Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2020
Volume 65, Number 2
Saturday–Tuesday, April 18–21, 2020; Washington D.C.
Session K01: Poster Session II (14:0017:00)On Demand Poster Undergrad Friendly

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Room: Exhibit Hall A 

K01.00001: ACCELERATORS AND STORAGE RINGS 

K01.00002: Pileup suppression algorithms in the Global Event Processor for the HLLHC Upgrade of the of the ATLAS Trigger System Nicholas Suarez, Tae Hong, Ben Carlson To mitigate the effects of pileup in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the HighLuminosity LHC (HLLHC), several pileup suppression algorithms are considered for implementation in the Phase II Global Event Processor (GEP). This talk will present the relative performance of each algorithm and solutions to the challenges of implementing the algorithms on the firmware level. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00003: Progress in the Design of a HighGradient, THzDriven Electron Gun Samantha Lewis, Mohamed Othman, Emilio Nanni, Sami Tantawi High energy particle sources are in demand for a variety of applications including ultrafast electron diffraction, free electron lasers, medical accelerators, and future colliders. To limit the size and cost of these sources, high accelerating gradient is required. Vacuum breakdown limits the achievable gradient in normal conducting accelerators, but using THzfrequency structures could allow for compact, GV/mscale devices. We are developing a THzdriven fieldemission electron gun to generate relativistic electrons in mm length scales. The gun operates in the pimode with a cavity frequency of 110.08 GHz. The cavities and field emission cathode are made from copper. This work will present progress in the fabrication and testing of a prototype structure as well as results from 3D particle simulations. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00004: NearRelativistic Electron Beam Production From an Array of Pyroelectric Crystals Rodney Yoder, Ahmed Ibrahim, Kristine Ung Laserpowered acceleration structures having dimensions comparable to optical wavelengths ($\sim$1 $\mu$mm) are in development, with potential to produce GeV/m acceleration gradients in a microchiplike device. Such structures require injection of a submicronscale electron bunch at nearrelativistic energies; field emission from a nanotip is one mechanism to produce such beams. In previous work, we have demonstrated that the quasiDC fields produced by pyroelectric crystals during slow heating and cooling are sufficient for electron emission and acceleration from a carbon nanotube layer. Here, we report on the production of higherenergy electrons from an array of lithium niobate crystals, using a nanotipped needle within a narrow vacuum channel through the center of the crystals. This proofofprinciple experiment takes advantage of the highly uniform accelerating fields within the channel; experimental energy spectra will be presented and compared with theoretical expectations. The mechanism has potential as a standalone radiation source. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00005: Advanced Accelerator and Laser R{\&}D at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility Mark Palmer, Marcus Babzien, Christian Cullen, Mikhail Fedurin, Prabhjot Kaur, Rotem Kupfer, Karl Kusche, Robert Malone, Marc Montemagno, Igor Pogorelsky, Mikhail Polyanskiy, Navid VafaeiNajafabadi The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a US DOE Office of Science User Facility that supports DOE's Accelerator Stewardship Program. The facility provides a unique combination of high brightness 70 MeV electron beams, longwave infrared (LWIR) laser capabilities using its multiterawatt CO2 laser, multiple nearinfrared (NIR) experimental systems, and an ultrafast electron diffraction capability. We describe the current research program at the facility, in particular those activities that have been supported by recent advances in the production of high peak power LWIR pulses. We also describe our plans for the evolution of the facility to support a broad range of user research in accelerator and laser science. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00006: Simulation Studies of XRay Conversion Targets for Radiotherapy Linacs Sarah Deutsch Recent advances in electron linac technology made in the context of linear collider studies have the potential to make a significant impact also on radiotherapy linacs. In order to develop an optimized implementation of linear collider technology, a deeper understanding of the important radiotherapy systems is necessary. One aspect in particular requiring additional study is the conversion target. This project comprises simulation studies of Xray conversion targets at low energies using the simulation tools Geant4 and TOPAS with the objective of identifying important processes and issues for the longer term goal of making broader multisystem optimizations of a traditional radiotherapy linac. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00007: ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS 

K01.00008: UCLA Facility for Development and Testing of Novel Photoinjectors Gerard Lawler, Monika Yadav, Atsushi Fukasawa, Walter Lynn, Nathan Majernik, River Robles, Yusuke Sakai, Oliver Williams, Victor Yu, James Rosenzweig A new laboratory facility at UCLA is currently under construction by the Particle Beam Physics Laboratory with the purposes of developing and testing novel designs for advanced photoinjectors. The facility includes concrete bunker space with full access to laser systems for electron beam generation. Initial commissioning will be accomplished with testing of a novel Sband (2.856 GHz) photoinjector. It uses both standing and traveling wave radiofrequency (RF) acceleration removing many disadvantages of standing wave structures, e.g. harmful RF reflections, and includes many of the advantages of a traveling wave structure, e.g. bunch compression. The facility will also host the development, construction, and testing of a Cband (5.712 GHz) normal conducting cryogenic design. The joint UCLASLACLANLINFN effort builds on previous work examining the performance of RF structures at cryogenic temperatures leading to increased accelerating gradients. Both designs are expected to increase electron beam brightness. In the case of the cryogenic gun, the 5dimensional beam brightness is expected to be increased by over a factor of ten. Simulation shows this enables operation of an xray free electron laser producing an order of magnitude increase in photon energy. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00009: PARTICLES AND FIELDS 

K01.00010: Relegation classifier: a machinelearning approach for optimizing analysis significance in the physical sciences Kripa George, Michael McCracken Machine learning models are used to classify signal and background, a process crucial to many analyses in the physical sciences. Such models are often trained by maximizing classification accuracy. We must also maximize the statistical significance of the signal sample, which, in the physical sciences, is a major factor in determining the merit of an analysis. For datasets where the attributes of the signal and background are largely overlapping or for datasets with imbalanced signal/background populations, making accurate classification while keeping significance high is difficult with standard methods. We present the relegator classifier as a new way to optimize the statistical significance in signal identification, where the model has freedom to ignore some areas of input space and the training loss function combines accuracy and significance. We compare the relegator classifier's performance to that of the logistic regression classifier for toymodel datasets (standard “moons” benchmark with added mass feature), as well as highenergy physics particle production/decay datasets. We compare the results of these classifiers for various signaltobackground ratios for the same datasets, and compare the results of these classifiers for varying degrees of signal/background overlap. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00011: Grover's (Quantum) Algorithm and Searches with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider Anthony Armenakas, Oliver Baker We demonstrate one method of applying a specific quantum algorithm, Grover's Algorithm (GA), to search for rare events in \textit{pp} collisions at $\sqrt s =$13 TeV in an unsorted ATLAS detector dataset using ATLAS Open Data. The procedure begins with casting the unsorted data in a proper (circuit) format followed by identifying a marked state (event) that the algorithm will then select. Using a Jupyter Notebook, a classical simulation of GA, and a few qubits, it is shown that this application makes the proper selection in the unsorted dataset. This method, and implementations on both a classical simulator and IBM's backend quantum computer hardware using the IBM QisKit Open Source Software, will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00012: Development of a Detector Prototype for future High Energy Gamma Ray Experiments Brandon Weindorf, Aeowyn Kendall, Al Mokris, Abaz Kryemadhi, Matt Farrar Development of instruments capable of detecting gamma rays across vast ranges of energies is important for understanding different astrophysical objects. Instruments are constrained by cost, power, autonomous operation and sensitivity over wide range of energies. Photomultiplier tubes have been the main photon detection technology for these experiments because they can be manufactured in large sizes hence higher light yields. The drawbacks of these devices is their higher voltage of operation, bulky size, and a limited number of vendors producing them. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are the solidstate equivalents which operate at lower voltage and there is an increase in the number of vendors producing them. The main drawbacks of SiPMs is their small surface area and higher dark rate. In order to circumvent their small area we have constructed a Cherenkov detector prototype with wavelength shifters (WLS) in combination with SiPMs to increase light collection efficiency and report on the detector performance. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00013: Fabrication of a Cosmic Ray Veto System for the Mu2e Experiment William Musk The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the chargedlepton flavorviolating process of a neutrino less muontoelectron decay in the presence of a nucleus. The experiment expects a singleevent sensitivity of 2.9*10$^{\mathrm{17}}$, which is four orders of magnitude below the current strongest limits on this process. This requires all backgrounds to sum to fewer than one event over the lifetime of the experiment. One major background is due to cosmicray muons producing electrons that fake a signal inside of the Mu2e apparatus. The Mu2e Cosmic Ray Veto (CRV) has been designed to veto these cosmicray backgrounds with an efficiency of 99.99{\%}, while causing a low dead time and operating in a highintensity environment. The design and fabrication of the CRV are discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00014: Lightyield simulation for HGCal scintillating tiles YiMu Chen, Sarah Eno The present CMS endcap calorimeters will be replaced with a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) during the third long shutdown of the LHC in preparation for the intense environment of the High Luminosity LHC. The hadronic part of the HGCAL will include 240,000 scintillating tiles. Each trapezoidallyshaped tile will be read out by a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) positioned inside a "dimple" in the scintillator. In this poster, results from a Geant4 simulation of the expected light yield are used to explore critical parameters that affect the overall performance of the system. The quality of the reflective wrapping around tiles is found to be the most critical parameter for improving lightyield performance. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00015: Missing transverse momentum algorithm improvements for the ATLAS High Level Trigger for Run 3 for pp collisions Benjamin Carlson, Tae Min Hong The ATLAS missing transverse momentum trigger is susceptible to the impact of multiple protonproton interactions (pileup) in the same event. To mitigate the impact of pileup, sophisticated subtraction schemes are utilized. During the Run 2 datataking, these methods focused only on information from the calorimeter due to limited time available for the algorithms to utilize tracks. In this poster, I will present updates on the missing transverse momentum trigger algorithms utilizing tracking information for Run 3. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00016: Automation for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HLLHC) Tracker Forward Pixel (TFPIX) module assembly at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. Conett Huerta The Upgraded Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) will explore physics at the high energy frontier in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HLLHC). The CMS pixel detector is the first detector to interact with the particles created in the collision; therefore, a hardware upgrade is necessary to maintain tracking performance on account of the increased luminosity. We will present an overview and description of the work being done on the Forward Pixel detector upgrade (TFPIX). The Catholic University of America (CUA), as a part of the USCMS collaboration, plays an important role in the upgradeeffort through the commissioning of an onsite clean room laboratory (CUAHEP Lab) with stateoftheart automation technology. The CUAHEP Lab is a class 8 clean room, it uses an automated Aerotech gantry  including custom LabVIEW automation software, to assemble pixel modules. A deep understanding of the hardware development and construction processes will be of great use for future data analysis and understanding the physics in the HLLHC run.~ [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00017: ATLAS Online Trigger Rate Monitoring System [TDAQ] Stephen Roche, Nick Felice, Tae Min Hong At the ATLAS Experiment, a twolevel trigger system reduces the LHC’s bunchcrossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz. Xmon is a subsystem that compares recorded trigger rates to predicted values based on the beam’s luminosity. The predictions are calculated using data from past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependence of the event rate for each trigger algorithm. We present an overview of Xmon operations and a redeveloped website to display Xmon datasets. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00018: Algorithm simulation for the Run3 Level1 trigger system at ATLAS Ava Myers, Tae Min Hong, Ben Carlson In Run 3 of the LHC, the ATLAS Level1 trigger system will introduce three feature extractors (FEX): eFEX, jFEX, and gFEX. Details of algorithm design will be presented along with the projected performance for electron, jet, and missing transverse momentum triggers. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00019: low temperature performance of a silicon photomultiplier and an avalanche photodiode Jin Jegal, Hyeoungwoo Park, Eunsuk Seo, Hongjoo Kim In direct dark matter searches, it is important to reduce the thermal noise which can significantly impact detection of relatively low intensity light of scintillators. There are many experiments utilizing scintillators, but it has not been studied much about a combination of a low temperature semiconductor detector with a scintillator. We studied dependency of the dark current and breakdown voltage on temperature for a silicon photomultiplier and an avalanche photodiode by changing the temperature from 4 K to 300 K in cryostat. The thermal noise of semiconductor can be decreased at low temperature, but electrical characterization of detectors has to be optimized for the best performance at the specific temperature, since the electron mobility reduction has to be considered as temperature decreases. The dark current was decreased from a few nA to several tens of pA and the breakdown voltage was shifted as the temperature decreases. This shift in the breakdown voltage influenced the gain. We will report our test results and discuss a possibility of utilizing low temperature semiconductor detectors in combination with scintillators. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00020: Crystal growth and scintillation properties of ag doped sodium chloride single crystal for radio photoluminescence dosimetry Jaeyoung Cho, Arshad Khan, Hyeoungwoo Park, Hongjoo Kim The commonly used silver doped phosphate glass dosimeter is based on the principle of radio photoluminescence (RPL). The exposure of ionizing radiations creates color centers related to the Ag ions in the Agdoped phosphate glass which emits fluorescence when excited by UV light. The excited electrons generated from the color centers return to the original color centers after emitting the fluorescence. This process is called RPL phenomena. RPL has been studied widely for various composition such as silveractivated glass and silveractivated alkali halides single crystals [12], for dosimetry applications. Because of the better performance of single crystal than glass dosimeters, silver doped sodium chloride (NaCl:Ag) single crystal with different concentration were grown by using the two zones vertical Bridgman technique. Scintillation and luminescence properties such as light yield, response time and emission wavelength are measured under X and gammaray excitation at room temperature. Based on these measured properties the Ag doping concentration was optimized in NaCl single crystal. The optimized NaCl:Ag single crystal was evaluated for the RPL dosimetry applications. We also studied RPL mechanism of the crystal and compared with RPL glass. Single crystal growth, lumincsence, scintillation and RPL properties of NaCl:Ag will be presented in this work. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00021: Construction of Anode Plane Assembly Detectors for DUNE Maxwell Herrmann An international consortium will commence construction of the first module of the DUNE Far Detector this year. The Anode Plane Assemblies (APA’s) form the central component of the detector, instrumented with wire planes, photon detectors, and readout electronics. Prototype APA’s have been constructed in the U.S. at Physical Sciences Laboratory in Madison Wisconsin as well as in the U.K. Construction of these large precision detectors and their implementation in ProtoDUNE will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 
Not Participating 
K01.00022: Aging Studies of Scintillation Counters with Embedded Wavelength Shifting Fibers E. Craig Dukes, R. Craig Group, Steven Boi, Yuri Oksuzian The Mu2e experiment will conduct a search for charged lepton flavor violation through observation of a neutrinoless muontoelectron conversion. In order to reduce backgrounds from cosmic ray muons, a cosmic ray veto consisting of counters made from scintillating plastic will be read out by wavelengthshifting fibers. The cosmic ray veto must have an overall detection efficiency of 99.99\%. The the counters are designed to meet photoelectron yield requirements over a working lifetime of 10 years. Aging studies have been made to measure the temporal response of the light yield of the scintillator and transmission of light through optical fibers. Tests include radioactive sources studies with accelerated aging using an oven, nonaccelerated aging studies over a period of three years, and testbeam measurements. A comparison to other aging measurements will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00023: CubeSat design using SrI2 and 6LiInSe2 scintillators for planetary gammaneutron spectroscopy Elon Price, Arnold Burger, Liviu Matei Asteroid mining and its economic potential has been in discussion for many years. More recently, a bill was passed by the Science and Transportation Committee (H.R. 2262SPACE Act of 2015) outlining commercial space development and ownership of materials mined from outer space. In addition, a new generation of planetary gammaray spectroscopy has been developed and is promising for detecting gold, platinum, rare earths and etc. The CubeSat platform would allow for a small (1 unit (u) is 10 x 10 x 10 cm\textasciicircum 3) and low power (less than 3W) design. This CubeSat would also utilize SrI2 (Eu) (grown at Fisk University) as the scintillator component which doesn't require cryogenics and vacuum technology used with High Purity Germanium (HPGe), making it the more efficient option. This poster will highlight spectra from SrI2 as well as the 6LiInSe2 scintillator used for neutron detection. It will also include schematics depicting the implementation of these scintillators using the CubeSat guidelines. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00024: Hadronic algorithm firmware implementation and testbench for the Global Event Processor trigger subsystem for HLLHC Upgrade at ATLAS~[TDAQ] Daniel Stumpp, Dr. Lin Yao, Prof. Tae Min Hong The Global Event Processor is a new FPGAbased trigger subsystem for the HLLHC Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment. We present our work in developing algorithm firmware, such as eventbyevent calculation of the pileup energy level, and testbench for the firmware. The use of High Level Synthesis (HLS) was explored to streamline the implementation of complex algorithms in firmware. A testbench was also developed, using python, for analysis and verification of the firmware algorithm implementation. [Preview Abstract] 
On Demand 
K01.00025: Design and development of muon tagging optical modules (mTOMs) for calibration of reconstruction algorithms in Cherenkov neutrino detectors Petr Jakubcik, Janet Conrad, Spencer Axani, Katarzyna Frankiewicz CosmicWatch is a pocketsize muon detector developed at MIT originally for outreach. It comprises a slab of plastic scintillator, a silicon photomultiplier, and a readout circuit board. CosmicWatch served as a prototype for the muon tagging optical modules (mTOMs), which would aid in assessing and improving reconstruction algorithms in Cherenkov detectors like the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. In the future, these could be fitted with optically isolated muon taggers recording direct hits by the abundant cosmic ray muons at several locations in the array. The viability of this proposition was studied using a simulation of cosmic ray showers passing through a proposed upgrade to IceCube. It was demonstrated that the angular resolution, in even the most basic track reconstruction algorithms, would improve dramatically for events in which a cosmic ray muon triggered one or two of the muon taggers. This dataset could then be used to improve track reconstruction algorithms, and in the case of IceCube, would help localize astrophysical sources more accurately. The upgraded design reflects the need for affordability, simplicity, low noise, and anticipates possible communication channels with future digital optical modules. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00026: Performance verification of OrthoPositronium Annihilation Detector of KAPAE Dongwoo Jeong, Hongjoo Kim, Hyeoungwoo Park, Arshad Khan, Jik Lee This research reports on detector design for the KNU Advanced Positronium Annihilation Experiment (KAPAE). OrthoPositronium must annihilate to three or more odd number of gammas due to Cparity conservation. OrthoPositronium, however, rarely decays involving single gamma, even number of gammas, or other particles. We expect to study new physics by observing these raredecays so we need detectors to accurately measure the decay of orthoPositronium. To this end, we devised a variety of environments using air, nitrogen, and aerogels. For the best performance of the detector, we experimented to determine the type and thickness of components such as trigger scintillators and reflectors. We also measured the scintillation properties of the 196 BGOs that will be used in the detector and verified that the BGOs can be used in the detector. Using this optimized orthoPositronium decay environment, the difference in the decay time of orthopositronium with and without Aerogel was investigated. We verified the detector's performance because the difference in decay time resulted in a wellformed orthopositronium. This allowed us to apply the optimal results to our system configuration. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00027: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN 

K01.00028: Recent Updates to the Noble Event Simulation Technique (NEST) Sophia Andaloro Nobleelement detectors are common in rareevent searches, such as those involving dark matter and neutrinos. The sensitivities of these searches require an accurate model to identify backgrounds and predict signal topologies. The Noble Event Simulation Technique (NEST) is a comprehensive, mostlyempirical package for complete and accurate simulation of noble element detector response. NEST’s capabilities include simulating the scintillation and ionization yields of various particle interactions with noble elements. I will present recent upgrades to NEST as NESTv2.0. NESTv2.0 is based heavily on experimental data from numerous solid, liquid, and gas detector experiments. Due to this abundance of data, most theoretical models in NESTv2.0 have been replaced with simple, wellbehaved, empirical formulas. Furthermore, NEST can be customized to a detector’s various experimental parameters, such as electron lifetimes. NESTv2.0 employs an empirical, nonbinomial recombination model and simulates scintillation and ionization signals in dualphase timeprojection chambers with correct energy resolution. Recent developments for argon detector simulations are also discussed. NEST can be operated as a standalone commandline tool, used with GEANT4, or more recently with Python as nestpy. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00029: Abstract Withdrawn


K01.00030: Experimental constraint on axionlike particle coupling over seven orders of magnitude in mass Daniel Palken, Tanya Roussy, William Cairncross, Benjamin Brubaker, Daniel Gresh, Matt Grau, Kevin Cossel, Kia Boon Ng, Yuval Shagam, Yan Zhou, Victor Flambaum, Jun Ye, Eric Cornell Axionlike particles (ALPs) present a wellmotivated solution to the unresolved problem of dark matter. If ALPs are present and saturate the local dark matter density, existing data from the JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment [1] may contain their imprint via the mechanism of an oscillating scalarpseudoscalar nucleonelectron coupling. In this talk, we quantify the effect of ALP dark matter on the JILA eEDM signal, accounting for the stochastic fluctuations in the ALP dark matter field in two distinct regimes: when the ALP coherence time is much greater than the measurement time, and when the two timescales are comparable to one another [2]. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing framework, we report a constraint on the presence of ALP dark matter over the 10$^{\mathrm{22}}$10$^{\mathrm{15}}$ eV mass range. $\backslash $[1] W. B. Cairncross \textit{et al}., ``Precision Measurement of the Electron's Electric Dipole Moment Using Trapped Molecular Ions'', Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{119}, 153001 (2017).2] G. P. Centers \textit{et al}., ``Stochastic fluctuations of bosonic dark matter,'' arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.13650 (2019). [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00031: Neutrinos from All the Stars in the Universe Ziping Ye All the stars in the observable Universe emit neutrinos, which create a diffuse stellar neutrino background (DStellarNB). Observing the DSterllarNB will enable us to measure the density of stars in the observable Universe and the star formation history, which is not viable through observing diffuse stellar photon background (DSterllarPB) because photons are blocked by interstellar matter but neutrinos are not. This talk presents a calculation of the flux of DSterllarNB, and discuss the possibility of its detection. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00032: Pointing to CoreCollapse Supernovae with NextGeneration Neutrino Detectors Kate Scholberg This talk will describe methods to determine the location of a nearby corecollapse supernova using the neutrino burst information, focusing on anisotropic interactions and triangulation techniques. [Preview Abstract] 
(Author Not Attending)

K01.00033: Observation of the Origin of Downward Terrestrial GammaRay Flashes Jackson Remington, John Belz, Paul Krehbiel, Mark Stanley, Rasha Abbasi, Ryan LeVon, William Rison, Daniel Rodeheffer Terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs) are bursts of intense gamma radiation produced during lightning, lasting up to a few milliseconds. Highfluence TGFs were originally seen from orbiting gamma detectors and were later linked to the early leader stage of upward intracloud lightning. As predicted, the effect has also been seen from the ground, apparently produced during the same (downward) process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) in western Utah is a 700 km$^2$ array comprised of over 500 plastic scintillator detectors on a 1.2 km square grid and is designed for the measurement of UltraHighEnergy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). After reporting lowfluence gamma showers produced in the initial stages of lightning, TASD has upgraded its lightning mapping capabilities and become one of the world's leading instruments for groundlevel detection of TGFs. A new broadband interferometer (INTF) installed in 2018 uses VHF signals collected from three antennas to more accurately pinpoint the timing and direction of lightning activity over TASD, while the fast sferic sensor is better tuned to record the rapid changes in a storm's electric field. Here we present new results, which for the first time clearly tie downward TGFs to energetic leaderstage processes at the submicrosecond level. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00034: Gaussian Process Accelerated FeldmanCousins Approach for Physical Parameter Inference Nitish Nayak, Lingge Li, Jianming Bian, Pierre Baldi The unified approach of Feldman and Cousins allows for exact statistical inference of small signals that commonly arise in high energy physics. It has gained widespread use, for instance, in measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters in longbaseline experiments. However, the approach relies on the Neyman construction of the classical confidence interval and is computationally intensive as it is typically done in a gridbased fashion over the entire parameter space. In this article, we propose an efficient algorithm for the FeldmanCousins approach using Gaussian processes to construct confidence intervals iteratively. We show that in the neutrino oscillation context, one can obtain confidence intervals fives times faster in one dimension and ten times faster in two dimensions, while maintaining an accuracy above 99.5\%. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00035: Thermal Radiation and Entanglement in Antineutrino Scattering from Nuclei George Iskander, Mojique Tyler, Oliver Baker We extend studies of apparent thermalization in protonproton collisions to weak interaction processes by analyzing antineutrinonucleus scattering results from the MINER$\nu $A collaboration. We find that for chargedcurrent muon antineutrino scattering on hydrocarbon at average antineutrino energy of 3.6 GeV, the momentum distribution of the resulting pion can be described by both an exponential and a power law component. The presence of an exponential component implies a thermal distribution. We explore the possibility that this thermalization is due to entanglement between distinct regions of the target system. We also show that in coherent muon antineutrino scattering on carbon, there is no entanglement and the thermal component is absent, as expected. These results are consistent with the behavior that is observed in the transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons produced in protonproton collisions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Results from both scattering processes and their comparison will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00036: Cosmic Acceleration and Einstein's Resolving Spooky Action at a Distance Thomas Chamberlain Einstein believed spooky action at a distance meant quantum mechanics (QM) was incomplete, that hidden variables were needed to resolve fasterthanlight influence. But Bell's Inequality supported spooky action and denied Einstein's local realism. Nevertheless, difficulties in advancing QMe.g., spontaneous emission and deeper integration of QM with special and general relativityhold out the possibility that Einstein's skepticism was justified after all. In this talk we considergiven a correct derivation of cosmic acceleration (2018: $a=rH^2$; $Lambda=3H^2/c^2$) from postulated singular lightspeed inward in the Hubble expansionhow the same instantaneous effect along a temporallyentangled Einstein's lookback path also resolves Einstein's fasterthanlight criticism of QM. Here instantaneous temporal effect of either of two entangled photons back to the source is understood to instantly cause the complementary state of the other photon despite an unlimited separation distance in any given epoch. Actionatadistance is given explanation by these considerations along with deeper insight into the nature of time, both results in accord with the empirical facts while leaving intact the probabilitybased successes of quantum mechanics. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00037: Chiral Waves on the FermiDirac Sea: Quantum Superfluidity and the Axial Anomaly Emil Mottola, Andrey Sadofyev As a result of the axial anomaly, massless fermions at zero temperature define a relativistic quantum superfluid. Corelated fermion/antifermion pair excitations of the FermiDirac sea propagate as gapless Chiral Density Waves (CDWs), i.e. axionlike acoustic modes of an irrotational and dissipationless Hamiltonian perfect fluid. In D$=$2 the chiral superfluid effective action is identical to that of the Schwinger model as e $\to $ 0, with the CDW acoustic mode precisely the Schwinger boson. This identity holding also at zero chiral chemical potential implies that the Dirac vacuum itself may be viewed as a quantum superfluid state. The CDW collective boson is massless as a result of a novel, nonlinear realization of Goldstone's theorem extended to this case of symmetry breaking by an anomaly. We give a new local form of the axial anomaly effective action in any even D spacetime, consistent with superfluidity, and show that its quantization is required by the anomalous Schwinger terms in fermion current commutators. In massless QED$_{\mathrm{4}}$ this collective NambuGoldstone mode appears as a massless pole in the axial anomaly triangle diagram, and is responsible for the macroscopic nondissipative currents of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Separation Effects. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00038: Gauss Divergence Theorem and WaveParticle Duality Gregory Light By the relation F(c, h, G, hydrogen mass) $=$ 1 (no unit), one can set: (1) c $=$ 1 $=$ radius of an electromagnetic wave ball B, (2) M $=$ mass(B) $=$ vol(B) by adjusting h, (3) the mean divergence of the gravitational field f over B = 3 by altering G. Then by Divergence Theorem, avg(divf) (1/4) vol(B) $=$ ``pi'' rsqd f (altered J s) = the angular momentum of mass (3/4) M along the spin axis. I.e., M leaves (1/4) M as wave and (3/4) M as photon. Take the complex conjugates of Shell Equation; then the real part in linear motion must be for particle and carries (3/4) M; thus for any particle of rest mass, gammainv must equal (3/4), implying c/v $=$ 1.5 (app.) and the possibility of the electromagnetic wave spinning along 2 perpendicular semicircles with the 2 intersection points for stop for (1/2) cycle. The above wave motion can be fixed by 3 linear momentum vectors: Y and X of spin axis Z, and Z of spin axis X. Then (X,Z) $=$ Pauli matrix z, thus an electron, of wave (/$+) \quad i$ mcv (Y, X, Z) adj(Y, X, Z) $=$ (/$+) \quad i$ mcv I(3 x 3), sharing (1/4)M. The ratio 3:1, from the factor 4/3 in ball volume, also showed in Feynman's electromagnetic mass. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00039: Nucleation and Phase Transition in Block Copolymers Ping Tang, Jingyu Shao We combine the selfconsistent field theory (SCFT) and the string method to explore the phase transition pathway and the critical nucleus information of rodcoil block copolymers. It is the first time to predict the size, shape and the energy barrier of the critical nucleus with segment orientation in the orderorder phase transition path of rodcoil block copolymers. We observe significant differences in nucleation transition process between different orientations of $<111>$ cylinders and $(101)$ lamellae. If the overall orientation of the initial cylinders is consistent with the object lamellae, the critical nucleus will have smoother surface and lower energy barrier. In contrast, rod blocks undergo multiple rearrangement orientations, and the nucleation progress is more difficult with higher nucleation energy barrier. This work has important guidance to the nucleation behavior and nucleating agent design in the phase transition process especially for polymer crystallization. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00040: Preheating with Gauge Fields and Nonlinear Gravity Ryn Grutkoski, Tom Giblin Big Bang cosmology is a consequence of Einstein's equations and the cosmological principleand is consistent with many of our observations. However, standard Big Bang cosmology has some inconsistencies with the Universe we observe today, which are solved by a period of inflation. At the same time, the end of inflation is messy, with no unique mathematical model to get to the Universe we observe today. A better understanding of reheating can help us to better understand the particle physics present at those high energies. Here, I'll discuss preheating with multiple gauge fields as a possible model of reheating and the characteristics of such a model, why the effects of local gravity might be important, and how we will have to deal with those effects. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00041: Potentials derived from SU(N) representations of interacting centers John Johnson The reducible decomposition of SU(N) into SU(2) basis groups can be interpreted as □(1/2) N(N1) spacetime bases. Each such basis can support singlepoint physical models including classical electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and general relativity. Constraints on the differential coordinates link the multiple bases. For N≥3, these lead to interaction potentials among the several spacetime centers. SU(3) is used as an example to show how exchange currents, electrical charge with spin and a scalar 1/r can arise. The progress to date is presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00042: Quartic anomalous coupling studies at the LHC using intact protons Christophe Royon We will give the reach on quartic anomalous couplings between photons and W/Z bosons at the LHC using tagged protons in CMS and ATLAS in the PPS and AFP detectors. Detecting intact protons allows to obtain a background free sample for about 300 fb$^{1}$ allowing to increase the usual sensitivity to anomalous coupling by more than two orders of magnitude. We will also describe the possible reach on axionlike particles at high masses. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00043: CBM 2D5G theory Theodore Lach 20 years ago, the CBM model of the nucleus predicted a 5th generation of quarks. The lepton in that 5th generation was predicted to be 27 GeV. I have since refined that estimate to 27.5 GeV. Last year, November 2018 a team of physicists from the CMS collaboration posted on arXiv that a particle of mass 28 GeV had been found in the CERN data at a threshold of 4.9 sigma local significance and that particle decayed into two muons. This recent observation has put the standard model under some strain to explain whether this observation is real. The CBM of the nucleus was started 30 years ago (1989) and first discussed in public in 1996 at Argonne which explained the strong nuclear force as the result of E{\&}M forces of magnetic flux coupling along with electro static attraction. In other words, the helium nucleus was a 2D structure. By the year 2000 the theory was extended to postulate that there were 5 generations of quarks not just 3. The up and dn quark were too heavy to be u and d. The mass of the ``up'' like 2/3 quarks follow a geometric progression the multiplier being 6.60066. The ``dn'' like 1/3 quarks follow a geometric progression with the multiplier being 10.000. The ``electron'' like particles follow a geometric progression where the multiplier is 15.15426 (which means that the slope of this line is ``e'' 2.71828 ). Geometric mean of (6.60066 and 15.15426) $=$ 10. Come to my poster session and I will explain how harmonic intervals and Harmonic triangles of the 2D5G theory go into explaining the radii, masses and mass densities of the sub nuclear particles [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00044: The Search for The W' Boson Through its AllHadronic Decay Merrick Lavinsky, Alexander Khanov In collaboration with the Oklahoma State University ATLAS group, I have been analyzing new kinematic cuts to purify theoretical W’ Boson signal. The W’ is a massive charged gauge boson that is predicted in a plethora of Standard Model Extensions – Little Higgs, KaluzaKlein, Technicolor, and many more. The allhadronic decay channel for the W’ leads to the creation of a regular sized bottomquarkjet (bcandidates) and a large sized topquarkjet (boosted top). The dominant background for W’ is Standard Model multijet production; where a significant fraction of bjets originate from gluon splitting. Such jets have distinct properties that can be used to separate them from singlebjets produced in W’ decays. Based on these properties, I developed a novel method that will help to improve the signaltobackground separation in the W’ search analysis. [Preview Abstract] 
Not Participating 
K01.00045: The CLIC potential for new physics Philipp Roloff The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a mature option for a future electronpositron collider operating at centreofmass energies of up to 3 TeV. CLIC will be built and operated in a staged approach with three centreofmass energy stages currently assumed to be 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV, and 3 TeV. A selection of results from recent studies will be presented showing that CLIC has excellent sensitivity to many BSM physics scenarios. New particles can be discovered in a modelindependent way almost up to the kinematic limit. Compared with hadron colliders, the low background conditions at CLIC provide extended discovery potential, in particular for the production through electroweak and/or Higgs boson interactions. This includes longlived states, for example through the reconstruction of disappearing tracks. In addition to studying new particles directly, BSM models can be probed up to scales far beyond the centreofmass energy of the collider via precision measurements of Standard Model processes. Beam polarisation allows further constraints on the underlying theory in many cases. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00046: Leptogenesis in the Presence of New Forces Ina Flood, Brian Shuve We study the viability of leptogenesis in scenarios where new forces are coupled to the right handed neutrinos (RHNs) responsible for generating the lepton asymmetry. In our study, we focus on the specific mechanism of leptogenesis via neutrino oscillations. This model predicts new, lowmass particles which could in principle be produced in existing experiments, but these new particles may interact so weakly that they are difficult to observe. Recent proposals have suggested that right handed neutrinos have better detection prospects at colliders if they are coupled to other forces beyond those of the Standard Model. We investigate for what parameters these observable models would be compatible with leptogenesis, since the increased coupling which improves detection prospects could violate the outofequilibrium condition needed to generate an asymmetry. We include the effects of RHN scattering in the Boltzmann equations describing the evolution of the lepton asymmetry, and we study the solutions numerically and analytically. Preliminary results show that new forces can lead to a dramatic suppression of the asymmetry, prompting study of models with direct applicability to colliders. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00047: Bag Model QCD Phase Diagram with 2Loop Corrections and Finite Mass Grant Mathews, Mayukh Gangopadhyay, Pocahontas Olson We summarize the derivation of the finite temperature, finite chemical potential thermodynamic potential in the bag model for QCD that includes a finite $s$quark masse in the Feynman diagram contributions for both zeroorder and twoloop corrections to the quark interaction. This is desired for computations of the equation of state in the early universe, supernovae, neutron stars, and heavyion collisions. The 2loop contributions are normally divergent and become even more difficult in the limit of finite quark masses and finite chemical potential. We introduce various means to interpolate between the low and high chemical potential limits and determine the equation of state for the twoloop corrections for arbitrary chemical potential, temperature and quark mass. We compute the QCD phase diagram and show that the twoloop corrections decrease the pressure of the quarkgluon plasma and therefore increase the critical temperature and chemical potential of the phase transition. This makes it less likely that a quarkhadron phase transition occurs in neutron stars or supernovae. We also show that the correction for finite $s$quark mass in the twoloop correction serves to decrease the critical temperature for the quarkhadron phase transition in the early universe. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00048: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS 

K01.00049: Molecular simulation investigation of the miscibility and structure of binary mixtures containing methanol and ethanol mixed with heptane, hexane, and cyclohexane. Abdalla Obeidat Transport properties of methanol and ethanol mixed with heptane, hexane and cyclohexane at 300K have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with the aid of the OPLSAA force field. Calculations were performed at the isothermal and isobaric (NPT) ensemble. Estimation of the diffusion coefficients, velocity autocorrelation functions (VACF), density profile, and radial distribution functions have been predicted for six different mixtures. Self and MaxwellStefan diffusion coefficients, as well as the surface tension of methanol, ethanol, and their hydrocarbons binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the GreenKubo formalism. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a fixed temperature at 1atmosphere and compared to experimental and simulation data from the literature. Our results are helpful to understand the relationship between microscopic structures of fluid and its transport properties in dissolving process between alcohols with hydrocarbons. This work not only provides a reliable simulation method for transport properties of an organic compound, but also provides the prediction data for designing and development of physical processes. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00050: ParaMonte: Plain Powerful Parallel Monte Carlo Library Amir Shahmoradi, Fatemeh Bagheri, Shashank Kumbhare Bayesian probability theory lies at the heart of machine learning, scientific inference, and predictive computing. A major challenge in developing and deploying Bayesian models is often the mathematical and computational complexity of the final objective function of the Bayesian models which is intractable to explore using traditional Monte Carlo techniques. Here we present our efforts in developing a parallel scalable delayedrejection adaptive Monte Carlo algorithm for sampling and integrating the mathematical objective functions of arbitrary shapes and dimensions. The principal design goals of ParaMonte are: 1. full automation of all Monte Carlo simulations, 2. interoperability of the core library with multiple programming languages, 3. highperformance 4. parallelizability and scalability of simulations, 5. virtually zerodependence on external libraries, 6. fullydeterministic reproducibility of simulations, 7. automatic comprehensivereporting and postprocessing of the simulation results. We discuss how these design goals can help ParaMonte users readily and efficiently solve a variety of machine learning and scientific inference problems on a wide range of platforms, from Jupyter notebooks on perosnal laptops to supercomputers. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00051: Simulating RealTime Ion Production using a General Particle Tracer (GPT) Custom Element Joshua Yoskowitz, Sebastiaan van der Geer, Joseph Grames, Geoffrey Krafft A new custom element has been developed with the framework of General Particle Tracer (GPT) to simulate ion production and tracking in real time. This C++ custom element was developed to simulate electron impact ionization of residual gas molecules in a particle accelerator; however, it is readily extensible to other applications. The custom element uses MonteCarlo routines to determine both the ion production rate and the secondary electron kinetic energy based on userdefined gas densities and theoretical values for the ionization cross section and the secondary electron differential cross section. It then uses relativistic kinematics to track the secondary electron, the scattered electron, and the newly formed ion after ionization. The ion production rate and the secondary electron energy distribution determined by the custom element have been benchmarked against theoretical calculations. The ionization custom element will be described in detail and its application in GPT simulations to determine the effects of ion production and ion trapping in dc high voltage photoguns and beam lines at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00052: monte carlo simulation of the positronium annihilation detector for kapae using geant4. HyeoungWoo Park, hanwook bae, Jin Jegal, Sedong Park, Dongwoo Jeong, Hongjoo Kim The KNU Advanced Positronium Annihilation Experiment (KAPAE) utilizes a precision detector for new physical phenomena research. Positronium has the unique system of electron (particle) and positron (antiparticle), we can study physical process which are forbidden by standard model. In standard model, positronium decay possesses by either singlet spin state (parapositronium: pPs) or triplet spin state (orthopositronium: oPs). In contrast to the pair annihilation of pPs, oPs annihilation decay to 3 gamma's and decay time is 142 ns. Therefore, we designed a novel compact precision detector for oPs annihilation. To understand detector performance such as gamma detection efficiency, background rejection capability and detector optimization it is necessary to use Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, we used the Monte Carlo simulation toolkits Geant4 to simulate performance of the detector. The 3D model that use the real dimension of the detector was used for the simulation as well as Na22 radioactive decay, oPS and pPS decay model is included in the simulation. We will present the simulation results such as an example of event display, trigger performance, decay time, gammaray energy distribution and efficiency estimation and they will be compared with data. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00053: Hamiltonian Formulation of Hydrodynamics for Numerical Relativity John Ryan WesternacherSchneider We present progress towards validation and implementation of a Hamiltonian formulation of hydrodynamics for numerical relativity. This formulation can be used to enforce the conservation of circulation in barotropic flows using the method of constraint damping. For irrotational flows, this formulation is genuinely fluxconservative and wellbalanced. We hope this formulation will be useful in numerical simulations for generating binary neutron star inspiral waveforms with the accuracy required for thirdgeneration gravitational wave detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00054: GRAVITATION 

K01.00055: $d=4$ as the critical dimensionality of asymptotically safe interactions Marc Schiffer, Astrid Eichhorn We explore the question why our universe is four dimensional from an asymptotically safe vantage point. We find hints that asymptotically safe quantum fluctuations of gravity can only solve the $U(1)$ Landaupole problem in the Standard Model in four dimensions. This could single out the observed dimensionality of the universe as the critical dimensionality of asymptotically safe interactions. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00056: Force, curvature, or mass: disambiguating causes of uniform gravity Yuan Shi In addition to Newtonian forces and spacetime curvature, gradients of the Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV), which can be induced by the presence of matter, also lead to particle acceleration and photon redshift. Here, I compare distinct effects of force, curvature, and Higgs VEV gradient that cause uniform acceleration. In particular, I show that a spurious stressenergy tensor is required if the acceleration is in fact due to the Higgs VEV gradient but is falsely attributed to spacetime curvature. On cosmological scales, the spurious density coincides with the observed dark energy density and may contribute to the Hubble tension; on galactic scales, the inferred dark matter density falls within expectation and may explain the lopsidedness of galaxy spectrographs; and on the Earth scale, the spurious density is minuscule. The experimental precision required to disambiguate causes of the Earth's gravity is estimated. Laboratory tests are challenging but possible. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00057: Time Dilation Effects in Kaluza's Classical Fifth Dimension L.L. Williams Kaluza (1921) first showed that the laws of general relativity and electromagnetism could be obtained from general relativity in 5 dimensions. He originally viewed the fifth dimension as macroscopic, like the 3 spatial dimensions. To account for the absence of a visible fifth dimension, Klein (1926) proposed that the fifth dimension is compact and microscopic. No principle forces a compact dimension, however, and the absence of variation of fields along the fifth coordinate still leads to nontrivial constraints on particle motion. We discuss a test of the original classical, macroscopic interpretation of the fifth dimension through time dilation effects. We discuss how this result relates to the ReissnerNordstrom metric and to the ADM mass. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00058: Compact Structures in Nonlinear Gravity Allegra Fass, Tom Giblin The Kenyon College Cosmology Lab uses a numerical tool called GABE that evolves the universe on cosmological scales, on a cartesian grid. However, nonlinear processes in the early universe lead to the formation of compact structures, and a new tool is needed to study these structures in detail. To study said compact objects, it is more useful to reframe the problem in terms of spherical polar coordinates. I will introduce our new computational tool, specifically designed to study compact objects, and give examples of how it can be used to understand some of the biggest problems in high energy physics. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00059: The Implications of Quantum Research on Alzheimer's Shantilal Goradia If you pick up some powder with a needle point and pierce (deposit) it inside the cell phone, the cell phone memory will be affected. The brain is like a complex cell phone disturbed by age related deposits of Amyloid Plaques and tau tangles. Journal Nature's article referred in [1] shows the horizon on the dilemma of Schrodinger's cat. The invisible life switch for the cat must lie outside the box forcing us to look at the cat, the visible counterpart! Why are the implications of our quantum gravity so weird? We cannot investigate primordial soup. Our research [2], closest to the vivid description of the quantum halo in [3], we oblige, spread information, claimed in [1] Goradia SG (2019) The Quantum Theory of Entanglement and Alzheimer's. J Alzheimers Neurodegener Dis 5: 023. [2] Goradia SG Newtonian Gravity in Natural Units. J Physical Science and Applications 2: 265268. [3] Giddings SB, Escape from a Black Hole, Scientific American 12/2019. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00060: Approaching Relativistic Quantum Theory via Probability Conservation Maik Reddiger, Bill Poirier The mathematical intractabilities of relativistic quantum theory are seldom traced back to outstanding conceptual problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics. This is surprising, since conceptual problems indicate a lack of proper understanding, thus impeding attempts to give a theory a firm mathematical foundation. Indeed, several scholars have raised doubts whether one of the primary objects of quantum mechanics, the wave function, deserves its privileged status, trying instead to formulate the theory in terms of a probability density function and a velocity vector field. Taking probability conservation as a fundamental postulate, these two quantities will satisfy the continuity equation. Their time evolution is then determined by other dynamical equations and constraints. This perspective on relativistic quantum theory motivates an indepth study of the general relativistic continuity equation, granting insights into aspects of a rigorous quantum theory on curved spacetimes  even before introducing further dynamical equations and quantities. This poster shows some of those results for the 1body theory. Our work is part of the ongoing greater discussion pertaining to whether one can reconcile quantum phenomena with the axioms of Kolmogorovian probability theory. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00061: Singularity of the CGHS model: resolving it and attempts to go beyond Fethi M Ramazanoglu, Semih Tuna The CallanGiddingsHarveyStrominger (CGHS) model is a 1+1 dimensional model of gravity whose qualitative features make the investigation of Hawking radiation and information loss possible at a deeper level than a fixed background calculation. Past work resolved the behavior of the asymptotic future null infinity at the semiclassical level up to the last ray, i.e. the first occurrence of the singularity. This revealed surprising universal behavior of the black hole solutions, and indicated a resolution of the information loss problem at the semiclassical level. However, a complete understanding of black hole evaporation and information loss requires the knowledge of spacetime beyond the singularity, which might be possible thanks to the weakened nature of the CGHS singularity after leading quantum corrections. In this talk, we will first present ongoing numerical work to resolve the whole singularity of the CGHS model, not just the vicinity of the last ray. We will then discuss how to continue the numerical evolution beyond the singularity, and use these solutions to understand information loss or lack thereof. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00062: Reducing Latency in LIGO Data Calibration Ezra Moguel My research for the The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) Collaboration takes place within the Calibration group, and is trying to minimize the delay associated with making the primary data product in order to bring us closer to the stage of instantaneous availability of LIGO data.~ The present delay associated with the calibration of LIGO data is about 5 seconds and our goal is to bring this down to less than 1 second, which I attempted to do through asymmetrical windowing\textbf{.~ A reduction in latency through asymmetric filtering will allow us to do electromagnetic follow up on neutron star and black hole mergers quicker and more thoroughly.} [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00063: Telescope Testing for the LISA Mission Ada Uminska, Soham Kulkarni, Joseph Gleason, Harold Hollis, Jose Sanjuan, Paul Fulda, Guido Mueller The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first spacebased gravitational wave observatory. LISA will look for the subHz gravitational waves created by massive black hole mergers, compact galactic binaries and many other expected and unexpected sources. Those waves will be measured as differential changes in the distance between spacecraft, separated by 2.5 Gm. These length changes will be sensed by laser interferometry. Each interferometer arm will contain two 30 cm, transmit/receive telescopes. The telescopes, as being a part of the interferometer, have to meet unusual requirements such as pm/$\surd $Hz length stability and subppm back scatter of the transmit laser power. Our goal is to develop the ground testing equipment and utilize it to test LISA telescope. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00064: USGS Seismometer Picket Fence for Early Earthquake Warning in Advanced LIGO Anne Baer, Grace Johns, Brian Lantz, Ryan Fisher The Advanced LIGO instruments are sensitive to ground vibrations caused by earthquakes across the globe, and large enough vibrations can cause the loss of the optical cavity lock for the interferometers. The Hanford and Livingston interferometers have recently added an operating mode to maintain lock despite large ground motion, but this mode works best when engaged before the vibrations begin. This presentation will describe a current project to use USGS seismometer data to provide a lowlatency warning system for the Hanford site to enable the prompt activation of the "earthquake mode". The data will be continuously gathered from seismometer stations 200400 km from the Hanford and Livingston sites, with the goal of providing sufficient warning of incoming surface waves. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00065: A New Template Bank for LIGO's PyGRB Medium Latency Searches Michael Patel In 2017, LIGO and Virgo observed a gravitational wave that was spatially and temporally coincident with a short burst of gamma radiation. Since this first coincident detection, much work has been done in using gammaray bursts to trigger searches for gravitational waves within the LIGO/Virgo data. These searches rely on a process of matched filtering, wherein signals are matched to template waveforms. The goal of this research is finding a more optimal set of templates for rapid followup searches; one that minimizes the analysis time while sacrificing a minimal amount of detection sensitivity. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00066: “Estimating the Braking Index for Isolated Asymmetrically Rotating Young Neutron Stars Using Machine Learning” Teresita Ramirez Since the first gravitational wave detection on September 15th, 2015, both the Laser Interferometer Gravitationalwave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors have seen 11 confirmed gravitationalwave signals, and their third observing run is ongoing. So far, all of the confirmed gravitationalwave signals came from merging compact objects (black holes and neutron stars). Another class of gravitational waves that LIGO and Virgo might observe is long duration transient signals emitted from isolated, young, asymmetrically rotating neutron stars. The duration of these transients can be anywhere between hours to days, and because of this it can be very computationally expensive to recover these signals and to infer properties of their sources (such as the braking index, which characterizes how a neutron star spins down). One promising approach for reducing the computational cost of these searches is machine learning using neural networks. In this poster, I explore different ways in which a neural network, still under development by researchers in Rome (at Universita` degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”), predicts the variation in braking index and the value of the fixed braking index of simulated signals injected into white noise. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00067: GW190425: A Compact binary coalescence with an exceptional total mass ~3.4 Msun Surabhi Sachdev On 2019 April 25, the LIGO Livingston detector observed a highly significant compact binary coalescence with signaltonoise ratio 12.9. The component masses were inferred to be between 1.1 and 2.5 solar masses, indicating a likely binary neutron star origin. However, both the total mass and chirp mass are significantly (5 sigma) larger than those of any previously known binary neutron star system. In this talk, I will present the detection of this event, its source properties, and possible origins of the system based on its inconsistency with the known Galactic binary neutron star population. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00068: Gravitational Waves from a Black Hole Traversing a Lorentzian Wormhole William Gabella, James Dent, Kelly HolleyBockelmann, Thomas Kephart We calculate the gravitational radiation from a black hole moving back and forth through a traversable, Lorentzian wormhole. The wormhole considered connects two regions of spacetime, either in the same universe or different ones, and the throat is held open by socalled exotic matter. The black hole orbiting the wormhole eventually loses energy through gravitational radiation and settles down onto the wormhole throat. We discuss several types of orbits that the black hole may take while traversing from one universe to the one on the other side. We propose looking at LIGO data for possible generic signatures of the gravitational wave emission, like the reverse frequency chirp as a black hole comes out of the wormhole into our universe, only to reach a maximum in its orbit and spiral back into the wormhole. Such a search can put limits on the number of wormholes in the volume of space observable by LIGO. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00069: GravitationalWave Cosmology with the Next Generation of GroundBased GravitationalWave Detectors  A Trade Study Arnab Dhani, Ssohrab Borhanian, Anuradha Gupta, B Sathyaprakash The third generation of gravitationalwave detectors are expected to come up in the latter half 2030s. The exact specifications of these detectors have not been decided yet and the science case for them is being developed. It is imperative, therefore, that we understand the science that can be done with different detectors and detector networks. One of the major areas of focus for these detectors is the precise estimation of cosmological parameters. To this effect, we carry out a Fisher matrix study to estimate the errors in the measurement of the dark energy equation of state parameter, and dark matter and dark energy density parameters for different detectors and detector networks. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00070: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN Abstract Withdrawn [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00071: 3+1 Formalism in EinsteinScalarGaussBonnet Gravity Felix Julie I will present the ArnowittDeserMisner (ADM) lagrangian and hamiltonian of EinsteinscalarGaussBonnet (EsGB) theories, as well as the resulting 3+1 field equations. The ADM hamiltonian being multivalued, the 3+1 field equations allow for multiple branches of evolution for a given initial data set, and can hence break down in situations I will discuss. This work could be used to generate numerical relativity waveforms associated to the coalescence of binary black holes in EsGB gravity. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00072: A PostNewtonian Inspired Ringdown Model Ssohrab Borhanian, Arnab Dhani, K.G. Arun, Bangalore Sathyaprakash The LIGO and Virgo detectors have observed about 40 gravitational wave events, most of them emitted from binary black holes. The causes for this abundance are twofold: not only are these binaries the most luminous sources, but also the simplest to model and thus look for. This simplicity is rooted in the rather straightforward description of a single black hole within general relativity, but it does not extend to the connection of the inspiral and ringdown regimes which is currently still done phenomenologically. In this study we present a pure ringdown model that uses the four dominant spherical harmonic modes with postNewtonian inspired amplitudes that depend on the mass ratio and spins of the two progenitor black holes. Thus, it bridges the gap between the two regimes, by measuring inspiral, twobody quantities during the ringdown, onebody phase of the evolution of the binary. This has two interesting applications for binary black hole observations: Firstly, it can be used for ringdownonly signals and still obtain progenitor information. Secondly, it allows a separate measurement of these variables with an independent model to check the consistency of the underlying theory, thus yielding a test of general relativity. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00073: Compact binary coalescences: The subtle issue of angular momentum Neev Khera, Abhay Ashtekar, Tommaso De Lorenzo In presence of gravitational radiation, the notion of angular momentum of an isolated system acquires an infinite dimensional supertranslation ambiguity. This fact has been emphasized in the mathematical general relativity literature over several decades. We analyze the issue in the restricted context of compact binary coalescence (CBC) where the initial total angular momentum of the binary and the final black hole spin generically refer to \emph{distinct} rotation subgroups of the BondiMetznerSachs group, related by \emph{supertranslations}. We show that this ambiguity can be quantified using gravitational memory and the `black hole kick'. This goal of this talk is to show that, although the ambiguity is conceptually important, under assumptions normally made in the CBC literature, it can be ignored in practice for the current and foreseeable gravitational wave detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00074: A Spheroidal Harmonic Picture for GWs from Astrophysical Sources II: Binary Black Holes Lionel London, Scott Hughes Gravitational wave signal modeling is significantly influenced by the spin weighted spherical harmonic multipole formalism; however, spin weighted spherical harmonics are only the angular “modes” for systems with zero angular momentum. In this talk we build upon recent results in black hole perturbation theory which illustrate that, when spacetime angular momentum is accounted for, the resulting spheroidal harmonics display biorthogonality, and thereby allow for a novel spectral decomposition of gravitational radiation into spheroidal harmonic multipole moments. We discuss prospects for this new multipolar perspective in the context of signal modeling for extreme and comparable massratio binary black hole coalescences. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00075: Selfgravitating tori rotating around black holes in the Keplerian motion Michal Pirog, Wojciech Kulczycki, Patryk Mach, Edward Malec, Andrzej Odrzywolek I will discuss the model composed of a spinning black hole and a massive selfgravitating torus/disk rotating in the Keplerian motion. Such ''blackholetorus'' systems are common across the Universethey are present in the galactic centres and also they are considered as quasistationary configurations arose in the merger of compact binaries consisting of pairs of black holes or neutron stars. Such model is not available for analytical methods because of their high mathematical complexity. I am going to present the result of the numerical calculation. Mathematically it is numerical approach to the stationary, free boundary, elliptic, integroalgebraic EinsteinEuler system. Physically we investigated the nature of the ''Keplerian rotation'' which is completely different in the Newtonian theory and in the general relativity. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00076: New exact solutions of Einstein's equations that are curved in 4D but flat in 5D. Jonathan Perry, James Overduin To discriminate experimentally between 4D general relativity and extensions to higher dimensions, it is critical to identify solutions of the 5D field equations with acceptable physical properties in 4D. Campbell's theorem guarantees that curved 4D metrics can always be embedded in 5D ones that are flat. Extending previous work, we present four new metrics of this kind. Two are cosmological in form but wavelike in 3D space, with a wavelength that is related to the cosmological constant. The other two are spherically symmetric in 3D space and resemble extensions of the standard 4D Schwarzschild solution. We discuss the properties of all four metrics and the prospects for observational and experimental tests based on them. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00077: Redshifts and locally measured velocities in spacetimes with spherical symmetry Tehani Finch, Griffen Adams, Parker Nguyen A number of spherically symmetric spacetimes enjoy enough symmetry to constitute exact explicit solutions of General Relativity. Thus many facets of these geometries have been able to be explored analytically, giving useful insight about various planetary and astrophysical systems. However, certain quantities, including locally measured velocity of a freelyfalling object and redshift of signals received from a great distance, have mostly been treated in the basic case of a pure Schwarzschild geometry. In this work, we expand these calculations to other spherically symmetric spacetimes, with particular focus on the Schwarzschildde Sitter solution. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00078: Disk Accretion onto Precessing Binary Black Holes: Simulations in Full GR Jane Bright, Vasileios Paschalidis We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity of disk accretion onto equal mass, precessing binary black holes. The precession leads to misalignment between the orbital angular momentum of the binary and that of the disk, causing the black holes to plunge through the initial orbital plane of the disk twice per orbit. We discuss the implications of precession on the properties of the system, such as periodicities in the accretion rate and electromagnetic output, the emergence of jet outflows, and effects on the disk postmerger. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00079: Datadriven modeling of peak luminosity of black hole mergers Afura Taylor, Vijay Varma During the final moments of LIGO's first detection, more power was radiated than the power radiated in light from all the stars and galaxies in the Universe combined! This remarkable claim is based on models that predict the luminosity of a black hole merger. Current models for the peak luminosity follow a phenomenological approach, which involves making some assumptions based on perturbation theory and intuition and then calibrating free parameters to numerical relativity simulations. In this work, we take a more powerful approach and train our model directly against numerical relativity simulations, without any underlying phenomenological assumptions. We develop a purely datadriven model for the peak luminosity using Gaussian Process Regression and show that our model outperforms existing models by at least an order of magnitude. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00080: Elastic Body Motion in General Relativity Nishita Jadoo, J. David Brown We numerically model an isotropic elastic body with free surface boundary conditions and negligible selfforce moving in a background Schwarzschild space time. The elastic body is deformed as it falls into the black hole. We add spin to the elastic body to observe the deviation of its motion from a geodesic path and compare to the predictions of the MathissonPapapetrouDixon (MPD) equations. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00081: Testing the HyperbolicAlgebraic Initial Data for Static and Boosted Black Holes Maria Babiuc Hamilton, Jeffrey Winicour The LIGO/Virgo collaboration, now in the third observation run, reports gravitational waves (GW) at a rate of one detection every few days. Binary black holes are primary sources of GW, and their dynamics is described by the Einstein Equations of general relativity. This problem is unsolved analytically and is numerically challenging. Although when given correct initial data the equations yield the expected solution, they are sensitive to numerical errors and could lead to wrong spacetimes. Standard techniques for constructing initial data use elliptic equations that require inner boundary conditions and are prone to nonphysical radiation. Based on a method proposed by I. Racz, we developed recently AHyperSolID, a code that calculates AlgebraicHyperbolic Solutions for Initial Data describing black hole spacetimes in stereographic coordinates on a logarithmic grid. With this code, we reported 4th order convergence for the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints corresponding to the Schwarzschild black hole metric. Here we present new results obtained by testing the code with the boosted Schwarzschild black hole metric for velocities near the speed of light. We then use the generated initial data to evolve a static and a boosted black hole, and analyze the initial radiation content. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00082: GENERAL POSTERS 

K01.00083: Theoretical modelling of stock price dynamics in stock markets using a phynance approach. Leonard Mushunje In this paper we present time to time price dynamics associated with stock assets within stock markets. Our conjecture was that, stock prices are stochastic and time variant as such they do attain and posses different values from time to time. We then centrally aimed to model this old way phenomenon of stock price dynamics using a distinct model from the physics field so as to substantially expose the core idea of phynance on an open academic space. We used the twoforms of Schr\"{o}dinger wave Equation (SWE) to fully model our core study. We derived the time part and space (market) value functions for stock assets from the SWE. Meaning that, we managed to derive the time function measuring the time intervals taken by stock assets in the market space and the market value function which gives out the value of stocks without any time factor. Our results suggested that, stock price dynamics can well be modelled and presented using both time independent Schr\"{o}dinger equation (TISE) and time dependent Schr\"{o}dinger equation (TDSE)with traceable stock price and time changes. This supported our conjecture and our model proposition as stock prices are traditionally known to be stochastic in nature and normally they are nonstationary. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00084: Subaqueous modelling of open sand mining pit to determine its environmental effects to surrounding infrastructures. Edmund Atakpo, May Rukevwe Imonikosaye, Jude Omoriwhovo, Godfrey Akpojotor The sand deposits which are important industrial and local raw material with a wide application are currently mined in many parts of the world through large, unregulated and haphazardly located excavation sites. In this study, we have identify the hazardous effects of excavation sites on their surrounding infrastructures such as roads and buildings. Depth meters and the Global Positioning System (GPS) were used to determine the subaqueous hydrography of the water filled borrow pit and ascertain the depth, shape and side slopes of the dredged area from where sand is being scooped. Geoelectric sounding was also conducted to study the subsurface integrity around the excavation site. The results were analysed using resistivity inversion software and Surface Terrain modeling software established the geoelectric/geological layers generally within the area. The 3D model showed that the depths of the pit from which material is being scooped in the dredging operation ranges from 12.5m to 30 m. The environmental effects of this dredging operation to the surrounding infrastructures are discussed. We then delineate the criteria for locating excavation sites with regards to infrastructures. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00085: The attraction between males and females is magnetic in origin and so is the act of conception Maria Kuman Everything in the material world is a material body and spinning torus shaped nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF). It comes from the way the material world was created. The article explains the origin of the spinning in opposite direction male and female NEMF and uses nonlinear physics to illustrate that the spinning in opposite direction nonlinear electromagnetic fields (NEMFs) of males and females induce magnetic fields with opposite polarity. If so, males attract females as two magnets with opposite polarity would do or in other words the attraction between males and females is magnetic in origin. The observed dynamics of cell fertilization shows that as soon as the male DNA enters the female cell, it is attracted to the female DNA, as two magnets with opposite polarity would be. They approach each other, spin around each other and then merge together. This means that the mother’s and father’s DNAs spin in opposite direction and induce magnetic fields with opposite polarity, which illustartes that the conception of each embryo is magnetic in origin, as well.\\ \\Key words: attraction malesfemales; magnetic attraction malesfemales; magnetic attraction between the sexes; conception; magnetic origin of conception. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00086: Dynamics of the Higgs Boson as the Inflaton Field Patrick Adams, Daniel Grin We examined the minimally and nonminimally coupled models of Higgs Inflation, in hopes to constrain the behavior of both physical models. Past work has ruled out minimally coupled Higgs inflation due to inconsistent predictions for the Higgs selfinteraction constraint. Though, it remains unknown if Higgs inflation is the true engine of inflation. We derived and solved for the scalar field equations of motion for both models on both a linear and renormalized time scale. This allowed us to model the scalar field dynamics for both models in terms of the amount of efolding during inflation. Our numerical analysis tested how varying initial conditions of the scalar field yield different values of efolding at which inflation ends. We showed that a theory that is similar to the Old Higgs model is not alone constrained by the cosmological requirement that N $\ge $ 50. Additionally, we solved for the dynamics of the nonminimally coupled Higgs Inflation model. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00087: Effect of Dead Silicon Channels On The HGCAL Energy Resolution Sara Nabili The High Luminosity LHC (HLLHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance, especially for forward calorimetry. As part of its HLLHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. The upgrade includes both electromagnetic and hadronic components. The electromagnetic portion and the front part of the hadronic section use silicon sensors, while the back of the hadronic part uses a mixture of silicon sensors (in the highest radiation regions at high pseudorapidity) and scintillator as its active components. In this talk, the effect of dead channels on the calorimeter resolution for photons and for pions is presented. The effect of algorithms to mitigate the impact is also presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00088: POST DEADLINE POSTERS II 

K01.00089: Measuring the Dark Current of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Joseph Minnella, Bing Zhou The Muon Spectrometer is the outermost detector of the ATLAS experiment which consists of many chambers filled with Muon Drift Tubes (MDT) that are used to collect data from the Muons created at the LHC. Each of the MDTs is filled with an ionizable gas and a wire with a high voltage applied across it so that when a Muon passes through an MDT, it ionizes the gas and sends an avalanche of electrons to drift to the wire and provides us with an event signal. A collection of multiple tubes allows us to recreate the path of the Muon through the chamber. Based on this set up, in order to get the most accurate data from the MDTs, one should be aware of how much dark current is present in the MDTs. Dark current is essentially a materialintrinsic background current created even when the electronics are powered off. As one would imagine, these currents are very small  typically on the order of nanoamps. Therefore, in order to detect the dark current, the ATLAS group at the University of Michigan developed a circuit board using current amplification to measure this small current. The focus of this presentation will be how the electronic boards were developed, constructed and installed on the MDT test stand at the University of Michigan. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00090: Proposed Study of Tagged Neutrons in Liquid Scintillator Brinden Carlson, Daniel Kaplan Neutrino and antineutrino events in scintillator detectors (as in the NOvA experiment at Fermilab) are classified based on the behavior of charged particles traversing the scintillator. Antineutrino events tend to produce neutrons in the detector, but neutron interactions in NOvA detectors are currently difficult to reconstruct. Introducing a method to record data on real neutron events in scintillator would thus be beneficial to NOvA. Currently, the NOvA collaboration is commissioning a testbeam calibration of a NOvA detector. This calibration is accomplished by magnetically deflecting charged particles into the detector; the deflection angle is used to calculate the particle's momentum. However, this technique will not work for neutrons, since they have no charge. ``Tagging'' the neutron is a viable alternative in order to determine its momentum before it interacts in the detector: If a neutron is produced in a target together with charged particles, the charged particles' momenta can be measured, and conservation of momentum used to determine the neutron momentum vector. This technique has been studied in simulation and found to be reliable for neutron kinetic energy above $\approx $ 100 MeV. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00091: ECAL trigger performance in Run 2 and improvements for Run 3 Pampa Ghose The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution crystal calorimeter operating at the CERN LHC. It is responsible for the identification and precise reconstruction of electrons and photons in CMS, which were crucial in the discovery and subsequent characterization of the Higgs boson. It also contributes to the reconstruction of tau leptons, jets, and calorimeter energy sums, which are are vital components of many CMS physics analyses. The ECAL trigger system employs fast digital signal processing algorithms to precisely measure the energy and timing information of ECAL energy deposits recorded during LHC collisions. These trigger primitives are transmitted to the Level1 trigger system at the LHC collision rate of 40 MHz. These energy deposits are then combined with information from other CMS subdetectors to determine whether the event should trigger the readout of the data from CMS to permanent storage. This presentation will summarize the ECAL trigger performance achieved during LHC Run 2 (20152018). More frequent updates of the ECAL trigger primitives have been required relative to LHC Run 1 (20092012), due to the higher luminosities experienced in Run 2, and these will also be described. These updates are needed to account for radiationinduced changes in crystal and photodetector response and to maintain stable trigger rates and efficiencies up to \textbar eta\textbar $=$3.0. Further improvements in the energy and time reconstruction of the CMS ECAL trigger primitives are being explored for LHC Run 3 (202123). These are particularly focused on improving the performance at the highest instantaneous luminosities, and in the most forward regions of the calorimeter (\textbar eta\textbar \textgreater 2.5), where the effects of detector aging will be the greatest. The main features of these improvements will be described, and preliminary estimates of the expected performance gains will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00092: ECAL trigger performance in Run 2 and improvements for Run 3 Pampa Ghose The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution crystal calorimeter operating at the CERN LHC. It is responsible for the identification and precise reconstruction of electrons and photons in CMS, which were crucial in the discovery and subsequent characterization of the Higgs boson. It also contributes to the reconstruction of tau leptons, jets, and calorimeter energy sums, which are vital components of many CMS physics analyses. \newline \newline The ECAL trigger system employs fast digital signal processing algorithms to precisely measure the energy and timing information of ECAL energy deposits recorded during LHC collisions. These trigger primitives are transmitted to the Level1 trigger system at the LHC collision rate of 40 MHz. These energy deposits are then combined with information from other CMS subdetectors to determine whether the event should trigger the readout of the data from CMS to permanent storage. \newline \newline This presentation will summarize the ECAL trigger performance achieved during LHC Run 2 (20152018). More frequent updates of the ECAL trigger primitives have been required relative to LHC Run 1 (20092012), due to the higher luminosities experienced in Run 2, and these will also be described. These updates are needed to account for radiationinduced changes in crystal and photodetector response and to maintain stable trigger rates and efficiencies up to \textbar eta\textbar $=$3.0. \newline [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00093: Instantaneous Colorimetric Visual Detection of Toxic Lead (II) ions Md Ashiqur Rahman Laskar, Md Tawabur Rahman, Abdullah Al Maruf, Qiquan Qiao Lead (II) ion (Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}})$ is one of the poisonous heavy metal ions which is detrimental to the human body and the surrounding environment. In this work, a simple and faster colorimetric sensor has been reported to detect the trace amount of toxic Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions. Here, we have utilized Methylammonium Iodide (MAI), dissolved in dimethylformamide solvent, as a sensing material to visually detect toxic Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions instantaneously. When the Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions even at a low level are added to a colorless MAI solution, immediately it forms MAPbI$_{\mathrm{3}}$ perovskite precursor solution which has exceptional light absorption property. This light absorption property critically depends on the concentration of added Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ followed by perovskite precursor formation. Because this phenomenon affects the bandgap of the formed MAPbI$_{\mathrm{3}}$ solution. Interestingly, MAI solution with Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions exhibits a transparent yellow color. However, the color saturation varies from strong to light appearance according to the concentration of added Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions. MAI solution generates this unique color characteristic selectively only with Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions in the ambient environment. Depending on this distinguishable color saturation variation, it is possible to detect the presence and level of Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ ions in a liquid sample within a few seconds through the naked eye. Our successful lowest detection level for Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ was 10 micromolar. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00094: Silver Nanowires Functionalized Graphene Oxide Based Biosensor for Trace level Detection of Mercury Ions Md Tawabur Rahman, Md Ashiqur Rahman Laskar, Abdullah Al Maruf, Qiquan Qiao This work presents a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of trace amount of mercury (Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}})$ in water. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon electrode was used for the determination of Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ utilizing anodic stripping voltammetry. An excellent sensitivity of 36.3 microampere per micromolar with linear detection range of 0.6  1.4 micromolar toward Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ were obtained. The synergistic effect of GO and AgNW was utilized to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor. The limit of detection was found to be 0.7989 nanomolar, which is well below the safety limit of Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ in drinking water defined by World Health Organization. In addition, the sensor exhibited good selectivity for Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ compared to other heavy metal ions including Pb$^{\mathrm{2+}}$, Cd$^{\mathrm{2+}}$, Cu$^{\mathrm{2+}}$, Cr$^{\mathrm{3+}}$, Ag$^{\mathrm{+}}$, etc. The superior performance of the developed sensor can be attributed to the large surface area of GO and and conductivity of AgNWs. Further, the developed sensor demonstrated high accuracy for the dectection of Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ in tap water, recommending the applicability for onsite monitoring of Hg$^{\mathrm{2+}}$ in water. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00095: On The GeneralizedGeometry/ExtraordinaryMagnetoresistance Duality Shanshan Rodriguez, Leo Rodriguez, Sathwik Bharadwaj, L. R. RamMohan We outline the duality between the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR), observed in semiconductormetal hybrids, and nonsymmetric gravity coupled to a diffusive $U(1)$ gauge field. The corresponding gravity theory may be interpreted as the generalized complex geometry of the semidirect product of the symmetric metric and the antisymmetric KalbRamond field: ($g_{\mu\nu}+\beta_{\mu\nu}$). We construct the four dimensional covariant field theory and compute the resulting equations of motion. The equations encode the most general form of EMR within a well defined variational principle, for specific lower dimensional embedded geometric scenarios. Our formalism also reveals the emergence of additional diffusive pseudo currents for a completely dynamic field theory of EMR. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00096: On the Near Horizon Canonical Quantum Microstates from $AdS_2/CFT_1$ and Conformal Weyl Gravity Leo Rodriguez, Shanshan Rodriguez We compute the full asymptotic symmetry group of black holes belonging to the same equivalence class of solutions within the Conformal Weyl Gravity formalism. We do this within an $AdS_2/CFT_1$ correspondence and by performing a RobinsonWilczek two dimensional reduction, thus enabling the construction of an effective quantum theory of the remaining field content. The resulting energy momentum tensors generate asymptotic Virasoro algebras, to $s$wave, with calculable central extensions. These centers in conjunction with their proper regularized lowest Virasoro eigenmodes yield the BekensteinHawking black hole entropy via the statistical Cardy formula. We also analyze quantum holomorphic fluxes of the dual CFTs in the near horizon, giving rise to finite Hawking temperatures weighted by the central charges of the respective black hole spacetimes. We conclude with a discussion and outlook for future work. [Preview Abstract] 

K01.00097: Antipodal Identification in ReissnerNordstr\"om Spacetime Nathaniel Strauss, Bernard Whiting, Anne Franzen We extend the discussion of the antipodal identification of black holes to the ReissnerNordstr\"om (RN) spacetime. We solve the massless KleinGordon equation in the RN background in terms of scattering coefficients and provide a procedure for constructing a solution for an arbitrary analytic extension of RN. The behavior of the maximally extended solution is highly dependent upon the coefficients of scattering between the inner and outer horizons, so we present the lowfrequency behavior of, and numerical solutions for, these quantities. We find that, for low enough frequency, field amplitudes of solutions with purely positive or negative frequency at each horizon will acquire only a phase after passing both the inner and outer horizons, while at higher frequencies the amplitudes will tend to grow exponentially either to the future or to the past, and decay exponentially in the other direction. Regardless, we can always construct a complete basis of globally antipodal symmetric and antisymmetric solutions for any finite analytic extension of RN. We have characterized this basis in terms of positive and negative frequency solutions so that they could be used to begin constructing the corresponding quantum field theory. [Preview Abstract] 
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