Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2018
Volume 63, Number 4
Saturday–Tuesday, April 14–17, 2018; Columbus, Ohio
Session L01: Poster Session II (14:0017:00)Poster

Hide Abstracts 
Room: Union Ballroom A 

L01.00001: ASTROPHYSICS 

L01.00002: Riding the plasma wave: Interplanetary Travel through Magnetic Reconnection and Flux Transfer Events Jakayla Monique Robinson Magnetic sails are well known is science fiction as spacecraft able to sail throughout the Milky Way on magnetic fields the way a boat sails the sea. We revisit the work of AndrewsZubrin methods of accelerating and decelerating a magsail by questioning if the magsail could travel along magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection is the reconnecting of colliding magnetic field lines from two bodies of mass. The Earth directly experiences magnetic reconnection when the solar wind plasma from the sun hits the magnetosphere, causing auroras, flux transfer events, and possible geomagnetic storms. Flux transfer events are brief magnetic portals that open in Earth's magnetosphere during magnetic reconnection. Through magnetic reconnection and flux transfer events, material and plasma have the ability to travel at accelerated speeds from the sun to Earth. This fact unfolds the question if a magsail could travel interplanetary at speeds matching the velocity of solar wind without any use of propellant. In this study, we explore how likely this theory is based on the types of hightemperature superconductors known today, the speed of plasma during magnetic reconnection, and how the magsail spacecraft could decelerate through flux transfer events once at the destination planet. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00003: A new theory of Dark Matter, that is similar to the Majorana hypothesis Richard Kriske This author has proposed that the reason there is a lack of Antimatter in the Universe, is that Antimatter evaporates, by statistical means, in that it may travel backward in time, as has been previously theorized. The problem with backward traversal in time is that the particle was created now, and that event still has a consequence in the future. It is the type of logic used in "Deducing from a Conclusion". When one deduces in that manner, one simply starts at a conclusion that they want to be true, but is possible, and create a path backward in time to show that it could happen. The reason a person deduces in this nonlogical way is that they want something to be true in the future. Likewise when a particle goes backward in time, because it started now, something becomes true in the future. More concretely when an Antiparticle evaporates, it leaves a "hole" that has many of the same properties as the particle, but the "hole's" information goes into the future. In many ways "holes" are indestructible, since they are like ghosts. Now and then one combines with say an Electron and produces one Gamma Photon, not two. The shows up in the expansion of the Universe. In that way "Holes" are like Majorana particles, in that the particle and antiparticle don't destroy each other. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00004: Assembly, installation, and calibration of an IGY neutron monitor at the University of WisconsinRiver Falls Jacob HansonFlores, James Madsen The sun is a complex dynamic system that is capable of diverse phenomena such as solar storms. Occasionally solar activity is sufficiently intense that there is a detectable fluctuation in the measurable cosmic ray activity on earth. Neutron monitors are used to monitor space weather, in particular solar activity. The scope of this project was to set up a neutron monitor detector at University of Wisconsin River Falls to study changes in cosmic ray flux due to solar storms. Secondary reactions occur when cosmic rays interact with the Earth's atmosphere. A neutron monitor originally designed for observations during the 19571958 International Geophysical Year(IGY) has been shipped from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to UWRF. Installing the detectors involved first studying the operation of the neutron monitor tubes and ensuring that they are functional. Next, the existing digital interfaces for the installed neutron monitors at University of Wisconsin River Falls had to be examined to see if they could be utilized to operate the IGY tubes. The next step was to design and construct a temperaturecontrolled enclosure for the detector. The status of the University of Wisconsin River Falls IGY neutron monitors will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00005: ElectronPositron Cascade in Magnetospheres of Spinning Black Holes Alexander L. Ford, Brett D. Keenan, Mikhail V. Medvedev We quantitatively study the stationary, axisymmetric, forcefree magnetospheres of spinning (Kerr) black holes (BHs) and the conditions needed for relativistic jets to be powered by the BlandfordZnajek mechanism. These jets could be from active galactic nuclei, blazars, quasars, microquasars, radio active galaxies, and other systems that host Kerr BHs. The structure of the magnetosphere determines how the BH energy is extracted, e.g., via BlandfordZnajek mechanism, which converts the BH rotational energy into Poynting flux. The key assumption is the forcefree condition, which requires the presence of plasma with the density being above the GoldreichJulian density. Unlike neutron stars, which in principle can supply electrons from the surface, BHs cannot supply plasma at all. The plasma must be generated {\it in situ} via an electronpositron cascade, presumably in the gap region. Here we study varying conditions that provide a sufficient amount of plasma for the BlandfordZnajek mechanism to work effectively. Observational signatures of the system in the Xray \& $\gamma$ray bands are predicted. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00006: Tracing the Origin of Black Hole Accretion Through Numerical Hydrodynamic Simulations Sandy Spicer, Rachel Somerville, Ena Choi, Ryan Brennan It is now widely accepted that supermassive black holes coevolve with galaxies, and may play an important role in galaxy evolution. However, the origin of the gas that fuels black hole accretion, and the resulting observable radiation, is not well understood or quantified. We use high resolution "zoomin" cosmological numerical hydrodynamic simulations including modeling of black hole accretion and feedback to trace the inflow and outflow of gas within galaxies from the early formation period up to present day. We track gas particles that black holes interact with over time to trace the origin of the gas that feeds supermassive black holes. These gas particles can come from satellite galaxies, cosmological accretion, or be a result of stellar evolution. We aim to track the origin of the gas particles that accrete onto the central black hole as a function of halo mass and cosmic time. Answering these questions will help us understand the connection between galaxy and black hole evolution. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00007: Dwarf Galaxy Populations of Nearby Galaxies and Implications for Dark Matter Alexandra Davis, Anna Nierenberg, Annika Peter, Christopher Kochanek, Christopher Garling, Samson Johnson We present our first results from a deep LBT survey of dwarf satellites of nearby galaxies. We are sensitive to deep within the ultra faint dwarf and ultra diffuse galaxy regime. We present our candidates and for the first time and report the number and distribution of satellites for galaxies outside the local group. We discuss the implications of these new observations on the dark matter halo distribution function and dark matter models. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00008: Precursor Events Involving Plasma Structures Around Collapsing Black Hole Binaries Bruno Coppi, Mikhail V. Medvedev The plasma structures that can exist around black hole binaries can sustain intrinsic plasma collective modes [1] that have characteristic low frequencies related to the particle rotation frequencies around the binary system. As the collapse approaches, with the loss of angular momentum by emission of gravitational waves [2] from the binary system we have suggested [3] that the frequency of the fluctuating component of the gravitational potential can go through that of the intrinsic modes of the surrounding plasma structure and lead to a sharp amplification of them. Then the precursor to the event reported in Ref. [2], tentatively identified by the Agile X$\gamma$ray observatory [4] may be associated with the high energy radiation emission due to the fields produced by excitation of the proposed plasma modes. M. Tavani is thanked for bringing Ref. [4] to our attention while Ref. [3] was being completed.\\ [1] B. Coppi, Plasma Physics Report, 43, 3, 289–297 (2017).\\ [2] B. Abbot, R. Abbot, T. Abbot et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221101 (2017).\\ [3] B. Coppi and M. Medvedev, MITLNS HEP 17/02 June 2016. To be submitted to Physics Letters.\\ [4] F. Verrecchia, M. Tavani, A. Ursi, et al., to be published in Ap.J. Letters. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00009: CALET Searches and Sensitivity to GeVenergy EM Counterpart Emission from Gravitational Wave Events Nicholas Cannady The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a 30 radiation length deep imaging calorimeter launched to the International Space Station in August 2015 composed of a charge detector (CHD), imaging calorimeter (IMC), and total absorption calorimeter (TASC). With a depth of 27 radiation lengths, the lead tungstate TASC provides virtually total containment of electromagnetic showers well into the TeV region. The charge measurement, precise tracking, and hadron rejection provided by the sampling IMC and the CHD also allow CALET to function as a highenergy gammaray observatory sensitive in the energy range 1 GeV  10 TeV. In this paper we describe the analysis methodology for GeVenergy photon events, the resulting sensitivity to gravitational wave/gammaray burst EM counterpart emission, the development of automated and offline searches for such emission, and initial gammaray results from the calorimeter. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00010: Searching for Arbitrary LowEnergy Neutrino Transients with IceCube Robert Cross, Segev BenZvi The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is designed to observe neutrinos above 10 GeV, but it is also sensitive to MeV neutrinos from Core Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe). SNDAQ, an online data acquisition and trigger system used in IceCube to observe CCSN neutrino bursts, is running with $99\%$ uptime. The time windows currently used by the SNDAQ trigger are tuned to predictions of supernova simulations and the observed neutrino signal from SN1987A. However, CCSN models suffer from significant systematic uncertainties. To reduce the sensitivity of the trigger to these uncertainties, and to improve its sensitivity to a much wider range of transients, we have implemented a timedomain search using the Bayesian Blocks algorithm. The algorithm allows the data themselves to determine the timescale of excess counts above background. The Bayesian Blocks window makes the SNDAQ trigger more robust to uncertainties in CCSN neutrino emission models, while enabling general subthreshold transient searches. We describe the implementation and performance of the Bayesian Blocks trigger and discuss improvements in the sensitivity of IceCube to supernovae in the Milky Way and its nearest satellite galaxies. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00011: A MultiWavelength Study of Bubbles to Determine their Impact on the Interstellar Medium Osase Omoruyi Based on our knowledge of the interstellar medium (ISM), we expect the rate of formation of stars to be much faster than what has actually been observed. It is known the turbulence observed in the ISM is slowing the star formation process. However, the turbulence may be driven by shelllike structures (bubbles) powered by young stars found all over the Galaxy. By conducting a multiwavelength study of these bubbles, we aim to study their impact (i.e., energy and momentum injection) on the ISM. To carry out the study, we utilized the catalog of bubbles from the Spitzer Milky Way Project to identify the largest bubbles within range of view of the IGALFA and GRS surveys. We created 3color images of the largest bubbles and identified the shells in HI and 13CO, revealing each bubble's atomic and molecular components. We used these components to obtain each bubble's radial velocity and kinematical distance, so that we may estimate the impact its rate of expansion has on the ISM. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00012: Effect of viscosity on propagation of MHD waves in astrophysical plasma Alemayehu Cherkos We determine the general dispersion relation for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in an astrophysical plasma by considering the effect of viscosity with an anisotropic pressure tensor. Basic MHD equations have been derived and linearized by the method of perturbation to develop the general form of the dispersion relation equation. Our result indicates that an astrophysical plasma with an anisotropic pressure tensor is stable in the presence of viscosity and a strong magnetic field at considerable wavelength. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00013: Pulsar Timing for Undergraduates: Research Meets Outreach Steven Stetzler, Kevin Stovall, Nick Clifford, Megan Kenny, Cole Latvis, Shelby Laychak, Robin Leichtnam, Raymundo Mora, Dirk Pitts, Levi Schult, Jonathan Selby, Ryan Taylor, Morgan Waddy, Ian Walk, Liam Walters, Demetri Workman, Yara Yousef The Pulsar Observers at UVa, consisting of 16 undergraduate students, uses the Long Wavelength Array to observe and construct a timing solution for 10 pulsars over the course of a year. Our work parallels the No Pulsar Left Behind project (Brinkman et al. 2018), which published timing solutions for 12 pulsars that had been discovered 1520 years prior, but had never had timing solutions published. Each of the pulsars we observed has either not had a pulsar timing solution published before, or its timing solution was published longer than 30 years ago. Since many of our members have no prior research experience, we are able to use our group as a platform for outreach among the undergraduate community, providing students with valuable research experience while giving them the opportunity to perform nontrivial scientific activities. We will outline our approach to running a large, undergraduate focused research group, introduce our observation and timing techniques, and provide preliminary timing solutions for the 10 observed pulsars. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00014: Observations of the Guitar Nebula Pulsar with the Green Bank Telescope and the LongWavelength Array Laura Salo, Timothy Dolch, Kevin Stovall, Shami Chatterjee, James Cordes, Paul Demorest, Maura McLaughlin, Daniel Stinebring, Cody Jessup Simultaneous observations of the Guitar Nebula pulsar using two diﬀerent telescopes, the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), provided the opportunity to study the correlation of events at diﬀerent frequencies. We report on single pulse properties in the GBT data. Using data from both telescopes, we find dispersion measure (DM) variations using several methods. We calculate the spatial scales over which interstellar medium density fluctuations occur. The multifrequency observations provide a good test case as the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) pulsar timing array collaboration moves toward ultrawideband receivers. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00015: BowShock Pulsar Wind Nebulae Searches Aided by the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves Christos Giannakopoulos, Timothy Dolch, Shami Chatterjee, James Cordes, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Schuyler Van Dyk, Laura Salo Bowshock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are formed by high velocity neutron stars moving through the interstellar medium (ISM). Shocking the ISM produces Balmer emission. Nine Halpha bowshock PWNe are known, but the discovery space has not been entirely explored, especially for more recently timed pulsars. We searched for new nebulae using images of high velocity neutron stars taken by the Hale 5meter telescope in the Palomar Observatory and the Mayall 4m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We used recent astrometric data from the 11year data release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) to determine the direction and velocity of each of the pulsars that would reveal any Halpha bowshock PWNe. We did not identify new PWNe, but we report upper limits on surface brightness. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00016: Analyzing the Correlation between High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays Michael Kovacevich, Michael Sutherland, James Beatty Neutrinos are nearly massless particles that pervade the universe while cosmic rays are highly energetic charged particles. Since neutrinos are electrically neutral, they can travel straight from their source without deflection; cosmic rays are affected by magnetic fields and this results in their paths being bent. It remains to be answered how highenergy neutrinos (HE$\nu$) and highenergy cosmic rays (HECR) are produced and what sources can accelerate these particles to such high energies. The purpose of this correlation study comes from the idea that some observed HE$\nu$ and HECR may be produced by the same astrophysical sources. Using data from the IceCube experiment, it is possible to create a window around each detected HE$\nu$ and measure how many HECR pass through this window. To calculate the expected number of HECR per window, a model was created that uses Monte Carlo methods to randomize the HECR events. Comparing the number of observed HECR per window to the expected number of HECR per window allows for a correlation value to be calculated. It can then be calculated if this value is statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation values could help to either confirm or deny that HE$\nu$ and HECR tend to originate from nearby astrophysical sources. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00017: A new theory explaining the absence of Antimatter and the reason why Particle Physics is not the TOE Richard Kriske It may be that there is a larger Electromagnetic Theory in which charge evaporates. Positrons, may be electrons moving backward in time, if one believes QED. This backward traversal, may be seen mathematically, as an exponential operator, so it has the quality of a velocity. It is not clear how fast the Positrons are moving backward in time if one does a Taylor's series expansion of the operator as such a velocity is ill defined. As one looks at the Taylor's series it is clear that some of the terms disappear quicker than others and there is a transition particle that may be formed. This author, would like to put forward the idea that this is how a "hole" is formed. The "hole" itself does not generally interact in Semiconductors, but may form a Quasiparticle,known as an exciton and that transition particle may have a longer lifetime. Now and again the "hole" and the electron do interact, making it obvious that the Taylor's expansion has to have an Energy operator in it, as the product is one gamma ray photon instead of two, so the disappearing terms take some of the Energy with them. It may also work in a similar way, when a Blackhole is evaporated into Hawking radiation. This evaporation may provide the vital clue as to how this exponential operator performs its magic trick. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00018: Addressing the Systematics of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument with Fiber Positioner Dithering Tolga Yapici The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a groundbased dark energy experiment which will measure the effect of the dark energy on the expansion of the universe with a widearea galaxy and quasar redshift survey. Among the systematic uncertainties which affect the spectroscopic survey are the source spatial profile, the atmospheric point spread function (PSF), and the telescope PSF, all of which depend on wavelength. Additional instrumental uncertainties include imperfections in the mirror surface and pointing offsets in the spectroscopic fibers. We developed a dithering algorithm to map these effects during the commissioning period of the instrument. We present the algorithm as well as its application with Monte Carlo simulations. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00019: Effects of Primordial magnetic fields during Big bang nucleosynthesis stage Atul Kedia, Nishanth Sasankan, Grant Mathews 

L01.00020: Abstract Withdrawn We present results on comparing dark energy and modified gravity cosmological models to some of the latest observational data sets. We use various combinations of data sets including supernovae type Ia, baryon acoustic oscillations, strong lensing, cosmic chronometers, redshift space distortions, and the Hubble Constant. Since the models have different numbers of parameters, we utilize the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria to assess the goodness of fit of the models. We also compare the Figure of Merit for our parameter pairs. While some modified gravity models are excluded by these data sets, others including dark energy models are competitive to the popular flat$\Lambda$CDM model. 

L01.00021: Dark mediator in four top search at the LHC Abigail Warden, Matthew Buckley Dark matter consists of about 26$\%$ of the known universe and yet its properties cannot be described by the Standard Model. We hypothesize in a new physics model that top quarks can decay to dark matter by an unknown mediator particle. My project seeks to understand this mediator particle by setting limits to the coupling factor, the strength of its interaction to the top quark. Assuming the mediator particle would intermittently decay back to top quarks, this would give results we can detect at the Large Hadron Collider. Therefore, I simulated a completed CMS multilepton search experiment in which four top quarks were produced. After validating my simulated results to CMS$’$s, the new physics model was tested using the same simulated search and further calculations gave an upper limit of 3.42 for the coupling factor. More data with events producing four top quarks would possibly lower this limit and thus indicate stronger theoretical phenomena. [Preview Abstract] 
(Author Not Attending)

L01.00022: Stability of Fuzzy Dark Matter Axion Structures Madelyn Leembruggen, L.C.R. Wijewardhana Axions are elementary particles, which have zero spin and obey Bose statistics, that have been postulated to solve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. Furthermore, string theory suggests existence of ultralight axion (ULA) particles with mass of $m =$\textit{ 10}$^{22}$\textit{ eV}. \quad At low temperatures bosons condense in the same energy state and form BoseEinstein Condensates (BECs), which can become gravitationally bound. It has been proposed that axions may comprise the majority of dark matter. Previous studies have postulated ULAs form condensates the size of a galaxy. We analyze the stability of galacticsized axion BECs under gravitational perturbations, as well as the dynamics of a collapse from dilute configurations to dense ones. Additionally, we consider the possibility that these BECs are nonspherical, and account for the gravitational influence of baryonic matter on the axion condensate. Finally, we estimate the lifetime of a dense BEC, and the rate of potential decay processes of this state. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00023: A Theoretical Study of Quark Fusion Ajit Hira, Jose Pacheco, Ruben Rivera, Makayla Duran, James Mckeough, Tommy Cathey We continue our interest in the study of fundamental particles by presenting our computational results for Quark Fusion. This field of research is likely to attract increasing attention in view of the recent reports on the work of the physicists M. Karliner and J. L. Rosner. They have investigated the possibility of the phenomena of quark fusion reactions, parallel to nuclear fusion, between doubly heavy baryons. Our computational methods are based on similar computational methods used for the study of baryons and mesons which contain only u, d, s and charm quarks. Our computer codes utilize C$++$ and MATLAB languages, and combine the formalisms of Feynman Path Integrals (FPI) and MonteCarlo Theory (CMT). This research is expected to have implications for the development of Quark fusion as an energy source in the future. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00024: A Theoretical Model of the Role of Dark Matter in Nucleosynthesis. Ruben Rivera, Ajit Hira, Jose Pacheco, James Mckeough, Edwardine Fernandez, Tom Abbott The recent reports on the refinements in the experimental methods for detecting gravitational waves, and on the data thus made available, are opening up new vistas in Astrophysics research and in Particle Physics research. This is the main motivation for the research on the role of Dark Matter (DM) in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements, such as gold, lead and others, in the universe presented in this paper. Our study refines the computational methods previously used for the study of nucleosynthesis, and extends the methodology. Our computer codes utilize C$++$ and MATLAB languages, and combine the formalisms of Feynman Path Integrals (FPI), MonteCarlo Theory (CMT) and Energy Group Methods (EGM). One main component of our study is the impact of Dark Matter candidates of mass in the MeV range on the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). Our simulations also attempt to address the possibility of the decaying Dark Matter particles being the source of the positrons which have been proposed to explain the experimentallyobserved 511 keV gamma ray signatures. Future observations using gravitational waves should test the validity of our model and of these results. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00025: BOSSLDG using Blue Waters for LIGO data analysis Roland Haas, Eliu A Huerta, Edgar Fajardo, Daniel S. Katz, Stuart Anderson, Peter Couvares, Josh Willis, Timothy Bouvet, Jeremy Enos, William T. C. Kramer, Hon Wai Leong, David Wheeler The expected increase in sensitivity of the LIGO/Virgo detectors in their third observation run will go hand in hand with increased needs for computer time to extract the maximum possible amount of science from the raw data. We present a novel computational framework that connects Blue Waters, the NSFsupported, leadershipclass supercomputer operated by NCSA, to the LIGO Data Grid via Open Science Grid technology. To enable this computational infrastructure, we configured, for the first time, a LIGO Data Grid Tier1 Center that can submit heterogeneous LIGO workflows using Open Science Grid facilities. In order to enable a seamless connection between the LIGO Data Grid and Blue Waters via Open Science Grid, we utilize Shifter to containerize LIGO’s workflow software. This new framework has been used in the last several weeks of LIGO’s second discovery campaign to run the most computationally demanding gravitational wave search workflows on Blue Waters, and accelerate discovery in the emergent field of gravitational wave astrophysics. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00026: Exploring ExtraDimensions Through Gravitational Waves Emma Lockyer Two years ago, the LIGO team announced the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing black holes. Since then, other signals were detected, which were made available to the public. The detected gravitational waves allows to search for new theories of unification between gravity and quantum physics, such as the Braneworld models and String Theory, because they are the only phenomena that can propagate through extra dimensions. Theory proves that gravitational waves carry information of extra dimensions such as extra polarizations, waves, and higher frequencies. GW170814 was observed by three detectors, and offers the best available data. We present our work in processing this data to determine whether or not extra dimensions can be observed in the signals. This is done by analyzing the raw data using the PyCBC software to find the best match, and to separate signals from instrumental noise through whitening. Next, the residual error is obtained by subtracting the strain data from the best fit model, and by the addition of the three residuals obtained. The random error should diminish by addition, while the systematic deviation from the model will increase, if there is any present. The existence of this systematic error in the residual error could be extra dimensions. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00027: Glitch Classification and Clustering for LIGO with Deep Transfer Learning Hongyu Shen, Daniel George, Eliu Huerta The detection of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo requires a detailed understanding of the response of these instruments in the presence of environmental and instrumental noise. Of particular interest is the study of anomalous nonGaussian noise transients known as glitches, since their high occurrence rate in LIGO data can obscure or mimic true signals. Successfully identifying these glitches is of utmost importance to detect and characterize gravitational waves. Here, we present the first application of Deep Learning with Transfer Learning for glitch classification with real data from LIGO labeled by Gravity Spy, showing that knowledge from pretrained models for realworld object recognition can be transferred for classifying glitches. We demonstrate that this enables the optimal use of deep convolutional neural networks for glitch classification given small unbalanced training datasets, significantly reduces the training time, and achieves stateoftheart accuracy above 98.8%. Once trained, we show that these networks can be truncated and used as feature extractors for unsupervised clustering to find new classes of glitches. This is of critical importance to identify and remove new types of glitches which will occur as the detectors gradually attain design sensitivity. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00028: Visualizing Constraints on the Neutron Star Equation of State from GravitationalWave Observations Burke Irwin, Matthew Carney, Leslie Wade Constraining the neutron star (NS) equation of state (EOS) is an ongoing project in the gravitationalwave scientific community. An EOS is a relationship between state variables, such as pressure and density, for a material. LIGO and Virgo have recently detected the gravitationalwave signal GW170817, which came from the merger of a binary neutron star system, or a system where two neutron stars are locked in orbit and eventually merge. ~LIGO and Virgo scientists used a fullyBayesian software package called LALInference to extract the system's source parameters from the signal. ~One of these parameters quantifies the tidal deformability of the twostar system, which is directly related to the NS EOS. ~However, by modeling and~parameterizing~the NS EOS, this same software package can be used to more directly measure the EOS. ~In collaboration with Matthew Carney, we have implemented a new method for directly measuring the NS EOS into LALInference and have developed sophisticated visualization tools for turning these outputs into publicationworthy plots. These plots include relationships between the mass and radius of neutron stars and the pressure and density of neutron stars. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00029: The Neutrino may be a three field photon Richard Kriske This author had previously proposed that when the Color Field flips polarity, it emits a Color Field / Magnetic Field photon, that is seen in Electroweak Theory. This may be why the Sun has such a powerful magnetic field. Also this type of photon, seems to be a transition photon, a virtual photon, that acts a lot like a "hole". It has a negative energy and can exist contrary to classic QM in a Potential Barrier at a lower potential than the Barrier, which means that it does not "bounce" off the barrier, at least not all the time. The Photon then passes through the barrier, and in the case of the sun shows up quite a distance from the source of the reaction. At some point outside of the Sun's surface the changing magnetic field changes an Electric field via Ampere's and Faraday's law and a light photon is generated. It may be in a similar manner that the Neutrino is formed, and in it has a quality of both being somewhere, and not, more so than is typically seen in Quantum Mechanics. It may be that there is a myriad of similar particles, one of which may be the Graviton. It may be this property, that creates halos around large reaction centers that involve the Electroweak force and perhaps Gravity. This halo may prove invaluable to finding objects generating various fields. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00030: Formation of the Oort Cloud through stellar flybys Diptajyoti Mukherjee, Santiago Torres, Maxwell Cai, Simon Portegies Zwart Jan H. Oort proposed in 1950 the existence of the cometary cloud that surrounds the Solar System, but its formation mechanism(s) are still unclear. In several studies, it has been argued that the Oort cloud formed shortly after the giant planets formed. The Nice Model, for example, argues that most of debris was ejected into Oort Cloud as a result of a dynamical instability caused due to a 2:1 Mean Motion Resonance between Saturn and Jupiter. It caused Uranus and Neptune to be swept outwards which resulted in a scattering of the disk particles. Approximately 812\% of this material formed the basis of the Oort Cloud. However, the results suggest that these models are hard to reproduce. They assume that the Sun was formed in an isolated environment. Current theories contend that the Sun was, instead, formed in a cluster of about 2000 stars. In this work, we propose an alternate method for ejecting particles into the Oort Cloud through multiple stellar flybys in an early solar system. Through NBody simulations, we find that multiple encounters of the Solar system with stars in the star cluster result in an efficient ejection of particles into Oort Cloud. Our process is very reproducible and able to eject particles more efficiently than just planetdisc interactions. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00031: Exploring Deep Learning as an Event Classification Method for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Bryan Kim, Brian Humensky, Daniel Nieto, Ari Brill, Meera Desai Telescopes based on the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACTs) detect images of the atmospheric showers generated by gamma rays and cosmic rays as they are absorbed by the atmosphere. The much more frequent cosmicray events form the main background when looking for gammaray sources, and therefore IACT sensitivity is significantly driven by the capability to distinguish between these two types of events. Supervised learning algorithms, like random forests and boosted decision trees, have been shown to effectively classify IACT events. In this contribution we present results from exploratory work using deep CNNs (convolutional neural networks) as an event classification method for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). CTA, conceived as an array of tens of IACTs, is an international project for a nextgeneration groundbased gammaray observatory, aiming to improve on the sensitivity of currentgeneration experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00032: Reconstruction of Glitchaffected Gravitational Wave data using Machine Learning Sumeet Kulkarni, Marco Cavaglia Realtime Gravitational Wave data streams at LIGO encounter numerous glitches arising from known and unknown sources of noise. In cases where they occur in conjunction with an incoming Gravitational Wave (GW) signal, they can seriously hinder signal detection and its consequent analysis. Current techniques to handle such scenarios include simply cutting the data segment which includes a glitch, and later carefully modelling the glitch to clean the data segment in question. Here, we explore the use of machine learning regression techniques to reconstruct the glitchaffected regions of a data stream whenever the glitch appears over a GW signal, using modelled waveforms from the adjacent parameter space. We present a proof of concept for a lowlatency, glitchindependent method of cleaning and reconstructing glitchaffected data for a quick primary analysis of an incoming GW signal. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00033: Pulsar explanation a law Han Quan The true visible range of the celestial body is: C / $\omega $, where C is the speed of light and $\omega $ is the angular velocity of the celestial body's rotation. Analyze the formation of a pulsar, star collapses to form a pulsar according to the law of conservation of angular momentum, the $\omega $ must increase sharply .The celestial body's visual range instantly shrinks so that only the two poles can radiate, forming pulsars, white dwarfs and even black holes. Visible from the scope of celestial bodies know: when C / $\omega $ is equal to the celestial body radius, the celestial body only two poles of radiation. The usual pulsar C / $\omega $ is still greater than the radius of the celestial body, the black hole C / $\omega $ is less than the radius of the celestial body, the two poles still radiate. Pulsar magnetic axis and rotation axis do not coincide, the rotation of the magnetic field generated by radio waves and other radiation may be Alternating light and dark to the Earth. the black hole is coincident with the magnetic axis and the rotation axis pulsar, the visual range Smaller, so black holes harder to find. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00034: Mass of the Universe and the Redshift Rajendra Gupta Cosmological redshift is commonly attributed to the continuous expansion of the universe starting from the BigBang. However, expansion models require ad hoc assumptions and multiple parameters to get acceptable fit to the observed data. The approach here considers the redshift to be a hybrid of two effects: recession of distant galaxies due to expansion of the universe, and resistance to light propagation due to an unknown cosmic drag. The weight factor determining the contribution of the two effects is the only parameter that is needed to fit the observed data. The unknown effect considered phenomenologically yields mass of the universe as 2 x 10$^{53}$ Kg, about the same estimated by others. This implicitly suggests that the mass of the whole universe is causing the cosmic drag. The databases of extragalactic objects containing redshift and distance modulus $\mu$ of galaxies up to z=8.26 resulted in an excellent fit to the model. Also, the weight factor $w_D$ for expansion effect contribution to $\mu$ determined from the data sets containing progressively higher values of $\mu$ can be nicely fitted with $w_D$($\mu$)=0.198sin(0.4159$\mu$+2.049)+0.2418sin(0.6768$\mu$+5.15), which indicates that the universe may be expanding in some regions and contracting in others. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00035: The Origin of universe with respect to known matter energy and dark matter Arbaaz Mahmood The actual nature of matter is that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed with relation to Newtonian mechanics, General Relativity and Quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem and relation to dark matter that is dark and actual matter are two sides of a coin. Origin of the universe with respect to eternity models and existence of universe as a closed system. The predefined time loop of multi dimensions and its actual nature as a closed system. A critical review of MassEnergy Equation that the loss of mass is an experimental error and relation between attractive forces and energy that attractive forces are reciprocal of energy. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00036: On Hubble’s Law Greg Hood As Photons travel from distant galaxies, they lose energy as revealed by an increase in wavelength. The Doppler effect says the recession speed of the source is related to this energy loss. Hubble's law tells us that the recession speed is directly proportional to the source distance. Therefore, the photon energy loss is directly related to the source distance. Unexpectedly, the recession speed acts like scaffolding  once the structure is built, the scaffolding is no longer needed. Adopting Occam's razor, the above conclusion  photon energy loss is directly related to source distance  is the real import of Hubble's law. It follows mathematically, without any added assumptions, that the energy loss is due to a universal constant deceleration,  cH$_{\mathrm{0}}$. The deceleration, ``alpha'', has a magnitude of 0.693nm/s$^{\mathrm{2}}$, and may be related to the Pioneer anomaly, since the deceleration there, 0.874nm/s$^{\mathrm{2}}$, is of the same order of magnitude. More importantly, a link exists between Alpha and Milgrom's constant acceleration, a$_{\mathrm{0}}$, used in the MOND theory: in magnitude, a$_{\mathrm{0}} \quad \approx \quad \alpha $/2$\pi $. This connection suggests that to understand galactic and intergalactic physics, a universal constant of acceleration is required. Applying acceleration Alpha to Newton's Second Law leads necessarily to nonKeplerian velocity curves similar to those found in spiral galaxies, and predicts that objects in orbit at the outermost regions of a galaxy should have much higher velocities than allowed by standard theories. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00037: Dark Matter may be "Holes" and this may explain the transition between fields and particles Richard Kriske This author put forward a field theory, in which he claimed that there are few Positrons, because they evaporate and becomes "holes". He claimed that Antiprotons, evaporate in Black Holes, and become a Negative Energy, particle, "Hawking Radiation". "Holes" are not particles, exactly, and many times are considered to be lack or particles, as in Semiconductor theory, but at other times show up in Quasiparticles, such as Excitons, and other times collide and interact with their antiparticles, and in the case of Electrons and holes, form one gamma ray photon, instead of two. So what is the proper way of looking at "holes"? This author believes that they are a transition state, between tangled fields and particles, and sometimes like Neutrinos and Majorana Particles, are more field like (ghost like) and less particle like. This points to some surprising conclusions. The first of which is that Particle Physics is not the TOE, as these massive numbers of negative energy particles, don't generally collide and fracture. The other is that they do interact with fields, so they "stick" to Galaxies, and may be "Dark Matter". So you have a wave that does not generally form a particle, which may explain the waveparticle duality in QM, much better. It may be that the Graviton is a Hole. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00038: GRAVITATION 

L01.00039: Tests of Gravity Below Fifty Microns N Hernandez, Z.D. Comden, N.K. Dunkley, H. Isachsen, J.S. Johnson, G.D. Martinez, A.E. Sanchez, C.D. Hoyle Gravity's relationship to the other fundamental forces is still not well understood. The Standard Model of quantum mechanics describes interactions between the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, while Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) describes gravity. There is yet to be a theory that unifies inconsistencies between GR and quantum mechanics. Scenarios of String Theory predicting more than three spatial dimensions also predict physical effects of gravity at submillimeter levels that could alter the gravitational inversesquare law. The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), a central feature of GR, states that all objects are accelerated at the same rate in a gravitational field independent of their composition. A violation of the WEP at any distance scale would be evidence that current models of gravity are incorrect. At the Humboldt State University Gravitational Research Laboratory, an experiment is being developed to observe gravitational interactions below the 50micron distance scale. The experiment measures the twist of a parallelplate torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated within 100 microns of the pendulum, providing time varying gravitational torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque amplitude provide means to determine deviations from accepted models of gravity on untested distance scales. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00040: The Quantum Cause of Entanglement Shantilal Goradia The hidden concept of theorizing entanglement in our paper: “NEWTONIAN GRAVITY IN NATURAL UNITS”, Journal of Physical Science and Application 2 (7) (2012) 2658 made us submit (sketchy) abstracts for the 3/2007 APS Meeting for Session D33 13 titled: “THE MYSTERY OF THE GENETIC TAPE”, and others stepping into biology more with our later publication of “DECODING THE INFORMATION OF LIFE”, Journal of Physical Science and Application 5 (3) (2015) 191195. The elegant Euler’s Equation for the sum of the inverse squares showed us the perceived entanglement mathematically, making us publish: “DARK MATTER FROM OUR PROBABILISTIC GRAVITY”, Journal of Physical Science and Application 5 (5) (2015) 3736. It may fulfill the need of quantum gravity in (Penrose, Hameroff 1996). Ancient faiths are merely supportive conjectures. We hinted of a potential link of our theory to one cause (structural changes in the brain) of Alzheimer’s, in our 2011 book, QUANTUM CONSCIOUSNESS – THE ROAD TO REALITY. We refer to BioLife per Smolin in our 2017 paper: “THE EMPERORS MIND IN A NUT SHELL”, Journal of Life Sciences 11 (2017) 249253 (doi:10.17265/19347391/2017.05.005), also addressing multiverses and the enigma of the approximate nature of the Newtonian Inverse Square, a TOE must do. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00041: A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification Rasulkhozha Sharafiddinov At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection between an antineutrino and a neutron must constitute an antineutrino hydrogen is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of a family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate the masses in atoms to the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and of the two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity. Therefore, a change of the lifetime as well as of the radius of any of the structural particles originates in it in the orbit type dependence. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00042: A Big Lepton Synthesis of Hydrogen Rasulkhozha Sharafiddinov Lepton universality implies a coincidence of electric and weak components of mass of the most light lepton, namely, of an evrmion [1] possessing the universal mass and charge. If an evrmion (antievrmion) interacts with the antiproton (proton), the appearance of a force of an atomic unification can in conformity with symmetry laws transform it into an orbital fermion. In this case, it is expected that hydrogen (antihydrogen) having the same evrmion orbit is constituted in nature through a big lepton (antilepton) synthesis. Of course, given transitions would seem to say about that among the set of atomic systems one can find atoms of a single electron or muon orbit. This is, however, not in line with nature. In fact, a motion of an evrmion around the nucleus of hydrogen $H_{1}^{1}$ in his orbit is carried out in the warping field as a result of an interratio of intraatomic forces. They have at the universal mass of an evrmion the character of attraction. In another mass dependence would appear their property of a repulsion. [1] R.S. Sharafiddinov, Phys. Essays {\bf 30}, 150 (2017); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. {\bf 59}, Y12.00006 (2014). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00043: A Big Antineutrino Synthesis of Hydrogen Rasulkhozha Sharafiddinov Neutrino universality expresses an identicality of electric and weak types of masses of the most light neutrino, namely, of the evrmionic neutrino [1] having the mass and charge referring to fundamental constants. Furthermore, at the availability of the interaction of the evrmionic antineutrino (neutrino) with the neutron (antineutron), the appearance of a force of an atomic unification must constitute the antineutrino (neutrino) hydrogen (antihydrogen) corresponding in nature to summed baryon and lepton number conservation. We call this atom (antiatom) by the name of AlFargoniy, a medieval Central Asiatic scientist, introducing for its denotation a symbol $Fn_{N}^{A}({\bar Fn_{N}^{A}})$ allowing to write a big antineutrino (neutrino) synthesis ${\bar \nu_{\epsilon R,L}}+n^{}_{L,R}\rightarrow Fn_{1}^{1}, \, \, \, \, \nu_{\epsilon L,R}+n^{+}_{R,L}\rightarrow {\bar Fn_{1}^{1}} $ and that, consequently, $Fn_{N}^{N}$ play a role of one of the two atoms forming the root of a stem of each of the existing types of atomic families. Their nature defines at the fundamental dynamical level the behavior of the structural objects in an atom as well as in a solar system. [1] R.S. Sharafiddinov, Phys. Essays {\bf 30}, 150 (2017); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. {\bf 59}, Y12.00006 (2014). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00044: On a Role of Gravity in an Atomic Construction Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov From the point of view of an orbital, an intraatomic motion of an electron has no trajectory. Thereby, it allows one to follow the maximal probability of finding an electron in an uncertain region of space around the nucleus. But a motion of an electron in an atom becomes [1] Zitterbewegung one owing to an intraatomic transition between the left and the right corresponding in it to the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation. Of course, nobody has seen in orbit of hydrogen a left (right)handed electron itself, and the influence of an electric or a magnetic field on its spectrum implies simply that neither of the Stark or the Zeeman experiences is not connected with implications of any phenomenological theories based mythically on the absence in an atomic construction of a role of gravity. An orbit, however, does not lose the thought in the presence of gravity. Therefore, it was introduced into an atomic physics by Rutherford as an intraatomic force of attraction responsible for the formation of an atom with an orbital motion of an electron around its nucleus. [1] R.S. Sharaiddinov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 63(5), APR182017000114 (2018). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00045: A Latent Dynamics of an Atomic System Emission Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov One of important consequences implied from an orbit quantized succession principle [1] is the dynamical origination of an atom spontaneous $\gamma$emission, which is basically connected with the $\beta$decay of a neutron or an antiproton, because in it appear necessary for a formation of photons antiparticles of intraatomic particles. For example, at the latent transitions as well as at other $\gamma$emissions with atomic systems. It is not excluded, however, that nature itself is not in force to constitute any atomic system, around which would appear an absolute emptiness. In other words, we cannot find the same atoms regardless of the structure of medium in which they move. If, for example, any of atomic systems having the string orbits interacts with a neutrino antihydrogen [2] of AlFargoniy, the latter will transform one of its boson orbits into a lepton one. This is carried out in nature in conformity with individual diphoton emission laws. [1] R.S. Sharaiddinov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 63(5), APR182017000114 (2018). [2] R.S. Sharaiddinov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 63(5), APR182018000187 (2018). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00046: An Atomic Bomb Explosion as an Antineutrino Hydrogen Decay Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov An orbit quantized succession comes forward in an atom as a criterion for unification of its structural particles at a quantum level that the decay of $U_{92}^{236}$ is carried out by a scheme $U_{92}^{236}\rightarrow Kr_{36}^{92}+Ba_{56}^{141}+Fn_{3}^{3}. \eqno(1)$ We must, therefore, use the energy of atomic origination, emphasizing that it coming forward at first as the isotropic flux of the same antineutrino hydrogens $Fn_{1}^{1}$ from the decay of an atom $Fn_{3}^{3}$ of a lithium family $Fn_{3}^{3}\rightarrow Fn_{1}^{1}+Fn_{1}^{1}+Fn_{1}^{1}, \eqno(2)$ and, next, as the anisotropic flux of the two types of objects from the decay $Fn_{1}^{1}\rightarrow {\bar \nu_{\epsilon L,R}}+n^{}_{L,R}, \eqno(3)$ becomes in (1) a powerful tool for new measurements owing to a full energy of an antineutrino depending on a force of an atomic unification forming the same atom $Fn_{1}^{1}$ in which it was in orbit of its nucleus. If the spontaneous structural changing of $U_{92}^{236}$ has successively constituted any of both types of fluxes, this implies that each antineutrino is trying to show us something nonsimple that nobody is in force to exclude the availability in an incoming astronomical object of such an energy, which was a latent in its firstinitial lost orbit. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00047: Black Hole Evaporation in (3+1)D: Numerical computation of the Bogolubov coefficients for a scalar field Raymond Clark, Paul Anderson, Michael Good Black hole evaporation is studied in the case of a 4D nonrotating black hole that forms from the collapse of a null shell. Expressions for the exact Bogolubov coefficients for a massless minimally coupled scalar field are given and techniques used for their numerical computation are discussed. These coefficients will be used to compute the particle production which occurs during and after the collapse. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00048: Statistical Manifold Construction of General Relativity George Davila We discuss how a Riemannian geometry can be associated with a probability distribution. We deal with spacelike 3surfaces, $\Sigma_t$, of a foliated spacetime, as is done in the ADM formalism. A metric geometry can then be constructed from the associated probability distribution and written as a function of the relative entropy between parameters of the distribution. We can then choose the statistical distribution to be an entanglement distribution and the entropy to be the entanglement entropy. It is then straightforward to obtain a geometry on which the conceptual basis of the MaldacenaSusskind conjecture (ER=EPR) holds, i.e. fully correlated regions are connected by zero metric distance. Additionally, entirely uncorrelated regions are maximally separated in terms of metric distance. In this construction Euclidean 3space can be said to be a thermal bath of entangled regions of space. Aside from providing conceptual insights, this construction allows us to derive metric geometries from probability distributions using the the techniques of information geometry. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00049: Implementing RealTime Calibration in Advanced LIGO Control Software Dane Stocks The digital error and control signals of Advanced LIGO's differential arm length control servo are used to reconstruct gravitational wave strain, $h(t)$. Currently, three different calibration pipelines produce $h(t)$ with varying errors and latencies. The realtime operating system in the front end computers runs CALCS, which performs infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering and control operations on 16384 Hz clock cycles. Current limitations of these filters yield systematic errors which a second pipeline, the GDS, corrects in lowlatency using finite impulse response (FIR) filtering on computers distinct from the front end computers. The third pipeline, the DCS, implements FIR filtering to condition archived data, and is used to recalibrate entire data sets when dropouts occur in realtime. To prepare for O3 in late 2018, we construct a new, selfcontained calibration pipeline in the front end computers which uses FIR filtering to yield strain. This new front end pipeline produces calibrated $h(t)$ within $1\%$ of the magnitude of the DCS pipeline output across all relevant frequencies. It will replace the current online calibration system in use, remove the redundancy of the CALCSGDS system, and provide refined GW strain measurements with a latency of $\approx$ 3 seconds [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00050: Prospects of gravitational nonlinear memory detection Aaron Johnson, Shasvath Kapadia, Alex Hixon, Daniel Kennefick In the first and strongest detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, approximately $3M_{\odot}$ were radiated away as gravitational waves from the binary black hole system as it merged. In addition to the primary AC gravitational wave, there is a secondary DC wave known as the Christodoulou or nonlinear memory. As a strongfield effect the nonlinear memory may be used for theory testing. Further, the cutoff time of the effect is related to the radius of a neutron star and therefore could be used to constrain the neutron star equation of state. The magnitude and profile of the memory can be found by using an approximation scheme, and through matched filtering, a signal to noise ratio of an event like GW150914. By varying the mass and distance parameters of the event, we find distances and source masses for which the memory of GW150914 would be detectable in advanced LIGO and future detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00051: Towards the design of gravitationalwave detectors for probing neutronstar physics Huan Yang, Haixing Miao, Denis Martynov The merger of binary neutron star encodes rich physics of extreme states of matter. Probing it through gravitationalwave observations requires the detectors to have high sensitivity above 1 kHz. Here we propose a detector design that pushes down the highfrequency quantum noise with an active optomechanical filter, frequencydependent squeezing, and high optical power. The resulting noise level from 1 kHz to 4 kHz approaches the current facility limit, and is a factor of 20 to 30 below the design of existing advanced detectors at these frequencies. It will allow for precision measurements of (i) the postmerger signal of binary neutron star, with electromagnetic counterparts such as short gammaray burst and kilonovae, and possible detection of (ii) latetime inspiral, merger, and ringdown of lowmass black holeneutron star systems, and possible detection of (iii) high frequency modes during supernovae explosions and/or magnetar giant flares. This design tries to maximize the science return of current facilities by achieving a sensitive frequency band that is complementary to proposed longerbaseline thirdgeneration detectors: 10 km Einstein Telescope, and 40 km Cosmic Explorer. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00052: The nature of gravitational wave Han Quan Gravitational waves are radiation and the gravitational waves are a phenomenon that affects the relatively stable radiation network. Because of the rotation of the radiation source, the radiation is curved, and the bending radiation intersects and entangles to form a huge radiation net. The movement of the celestial bodies is the result of this huge radiation net. Often, this huge net is "very calm". Gravitational waves are hard to find because we exist in gravitational waves. Only when the huge celestial body abnormal movement, the radiation intensity, the scope of an instant increase, redisturb the original quiet radiation network, this huge radiation network "abnormal" move, we can observe the "gravitational wave." we cannot observe the direct radiation after two black holes collided, observing anomalous changes in the cosmic gravitational wave net, such as gravitational lens and so on. Any celestial body has its scope of action, the scope of the celestial body should be the speed of light and celestial angular velocity ratio. If there is a gravitational effect between the two celestial bodies, the whole universe is a gravitational wave connection of the community [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00053: Building a Complete Analytic Model for Gravitational Waves Dillon Buskirk With the recent discovery of gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts, the era of multimessenger gravitational wave astronomy has begun. Crucial to the success of this new science is the need for accurate and efficient templates for modeling gravitational waves emitted by a large class of compact binaries. This work presents the analytical calculation of gravitational waveforms in the detected range, using tools easily accessible to undergraduate research students, such as Mathematica and Python. The inspiral case is described with the $3^{rd}$ order postNewtonian method, and the merger phase employs the Implicit Rotating Source model. With these inspiral and merger models, we calculated the real and imaginary waveforms for a range of five different mass parameters corresponding to each the LIGOVirgo signals detected since September 14, 2015. We explore new techniques of matching the waveforms for each phase, to determine the best suited method to analytically build a complete gravitational waveform. Next we compare our results with the filtered waveforms provided by LIGO, and with numerical simulations. Further work will allow for a model with less limitations, such as nonzero eccentricity. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00054: Gravitationalwave memory from coalescing binaries Matthew Karlson, Kevin Chen, Marc Favata The nonlinear or Christodoulou memory is a nonoscillatory contribution to the gravitationalwave signal that arises from the gravitationalwave stress energy tensor. Using a semianalytic approach we generate memory signals for a range of binary black hole parameters, extending previous work. We alsofor the first timecompute the nonlinear memory for binary neutron star mergers. These waveforms will be useful for future searches of the nonlinear memory in ground and spacebased detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00055: Music of the Spheres: the gravitational wave signal from exoplanets William Gabella, Katelyn Breivik, Yilen Gomez Maqueo Chew, Kelly HolleyBockelmann, Brittany Kamai We focus on a gravitational wave source class that has been largely ignored: stellarexoplanet systems. They have properties that put them in the frequency range of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a joint ESA/NASA spacebased gravitational wave mission set to launch in 2034. These systems are a billion times closer, if much less massive and therefore weaker wave emitters, than the easily detectable supermassive black holes, making exoplanets a potentially observable source class. With typical orbital periods of decades, most exoplanets would emit gravitational radiation at much lower frequencies than the current design of LISA. However, exoplanet surveys have unveiled a surprisingly rich variety of systems, from highly eccentric orbits to hot Jupiters to pulsar planets. Here, we investigate the gravitational wave signal from known exoplanets and predict the total signature of exoplanetary systems in the Milky Way. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00056: Finding Optimal Input Parameters for BayesWave Kelsey Rook This project involves data analysis for LIGO with the goal of finding optimal input parameters for the BayesWave analysis pipeline, which is an algorithm for detection of unmodelled gravitational wave transients. In this project, we add binary black hole gravitational waveforms to LIGO noise with different combinations of parameters to find the best method of separating gravitational waves from noise and glitches. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00057: Search methods for dipole gravitational waves from asymmetric supernovae Franklin Felber Gravitationally unbound mass quadrupoles like asymmetric supernovae, despite having constant mass dipole moment, nevertheless produce dipole perturbations of gravitational fields that do not completely destructively interfere as they propagate to the radiation zone [1]. Complete interference is prevented by firstorder relativistic effects, such as phase differences and frequency shifts. An exact expression for the weak field of a mass in arbitrary relativistic motion is used to estimate the dipole gravitational power radiated by asymmetric supernovae [2]. Potential nearterm search methods for these singlepulse dipole gravitational waves, with frequencies ranging from $<$1 $\mu $Hz to $>$10 mHz, include astrometry using the Gaia space telescope [3]. [1] F. S. Felber, \textit{Einstein's Inertial Field} (Starmark Physics, San Diego, 2016), Ch. 11. [2] F. S. Felber, https://arxiv.org/abs/1002.0351 (2010). [3] C. J. Moore \textit{et al}., Phys. Rev. Lett. \underline {119}, 261102 (2017). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00058: A Compact Binary Coalescence Search for Gravitational Wave Counterparts to Fast Radio Burst Events Gregory Walsh, Ryan Fisher The era of gravitational wave astronomy has begun. With the recent joint observations of gravitational wave GW170817 and short gammaray burst GRB 170817A, multimessenger astronomy has entered a new and golden age. Similar to gammaray bursts, fast radio bursts (FRBs) are energetic, millisecond radio pulses of extragalactic origin. We present the plan to conduct targeted searches for gravitational wave event counterparts to these FRB events in the data from the first and second observing runs of the Advanced Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00059: Generation of Gravitational Waves by the Spin, and Orbital Angular Momentum of Quarks and Leptons ``Gravitational Waves Hypothesis'' Hassan Gholibeigian Gravity like magnetism is a quantum mechanics phenomenon. Different mechanical motions of the quarks and leptons like spin, orbital angular momentum, and interaction between these two are the origin of the waves in quantum area. These waves may be the both gravitational and magnetic waves (GMW). Physicists can detect magnetic waves; however, they are not able to detect gravitational waves in quantum level yet, due to its weakness. In black hole, the orbital angular momentum and interaction between particles involving local and global large scale convection systems, become highly more. Therefore, radiated GMW become highly more. An observable factor is; observation of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 by LIGO, Virgo, Fermi, and Integral which indicate that the association of gammaray and gravitationalwave signals are the progenitors of one class of gammaray bursts. It implies that the origin of gravitational and magnetic waves may be from same particles. In other words, the gravitational waves are continually generating by quarks and leptons. Therefore, in Big Bang, GMW and fundamental particles may be created together. In this viewpoint, theory of everything may be proven. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00060: Applications of Fractional Calculus to Newtonian Mechanics Gabriele Varieschi We investigate some basic applications of Fractional Calculus (FC) to Newtonian mechanics. After a brief review of FC, we consider a possible generalization of Newton's second law of motion and apply it to the case of a body subject to a constant force. In our second application of FC to Newtonian gravity, we consider a generalized fractional gravitational potential and derive the related circular orbital velocities. This analysis might be used as a tool to model galactic rotation curves, in view of the dark matter problem. Both applications have a pedagogical value in connecting fractional calculus to standard mechanics and can be used as a starting point for a more advanced treatment of fractional mechanics. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00061: Quasinormal Modes of Modified Gravity (MOG) Black Holes Luciano Manfredi Console, Jonas Mureika, John Moffat The Quasinormal modes (QNMs) for gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations are calculated in a ScalarTensorVector (Modified Gravity) spacetime, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without the need for dark matter. It is found that for the increasing model parameter $\alpha $, both the real and imaginary parts of the QNMs decrease compared to those for a standard Schwarzschild black hole. On the other hand, when taking into account the 1/(1$+\alpha )$ mass rescaling factor present in MOG, Im($\omega )$ matches almost identically that of GR, while Re($\omega )$ is higher. These results can be identified in the ringdown phase of massive compact object mergers, and are thus timely in light of the recent gravitational wave detections by LIGO. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00062: The Darboux transformation in black hole perturbation theory Daniel Kennefick, Aaron Johnson, Kostas Glampedakis In an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), we consider a solar mass black hole as a perturbation on a supermassive black hole's (SMBH) spacetime. Both axial and polar perturbations lead to the same equation with different potentials. In the 1970s, Chandrasekhar found by brute force calculation that these potentials are isospectral. In the 90s, when one of us visited to speak with Chandra, he mentioned his dissappointment that people didn't consider this an important avenue of research and instead only used the transformation for convenience. What has become known as the Chandrasekhar transformation has been known for a century to mathematicians as the Darboux transformation and plays an important role in scattering theory and supersymmetry. Here we discuss using the classical and generalized Darboux transformations to find algebraically special solutions and relate potentials in black hole perturbation theory, and more broadly how they might be used to find new potentials that are shorter ranged and therefore better for computation. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00063: ENERGY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS 

L01.00064: Optimization of spacecharge limited thermionic energy converters with selfconsistent simulation Christopher Hall, Nathan Cook, Jonathan Edelen, JeanLuc Vary Thermionic energy converters (TEC) are an attractive technology for modular, efficient transfer of heat to electric energy. A traditional TEC is comprised of narrowlyseparated plates; thermionic emission at the cathode releases electrons which travel to the anode, producing a current which may generate electrical power. Simple structures are often spacecharge limited, as operating temperatures may produce currents exceeding the corresponding ChildLangmuir limit, and prevent the TEC from reaching maximum efficiency. To raise the current limit, and the efficiency, gridded electrode structures, along with dielectric supports, may be placed in the gap between the plates. Using the particleincell code Warp we show simulations of TECs including selfconsistent dynamics of the electrons in the gap and accounting for loss mechanism such as thermal and radiative heat transfer and dielectric charging. These simulations are used in conjunction with a nonlinear optimizer to optimize the TEC design for maximal efficiency of power generation. Finally, we discuss the use of TECs as individual power sources or as a topping cycle for conventional power plants. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00065: The effect of Kinetic Theory and Pressure Differentials on Post Combustion Coal gas Capture Dannity Isiwele, Monday Alile, Elmer Isiwele, Chris Aigbogun The research used a direct heat exchange method through centrifugal aircooled digester in capturing coal gas. The ambient temperature allows oxygen to reenter the heat envelope and thus makes the combusted gases heavy to be injected. The application is very useful in coal fired power plants all over the world, as it will remove the menace of pollution. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00066: Materials Data Analytics for Advanced Alloy Development: 912\textbraceleft $\backslash ${\%}\textbraceright Cr Steel.~ Vyacheslav Romanov, Narayanan Krishnamurthy, Jeffrey Hawk The project goal is to develop expertise in domainguided statistical design for optimal manufacturing, computational materials engineering, with uncertainty quantification to support decisionmaking, and additional scientific insight into complex, noisy, highdimensional, and highvolume data sets from experiments and simulations. Predictive models will be validated against experimental data. Data entries in the analyzed 912\textbraceleft $\backslash ${\%}\textbraceright Cr Steel dataset for iron base alloy compositions ($\backslash $textgreater 80), processing parameters, results of strength and creep tests were arranged in 47 columns by 2800 rows. Detailed microstructural information was not available. Complexity of the phase transformations and microstructure evolution in multicomponent (21 chemical elements) alloys, with major influence on mechanical properties, leads to inefficiency in direct application of unbiased linear regression across the entire data space. To address the nonlinearity, without using microstructure data, analyses of tensile and creep data were carried out in compositionbased clusters. Partitioning revealed the biased nature of available alloy datasets, with implied ``rules of thumb'' in design practices; processing and test temperatures effects on the phases and mechanical properties are the major contributors and need to be modeled first, before searching for minor effects of the composition variations; Mn and C (and to a lesser extent, N) are global variables, while other elements tend to produce local (nonlinear, clustercentered) dependencies. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00067: Riding the wave: Interstellar/planetary Travel through Magnetic Reconnection and Flux Transfer Events Jakayla Robinson Magnetic sails are well known in science fiction as spacecraft able to sail throughout the Milky Way on magnetic fields the way a boat sails the sea. We revisit the work of AndrewsZubrin methods of accelerating and decelerating a magsail by questioning if the magsail could travel along magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection is the reconnecting of colliding magnetic field lines from two bodies of mass. The Earth directly experiences magnetic reconnection when the solar wind plasma from the sun hits the magnetosphere, causing auroras, flux transfer events, and possible geomagnetic storms. Flux transfer events are brief magnetic portals that open in Earth's magnetosphere during magnetic reconnection. Through magnetic reconnection and flux transfer events, material and plasma have the ability to travel at accelerated speeds from the sun to Earth. This fact unfolds the question if a magsail could travel interplanetary at speeds matching the velocity of solar wind without any use of propellant. In this study, we explore how likely this theory is based on the types of hightemperature superconductors known today, the speed of plasma during magnetic reconnection, and how the magsail spacecraft could decelerate through flux transfer events once at the destination planet. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00068: Angular Momentum Transport in Thin Magnetically Arrested Disks Megan Marshall, Mark Avara, Jonathan McKinney In accretion disks with largescale ordered magnetic fields, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is marginally suppressed, so other processes may drive angular momentum transport leading to accretion. Accretion could then be driven by largescale magnetic fields via magnetic braking, but largescale magnetic flux can buildup onto the black hole and within the disk leading to a magneticallyarrested disk (MAD). Such a MAD state is unstable to the magnetic RayleighTaylor (RT) instability, which itself leads to vigorous turbulence and the emergence of lowdensity highlymagnetized bubbles. This instability was studied in a thin (ratio of halfheight H to radius R, $H/R \approx 0.1$) MAD simulation, where it has a more dramatic effect on the dynamics of our disk than on thicker disks. We find the lowdensity bubbles created by the magnetic RT instability decrease the stress (leading to angular momentum transport) in the disk rather than increasing magnetic torques. Indeed, we find the dominant component of the stress is due to turbulent magnetic fields, despite the suppression of the axisymmetric MRI and the dominant presence of largescale magnetic fields. This suggests the magnetic RT instability plays a significant role in driving angular momentum transport in MADs. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00069: Selfconsistent construction of virialized wave dark matter halos ShanChang Lin, HsiYu Schive, ShingKwong Wong, Tzihong Chiueh Wave dark matter ($\psi$DM), which satisfies the Schr\"odingerPoisson equation, has recently attracted substantial attention as a possible dark matter candidate. The present work adopts a different approach in assessing massive halos by constructing wavehalo solutions directly from the wave distribution function. This approach bears certain similarity with the analytical construction of particlehalo (cold dark matter model). Instead of many collisionless particles, one deals with one single wave that has many noninteracting eigenstates. The key ingredient in the wavehalo construction is the distribution function of the wave power, and we use several halos produced by structure formation simulations as templates to determine the wave distribution function. Among different models, we find the fermionic King model presents the best fits and we use it for our wavehalo construction. We have devised an iteration method for constructing the nonlinear halo and demonstrate its stability by threedimensional simulations. A MilkyWaysized halo has also been constructed, and the inner halo is found flatter than the NFW profile. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00070: Dynamics of QuasiElectrostatic Whistler waves in Earth's Radiation belts Ravinder Goyal, RP Sharma, DN Gupta A numerical model is proposed to study the dynamics of high amplitude quasielectrostatic whistler waves propagating near resonance cone angle and their interaction with finite frequency kinetic Alfv\'{e}n waves (KAWs) in Earth's radiation belts. The quasielectrostatic character of whistlers is narrated by dynamics of wave propagating near resonance cone. A high amplitude whistler wave packet is obtained using the present analysis which has also been observed by S/WAVES instrument onboard STEREO. The numerical simulation technique employed to study the dynamics, leads to localization (channeling) of waves as well as turbulent spectrum suggesting the transfer of wave energy over a range of frequencies. The turbulent spectrum also indicates the presence of quasielectrostatic whistlers and density fluctuations associated with KAW in radiation belts plasma. The ponderomotive force of pump quasielectrostatic whistlers (high frequency) is used to excite relatively much lower frequency waves (KAWs).The wave localization and steeper spectra could be responsible for particle energization or heating in radiation belts. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00071: Towards Neutron Star Radius and Mass Determinations Using NICER Sharon Morsink Determining the masses and radii of neutron stars is important, not only for understanding the astronomical properties of these stars, but also for understanding the physical properties of the cold dense matter within them. The NICER mission will measure the masses and radii of several rotationpowered pulsars by fitting pulse waveform models to observations of the soft Xray waveforms produced by the rotation of hot spots located near their magnetic polar caps. In this talk I will describe how these measurements will be made, the results we expect, and how these results will be used to constrain the properties of cold dense matter. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00072: Unification of gravitational and electromagnetic forces Ling Jun Wang It has been a dream of physicists to unify all the fundamental forces over at least a century. The last stage of this dream is the Theory of Everything (TOE) to unify all the four forces, including the gravitational force. It has been realized that general relativity is incompatible with quantum mechanics. Recently, we have developed a theory with mathematical rigor to unify the gravitational and the electromagnetic forces strictly within the classical framework by generalizing Newton's law of gravitation to include a dynamic term inferred from the Lorentz force of electromagnetic interaction [Wang, L.J., \textit{Unification of Gravitational and Electromagnetic fields}, \textit{Physics Essays,} Vol. 31, No. 1, 2018.]. An entire dynamic theory including a wave equation of gravitation is developed without any additional ad hoc hypothesis. The wave equation and its solution naturally solve the mystery of actionatdistance with significant new discoveries: It has been shown that the inverse square law of the static and the dynamic forces is the result of the conservation of mass and the newly discovered conservation law of total momentum. The gravitational force and the electromagnetic force are thus unified in the sense that these two forces and their propagation can be described by exactly the same set of equations. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00073: Directional Search for Dark Matter Using Nuclear Emulsion Ali Murat Guler A variety of experiments have been developed over the past decades, aiming to detect Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their scattering in a detector medium. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed due to a constant development of the detectors and analysis methods. Detectors that are able to reconstruct the direction of the nucleus recoiling against the scattering WIMP are opening a new frontier to possibly extend Dark Matter searches beyond the neutrino background. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The NEWSdm experiment, based on nuclear emulsions, is proposed to measure the direction of WIMPinduced nuclear recoils. We discuss the potentiality, both in terms of exclusion limits and potential discovery, of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and readout systems reaching submicrometric resolution. We also report results of the technical test conducted in Gran Sasso last year. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00074: Belle II iTOP detector: design, construction, and commissioning Boqun Wang The imagingTimeofPropogation (iTOP) detector is a new type of ringimaging Cherenkov counter developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment. It consists of 16 modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The optical components of each module include one mirror, one prism and two quartz bar radiators. The readout system consists of an array of microchannelplate photomultiplier tubes (MCPPMTs), and waveform readout frontend electronics. The waveforms are processed by firmware, and the resulting pulseheights and hit times are sent to the Belle II data acquisition system.The detector construction was completed and the detector was installed by the summer of 2016. Since February 2018, the iTOP detector, together with other subdetectors in Belle II experiment, are in the Phase 2 commissioning. This talk describes the construction and commissioning of the Belle II iTOP detector. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00075: Constraining the primordial gravitational waves signature with BICEP/Keck CMB polarization data Caterina Umilta The inflationary scenario generically predicts the existence of primordial gravitational waves, though over a wide range of amplitudes from slowroll to multifield models. Currently the most promising method for constraining, and potentially detecting, an inflationary gravitational wave background is to search the imprint it would leave on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) Bmode polarization pattern. The BICEP/Keck experiments, deployed at the South Pole, target this primordial signature, which is parametrized by the tensortoscalar ratio r. \\ Attempting to observe the possible Bmode primordial tensor signal requires a telescope with high sensitivity and tight control of systematics. The presence of foregrounds of galactic origin and the gravitational lensing of CMB photons by large scale structures in the universe further complicates this measurement. In order to distinguish the primordial signal from foregrounds, a wide frequency coverage is necessary: up to 2015, data have been taken at 95, 150 and 220 GHz. \\ I will present the latest results on constraining r using BICEP/Keck data taken until to 2015 in combination with Planck and WMAP satellite data. Then, I will outline how upcoming experiments BICEP3 and BICEP Array will improve this constraint. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00076: Anomaly Cancellation in Effective Supergravity Theories from the Heterotic String: Two Simple Examples Jacob Leedom, Mary Gaillard We use PauliVillars regularization to evaluate the conformal and chiral anomalies in the effective field theories from Z3 and Z7 compactifications of the heterotic string without Wilson lines. We show that parameters for PauliVillars chiral multiplets can be chosen in such a way that the anomaly is universal in the sense that its coefficient depends only on a single holomorphic function of the three diagonal moduli. It is therefore possible to cancel the anomaly by a generalization of the fourdimensional GreenSchwarz mechanism. In particular we are able to reproduce the results of a string calculation of the fourdimensional chiral anomaly for these two models. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00077: A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for General Relativistic Hydrodynamics Samuel Dunham, Eirik Endeve, Anthony Mezzacappa Corecollapse supernovae (CCSNe) are multiphysics phenomena; the study of which provides insight into, among other things, the origin of the elements. To simulate supernova hydrodynamics we are developing a new code for solving the general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics equations, using the discontinuous Galerkin (DG\footnote{Cockburn, B., \& Shu, C.W. (2001). J. Sci. Comput., 16, 173}) method combined with RungeKutta (RK) timestepping. The RKDG method is highorder accurate and local in space, and can therefore achieve high spectral bandwidth in regions with unsteady smooth flows (e.g., turbulence). At the same time it can capture discontinuities, such as in the nonlinear phase of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI\footnote{Blondin, J. M., Mezzacappa, A., \& DeMarino, C. (2003). ApJ, 584, 971}). Many current simulations point to the crucial role played by the SASI in aiding the neutrinodriven CCSN explosion mechanism. The first scientific target of our new code is to further understand the SASI's development in compact GR environments. We present the initial conditions and show preliminary results. We also address the questions of how well the RKDG method handles shocks and resolves the turbulent flows that develop from the SASI. [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00078: Evidence of IntermediateScale Energy Spectrum Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays E$\geq$10$^{19.2}$ eV with the Telescope Array Surface Detector Jon Lundquist An intermediatescale energy spectrum anisotropy has been found in the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays of energies above $10^{19.2}$ eV in the northern hemisphere, using 7 years of Telescope Array surface detector data. A relative energy distribution test is done comparing events inside oversampled spherical caps of equal exposure, to those outside, using the Poisson likelihood ratio. The center of maximum significance is at $9^h16^m$, 45$\Deg$, and has a deficit of events with energies $10^{19.2}$$\leq$E$<$$10^{19.75}$ eV and an excess for E$\geq$10$^{19.75}$ eV. The posttrial probability of this energy anisotropy, appearing by chance anywhere on an isotropic sky, is found by Monte Carlo simulation to be 9$\times$10$^{5}$ (3.74$\sigma_{global}$). [Preview Abstract] 

L01.00079: A novel definition of entropy and application to black holes Taha Malik, Rafael LópezMobilia Typically, the entropy of an isolated system in equilibrium is calculated by counting the number of accessible micro states, or in more general cases by using the Gibbs entropy formula. In irreversible processes entropy spontaneously increases, and this is understood from statistical arguments. We propose a new definition of entropy directly based on the level of irreversibility of a process. This formulation agrees in first approximation with the usual methods of calculating entropy and can be readily applied in the case of a black hole in the semi classical regime. [Preview Abstract] 
Follow Us 
Engage
Become an APS Member 
My APS
Renew Membership 
Information for 
About APSThe American Physical Society (APS) is a nonprofit membership organization working to advance the knowledge of physics. 
© 2023 American Physical Society
 All rights reserved  Terms of Use
 Contact Us
Headquarters
1 Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 207403844
(301) 2093200
Editorial Office
1 Research Road, Ridge, NY 119612701
(631) 5914000
Office of Public Affairs
529 14th St NW, Suite 1050, Washington, D.C. 200452001
(202) 6628700