masses to physical masses to achieve better agreement with the experimental data for the threebody binding energy. The discrepancy between the $AAA$ model and the mass defect formula for these nuclei is discussed. 

DD01.00005: Electron detectors for the MOLLER experiment Nafis R Niloy High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HVMAPS) are a new type of electron detector. This hybrid pixel detector combines the semiconductor sensor elements that detect high energy particles with the readout electronics in one element. The demand for fast, high resolution and low noise detectors by experiments conducted at the LHC initiated the development of hybrid pixel detectors, first being developed at CERN in the 1980s . Each pixel has its own integrated readout electronics. The manufacturing process provides high levels of customization like radiation thickness and radiation length, thereby allowing the control of material budget for detectors, where scattering could be an issue. HVMAPS have been used as detectors for the Mu3e experiment ^{[1]}. As thin as 50 microns, the latest version of the HVMAPS, (MuPix Version 11) are the ideal electron detector for applications in the MOLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab ^{[2]}, The experiment proposes to measure the asymmetry of parity violating scattering, A_{PV}, in polarized electronelectron scattering, thereby measuring the Weinberg angle to a greater precision. This presentation outlines the use of HVMAPS in two aspects of the experiment: the Compton polarimeter, and the main detectors, for tracking the path and position of electrons respectively. 

DD01.00006: Novel Measurement of Samarium146 HalfLife with Cryogenic Microcalorimeters Alexander Kavner, Quinn Shollenberger, GeonBo Kim, Inwook Kim, Lars Borg, Stephen Boyd, Stephan Friedrich, Owen Drury, Donnie Lee, Igor Jovanovic Magnetic Microcalorimeters (MMCs) are cryogenic detectors consisting of an absorber, a paramagnetic sensor, and superconducting pickup coils and are utilized for high resolution radiation and particle detection. We are developing MMCbased decay energy spectrometry (DES) techniques for high accuracy measurements of absolute activities of and isotopic composition of radioactive samples. Nuclear samples are fully embedded within a gold foil absorber in thermal contact with the MMC device. Decay radiation in the form of alphas, betas, conversion electrons, nuclear recoils, and low energy photons are absorbed and thermalized within this foil with near 100% efficiency, producing spectra with single peak(s) at the total decay energy of each isotope. The total number of decays and absolute activities can be obtained by integrating the decay energy peaks. Using this technique, we measured the absolute activities of ^{146}Sm and ^{147}Sm samples with known masses to improve the accuracy of their halflifevalues. We present novel measurements of the ^{146}Sm and ^{147}Sm halflives with values derived from the DES technique. The systematics of the measurements have been rigorously studied and examined. The absolute decay counting technique is therefore readily applicable to other nuclear measurements. 

DD01.00007: V: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS


DD01.00008: ab initio study of the electronic properties of hydrogenated roundish SiC quantum dots Saravana Prakash Thirumuruganandham, Miguel Ojeda Martinez, Jose Luis Cuevas Silicon carbide quantum dots (SiCQD), recently have been the most investigated material due to its potential applications in the different fields such as medicine, energy, and electronic fields [1–3]. In this work, we study the electronic properties on roundish hidrogenated 3C SiCQD with three different diameters and Crich, by means of density functional theory. Our results exhibit flat states in the CBM and VBM, besides it is observed the quantum confinament effects, this means that electronic band gap increase while the diameter decrease. The formation energy of the system shows that the most stable disposition is the diameter is the diameter three followed by, and the most unestable system is diameter one. These Open up the oportunity to design new nanodevices due to hidrogen produce Ndoping in this systems 

DD01.00009: V: PHYSICS EDUCATION RESEARCH


DD01.00010: Relevance of computation in introductory physics courses for life science majors Jacob A Watkins, Kirtimaan A Mohan, Kathleen Hinko, Vashti Sawtelle, Nick Ivanov A large majority of undergraduate students taking introductory physics are life science majors. Most of these students have little to no experience with computational modelling. Yet computational modelling is increasingly viewed as an important part of physics education and its use in physics courses has been growing. In this exploratory study, we investigate how students, particularly life science majors, perceive the relevance of computational modelling in an introductory physics course for life science (IPLS) at Michigan State University. The class integrates computational modelling activities with the use of VPython in Glowscript. Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory as a framework for relevance, we investigate the impact of such a curriculum on students' sense of relevance towards physics and computational modelling. 

DD01.00011: V: HISTORY OF PHYSICS


DD01.00012: Qubits are unit vectors in the Euclidean plane Dennis W Marks A 2×2 real matrix representation of complex numbers predicts a Belltype threeparty correlation Τ ≤ 7.66. On the other hand, a 2×2 real matrix representation of unit vectors in the Euclidean plane predicts Τ = 3β_{CHSH} = 6√2 ≈ 8.49. Experimental results convincingly preclude the use of a real representation of complex numbers in quantum mechanics. Indeed, since the real representation of complex numbers is mathematically equivalent to complex numbers, these experimental results also preclude the use of complex numbers in quantum mechanics. The problem with complex numbers is that they commute. Rather, qubits are faithfully represented as unit vectors in the Euclidean plane, whose basis vectors anticommute. The eigenvalues of qubits are the bits, +1 and −1. The dot product of two qubits gives the Bell correlation between them. Thus, Bell correlation is the result of Euclidean geometry, quantized by the requirement that the only possible measurements of a matrix are its eigenvalues. Einstein was right to argue against “spooky action at a distance”! 

DD01.00013: V: OUTREACH AND ENGAGING THE PUBLIC


DD01.00014: Outreach activities to engage students in Science Education and public outreach. Magdalena Waleska Aldana Segura, Julian Felix Valdez Four specific experiences are highlighted, they represent lessons learned during the pandemic of Covid19. As the pandemic progressed to incorporate science education and physics students in outreach efforts, specific events were created to engage them. STEAM Clubs, online seminars, hybrid conferences, and hybrid presentations were introduced. 

DD01.00015: V: GENERAL


DD01.00016: Evidence That Bohr Knew Of William James's Complementarity Many Years Before Bohr Presented His Version For Physics  Quotes Of Bohr's Version For Physics Douglas M Snyder Many quotes of Bohr’s version of complementarity specifically for physics from the earliest days of quantum mechanics through 1955 are presented. A quote from Heisenberg’s Nobel Lecture regarding Bohr’s complementarity for physics is also presented. Complementarity was originally proposed by William James (18421910), the American psychologist, in 1890 in “The Principles of Psychology”. James’s definition in the original work appears at the following website: https://archive.org/details/theprinciplesofp01jameuoft/page/206/mode/2up?q=complementary . The website will read the quote. Evidence that Bohr borrowed James’s complementarity and adapted it to physics is presented. Bohr adapted James’s complementarity to physics by introducing an unavoidable physical interaction between a physical measuring instrument and the physical system measured. This physical interaction has an aspect that cannot be controlled that Bohr thought allowed for the application of the uncertainty principle. 

DD01.00017: New Points about Time and Space Gh. Saleh If we want to observe the concept of Time we would have to investigate it in an expanse of space where no object exists, i.e., in a vacuum. As there is no mass and no movement, we can say that time does not flow. But if there is a mass and it has changed, in other words, it has a process from the past to the future, the word Time can be used. So, in view of “Saleh Theory”, the “Principles of Time” are as follows: 

DD01.00018: Finite Volume Amplitudes of Twobody scattering interactions with a Light Particle Exchange. SAMANTHA GOLDBERG (University of Texas at Austin) DR. RAUL BRICENO (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility) Samantha Goldberg, Raul A Briceno Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) describes the strong force and all possible interactions between quarks, with gluons serving as the principle forcecarriers. Understanding interactions governed by the strong force has proven to be difficult when occurring in real time, with an infinite scattering length, and an infinite volume. Implementing a lattice model (Lattice QCD) is a nonperturbative approach to QCD in order to accommodate this problem. Within Lattice QCD, the Luescher formalism allows one to solve for the spectrum of scattering interactions within a finite, spacelike cubic volume with periodic boundary conditions. One issue with the Leuscher formalism that remains to be accounted for is the Luescher formalism’s inability to calculate information about certain scattering processes due to singularities in the scattering amplitude that occur. One such interaction is a twoparticle scattering process where a light particle is exchanged. First, we calculate the scattering amplitudes of two hadronic particles. Then, we introduce the Luescher formalism which describes the scattering amplitudes of two particles in a lattice box described by the finite volume function. We plot the free and interacting spectrums. After this, we find the infinitevolume scattering amplitudes over a range of energies of twoparticle scattering interactions with a light particle exchange. As the project continues, we will implement these scattering interactions into the Leuscher formalism, in the hopes of developing a method to produce a resulting spectrum. This project is significant to the field of Lattice QCD due to its potential for novel insight about previously forbidden scattering processes in a finite volume. These findings ultimately help us to understand how a variety of particles interact via the strong force in the Universe. 
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