Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2010
Volume 55, Number 1
Saturday–Tuesday, February 13–16, 2010; Washington, DC
Session C1: Poster Session I: (1:00  4:00 PM) 
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Room: Exhibit Hall AB 

C1.00001: ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS; RADIATION SOURCES; AND BEAM PHYSICS 

C1.00002: The Design of Magnetic Fields of Solenoid, Calculated from the Potential of a Uniformly Charged Disk Joseph W. Rudmin This is an ongoing project with the goal of developing a better method of calculating the magnetic field of a solenoid everywhere in space. It involves elliptic integrals of the first kind, and the electrostatic potential of a uniformly charged disk. Progress to date will be discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00003: SESAMEA 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East Herman Winick Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotronlight for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nmrad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infrared to hard Xrays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 201213). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00004: Characterization of a low voltage microelectroncolumn for scan field size and visibility of current image Won Kweon Jang, Young Chul Kim, Ho Seob Kim Low voltage microelectroncolumn was fully fabricated. The laser alignment and bonding method was employed for assembling source lens and Einzel lens with precision lower than $\pm$4{\%}. The optimal condition for improving visibility of current image and enlargement of scan field size was investigated in single and doubledeflector employed system. At fixed voltage of electron emission tip, the focusing electron beam with source lens showed larger scan field size and poorer visibility than those with Einzel lens. Theoretical 3D simulation indicated that focusing electron beam with source lens should have larger spot size and deflection than those of focusing with Einzel lens. Barrel distortion appeared in single deflector employed system was compensated in double deflector employed system when the voltage of Einzel lens was controlled properly, and the clear and enlarged current image was possible to obtain in our fully assembled microelectroncolumn operating in low voltage condition. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00005: COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS 

C1.00006: Variations of the magnetic field at CNSC, VA Tatiana Gilstrap, James Keane The current work had the goal to map the magnetic field at Claytor Nature Study Center (CNSC) near Bedford, VA. Magnetic ground measurements of the total intensity of the magnetic field were conducted over a period of two years. The data were obtained using a Geometrics G856 proton precession magnetometer and were interpreted using the Mag2dc algorithm. The magnetometer provides a repeatable absolute total field magnetic reading. It has resolution of 0.1 nanotesla (nT), and accuracy of 0.5 nT. Readings were taken along several survey lines. Magnetic anomalies due to metal fences, buried pipes, well casings, and power lines were eliminated. The Mag2dc algorithm calculates the magnetic anomaly over 2.5 dimensional bodies. Each body can be represented by a polygon with up to 50 sides. The magnetic susceptibility for each body is assumed to be constant. Magnetic anomalies on the order of a few hundred to over a thousand nT were observed. The results were interpolated to obtain a continuous map of the magnetic field at CNSC. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00007: ENERGY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS 

C1.00008: Storing the Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Casks Licensed for a Century as an Alternative to Recycling Solution Radovan Milincic Management of spent nuclear power reactor fuels is one of the most urgent problems in nuclear technology. Yearly production of new spent fuel is in the range of thousands of tons, topping a couple of hundred thousand tons of spent fuel already. This material is extremely radioactive and currently there is no adequate international policy, control or management regarding it. I propose here an intermediate term solution to this problem, which will be technologically and economically sustainable: interim spentfuel storage as an alternative to reprocessing. The reprocessing inherently increases the net amount of the plutonium, which can be used for production of nuclear arms. Moreover, it is an expensive process with the net effect of producing different type of radioactive waste. In particular, the development of a dry cask for nuclear waste storage on site and transport, licensed for a period of hundred years would provide a significantly less expensive solution in the recent future, giving a needed relief to crowded spentfuel storage pools. Currently in the U.S, NRC licenses existing storage casks for 20 years; and licenses for some of the dry cask storage facilities in the U.S. are about to expire. The extended life dry casks will provide sufficient intermediate period toward a more efficient and/or technologically advanced solution for spent fuel. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00009: Heat Engine with Finite Thermal Reservoirs and Nonideal Efficiency Carl Mungan The performance of an irreversible heat engine operating between two thermal reservoirs with finite, temperatureindependent heat capacity is analyzed. For this purpose, a dynamic secondlaw efficiency is introduced and assumed to be constant. As the firstlaw efficiency increases from zero up to the Carnot limit, the common final temperature of the reservoirs interpolates between the arithmetic and geometric mean of their initial temperatures. The total output work and entropy change of the reservoirs are computed and related to the static efficiencies. The dynamic and static efficiencies are shown to be approximately equal to each other when the temperature of the cold reservoir is at least 10{\%} of the temperature of the hot reservoir. (Reference: LAJPE Vol. 3, pp. 239242, May 2009.) [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00010: Nucleation rates of Ethanol and Methanol using SAFT and PCSAFT equations of state Abdalla Obeidat, Fawaz Hrahsheh The two equations of state (EOS) called SAFT[12] and PCSAFT [3] are used with the most general Gibbsian form Pform (i.e. an exact form without any approximations) of classical nucleation theory (CNT) to see if any improvement could be realized in predicted rates for vapor toliquid nucleation. The standard or Sform of CNT relies on the assumption of an incompressible liquid droplet. With the use of realistic EOS, this assumption is no longer needed. The exact SAFT and PCSAFT EOS will be applied on Methanol and Ethanol to see if the Pform will improve the temperature (T) and supersaturation (S) dependence of the nucleation rate. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00011: Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures Hansoo Kim, Jongbok Park, Yeontack Ryu, Choongho Yu Titanium dioxide (TiO$_{2})$ has been intensively studied due to its useful applications such as dyesensitized solar cells and electrodes in lithium ion batteries. In this study diverse TiO$_{2}$ nanostructures were synthesized by a simplified synthetic method. Since it does not require a high reaction temperature or complicated processes it can be useful for producing a large quantity of TiO$_{2}$ nanomaterials at very low temperatures. Crucial synthesis conditions such as eutectic catalyst (copper), growth temperatures, and annealing time were systematically investigated. Only 30 minutes annealing at 850 $^{\circ}$C was enough to produce denselypacked $\sim $ 10 $\mu $m long nanowires ($\sim $ 100 nm diameter), and a longer reaction time changed morphology from wires to belts. The nanostructures were identified to be rutile structure with the 110 growth direction by xray and electron diffraction. Our simple but effective method can be utilized for other metal oxide nanowires, especially with materials of a high melting temperature. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00012: Structure of archaeal proteasomal ATPase PAN by single particle cryoEM Renee Royal, Yu Yadong, Yifan Cheng ATP dependent protein degradation in eukaryotes by 26S proteasome are essential for many cellular processes including apoptosis, cell cycles and signal transduction. 26S proteasome is composed of a barrel shaped 20S protease core and two regulatory particles capped on each end. The ATPases in the 19S regulatory particles unfold and translocate substrates into 20S for degradation. Archaea has a homologous yet simpler 20S proteasome and a regulatory ATPase, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN.) In this study we used single particle cryoEM to study the three dimensional structure of PAN. We obtained a 3D reconstruction of PAN at a resolution of 18 Angstroms. By docking the atomic structure of PAN's Nterminal domain and ATPase domain to the atomic structure determined xray crystallography, we generated an atomic model of full length PAN ATPase. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00013: Pattern formation in the Structural Scales of the Morpho Butterflies Yichen Shen In this project, we study the pattern formation of structural scales on butterflies' wings from a mechanical view. Our model can be described by a two layers spring system, with transversal springs of spring constant k$_{1}$, and longitudinal springs with spring constant k$_{2}$. The transversal springs act as crossribs connecting particles in each layer, while the longitudinal springs act as pillars connecting both layers. After doing a stability analysis by imposing sinusoidal plane waves to the upper layer, we found that surface roughening is possible to occur even when the interaction force between atoms obeys Hook's law. When the compression of spring system exceeds a certain value (threshold), the whole system will buckle. If we define the pertinacity r=k$_{2}$/k$_{1}$, the buckling is less likely to occur when r is high, and vice versa. To further investigate the preferred wavelength, we allow the particles move freely in 2 dimensions instead of 1 dimension. A c++ program with conjugate gradient algorithm inside was developed to study the uniform compression case. We found the wavelength is actually determined by the compression rate solely, while the maximum compression rate is determined by the translational and longitudinal spring constant. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00014: CenterofMass Reference Frame Technique applied to Conservation of Energy for Ideal Inelastic Collisions Edward Dowdye, Jr. Findings show that the law of conservation of kinetic energy directly applies to inelastic collisions as well as to elastic collisions. The kinetic energy transfer is consistent with the law of conservation of energy which states that energy can neither be created nor annihilated. In an ideal inelastic collision, two colliding masses, M$_{1}$ and M$_{2}$, will move jointly at their centerofmass velocity, $V_{CM} =\textstyle{{M_1 V_1 +M_2 V_2 } \over {M_1 +M_2 }}$. As a consequence, the equation $\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_1 V_1 ^2+\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_2 V_2 ^2\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_1 \left( {V_1 V_{CM} } \right)^2\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_2 \left( {V_2 V_{CM} } \right)^2=\textstyle{1 \over 2}\left( {M_1 +M_2 } \right)V_{CM} ^2$ applies to the ideal inelastic collision. The quantities $\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_1 V_1 ^2$ and $\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_2 V_2 ^2$ are the initial kinetic energies of the masses M$_{1}$ and M$_{2}$, respectively, that would be available in the rest frame if the two masses were to come to a complete stop, V$_{1 }$= 0 and V$_{2}$ = 0. The negative terms, $\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_1 \left( {V_1 V_{CM} } \right)^2$ and $\textstyle{1 \over 2}M_2 \left( {V_2 V_{CM} } \right)^2$, are the kinetic energies transferred into the centerofmass frame as M$_{1}$ and M$_{2}$ go from velocities, V$_{1}$ and V$_{2}$ , respectively, to the velocity V$_{CM}$. The kinetic equation leads directly to the valid conservation of momentum equation $M_1 V_1 +M_2 V_2 =\left( {M_1 +M_2 } \right)V_{CM} $~, a mathematical proof that the kinetic energy is totally conserved for the ideal inelastic collision. For details: \underline {http://www.extinctionshift.com/SignificantFindingsInelastic.htm} [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00015: ASTROPHYSICS 

C1.00016: A Topological Array Trigger for VERITAS Martin Schroedter, J. Anderson, G. Drake, A. Kreps The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is an array of four imaging atmosphericCherenkov telescope. A fast topological trigger system is being built as an upgrade to VERITAS (pending funding) with the scientific goal of reducing the energy threshold for detection of gamma rays. The current trigger system results in a threshold of around 130 GeV, a reflection of the background rates from cosmic rays and nightsky fluctuations. The topological trigger is being designed to further suppress both cosmic rays and nightsky accidentals. At the singletelescope trigger, the rate of nightsky fluctuations will be reduced by a factor of 10 through a narrower coincidence gate. Suppression of cosmic rays will occur at the array level by comparing the image parameters of at least 3 telescopes against a lookup table of simulated gamma rays. The topological trigger uses fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs) and will be adaptable to different observing modes and special physics triggers, e.g. pulsars and bursts. The trigger design and expected performance are presented. This new trigger system could also find application in the planned Advanced GammaRay Imaging System (AGIS). [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00017: Electromagnetic Transients from Supernovae Manthan Kothari A corecollapse supernova (SN) would produce an expanding shell of charged particles which interact with the surrounding magnetic field of the progenitor star producing a transient radio pulse. Approximately one supernova event per century is expected in a galaxy. Such a pulse may be detected by a transient radio array. We present details of an ongoing such for such events by the Eightmeterwavelength Transient Array (ETA). [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00018: Search for Gammaray Emission Coincident with Giant Radio Pulses from the Crab Martin Schroedter, Vladimir Kondratiev, Maxim Lyutikov The Crab Nebula is a pulsarpowered wind nebula and supernova remnant. Nonthermal pulsed and steady emission has been measured from radio to veryhighenergy (VHE, E$>$100 GeV) gammaray energies. At radio wavelengths strong bursts, called giant pulses, are observed at irregular intervals, but no counterparts have been observed at VHE energies. Observations of the Crab were carried out simultaneously with the Green Bank Radio Telescope, Fermi and VERITAS. VERITAS, besides being the most sensitive VHE instrument is also sensitive to bursts of high energy (HE, $>$100 MeV) gamma rays with good sensitivity. We present the results of a search for HE and VHE gammaray emission in coincidence with radio giant pulses. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00019: Monocular Anisotropy with the High Resolution Fly's Eye HiResI detector Benjamin Stokes The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) for nearly a decade. The observatory consisted of two optical detectors (HiResI and HiResII), situated 12.6 km apart, which made stereo measurements of nitrogen fluorescence in UHECR extensive air showers. However, because of operational asymmetries, HiResI accrued a much larger exposure and subsequent monocular data set. While monocular UHECR observations are beset with asymmetric data resolution issues, this data set will continue to provide the largest exposure to UHECR at the highest energies for some years to come. Results of arrival direction anisotropy studies of an expanded HiResI monocular data set will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00020: Mars Neutron/Gammaray Data Clustering Carl Campbell Neutron detectors on spacecraft at Mars and the Moon were designed to look for signs of water; at Mars a gammaray spectrometer was used to measure elemental abundances but no such instrument was added to the current lunar probe. The goal of this research is to determine if there are correlations between neutron and gammaray data at Mars so as to be able to measure elemental abundances at the Moon. To achieve this goal I am using a clustering algorithm to group similar data between neutron and gammaray sets. So far for N clusters, usually chosen here to be between five and eight, the results have excellent repeatability between runs and shapes recognizable with the mars albedo map. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00021: Galactic Rotation withOUT Dark Matter: Solar System Perspective C.F. Gallo, James Feng Planetary rotation around our Sun is described with Newtonian gravity/dynamics. These twobody calculations balance gravitational and centrifugal forces to yield stable orbits. The rotation of disk galaxies involves the gravitational interaction of many bodies, but this data is also described with Newtonian gravity/dynamics by balancing all the gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces at each and every point in the galactic disk to yield stable rotation. A thindisk galaxy is complex mathematical problem that does NOT have an analytical solution. Numerical (computational) techniques are required to obtain an accurate UNIQUE STABLE solution for the radial mass distribution to yield any specific measured rotation curve. Both the Solar and Galactic rotation descriptions are achieved withOUT Mysterious Dark Matter which has never been experimentally detected. Speculations re Dark Matter are NOT required to describe the galactic rotation curves and achieve stability, only Newtonian physics with numerical solutions enabled by modern computational techniques.\\[4pt] References:\\[0pt] http://arxiv.org/abs/astroph/0803.0556\\[0pt] http://arxiv.org/abs/astroph/0804.0217\\[0pt] http://arxiv.org/abs/astroph/0804.3203 [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00022: Exact relativistic viscous fluid solutions in near horizon extremal Kerr background AnaMaria Piso Realistic accretion disk models require a number of ingredients, including viscous fluids, electromagnetic fields and general relativistic corrections. Close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) the latter can be appreciable and (quasi)Newtonian approximations become unreliable. This is particularly true for nearly extremal black holes like GRS 1915+105, where the ISCO almost coincides with the black hole horizon. To describe the physics close to the ISCO adequately in a simplified model we approximate the nearly extremal Kerr geometry by the nearhorizon extremal Kerr geometry and construct in this background relativistic viscous fluid solutions with electromagnetic fields. We discuss some applications of our solutions. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00023: Gravitationalwave Astronomy with Stokes Parameters Ravi kumar Kopparapu, Ruxandra Bondarescu, Ryan Patrick Fisher, Lee Samuel Finn, Meagan Marie Lang, Tiffany Summerscales Polarization measurements have been used for a long time as a source diagnostic in traditional astronomy. Here, we determine the polarization state of a gravitationalwave (GW) by calculating the Stoke's parameters, and we combine these parameters to measure the degree of circular, linear, and elliptical polarization. In general, axisymmetric systems emit linearly polarized GW radiation; Nonaxisymmetric systems emit circularly polarized GW radiation. Therefore, measurements of the degree of GW polarization can potentially be used to identify source structure and properties. We use maximum entropy deconvolution to recover injected GW signals, coherently combining the data from a network of detectors, such as the LIGOVIRGO or the international pulsar timing array. We then compute the Stokes parameters of the recovered waveform and study the sky sensitivity to linear and circular polarization for a groundbased detector network. We investigate at what signal strength one can reliably recover source parameters from polarization measurements and how this recovery depends on sky location. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00024: The Proof of the ``Vortex Theory of Matter'' Russell Moon, Konstantin Gridnev, Victor Vasiliev According to the Vortex Theory, protons and electrons are threedimensional holes connected by fourthdimensional vortices. It was further theorized that when photons are absorbed then readmitted by atoms, the photon is absorbed into the proton, moves through the fourthdimensional vortex, then reemerges back into threedimensional space through the electron. To prove this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted using a hollow aluminum sphere containing a powerful permanent magnet suspended directly above a zinc plate. Ultraviolet light was then shined upon the zinc. The zinc emits electrons via the photoelectric effect that are attracted to the surface of the aluminum sphere. The sphere was removed from above the zinc plate and repositioned above a sensitive infrared digital camera in another room. The ball and camera were placed within a darkened box inside a Faraday cage. Light was shined upon the zinc plate and the picture taken by the camera was observed. When the light was turned on above the zinc plate in one room, the camera recorded increased light coming from the surface of the sphere within the other room; when the light was turned off, the intensity of the infrared light coming from the surface of the sphere was suddenly diminished. Five other tests were then performed to eliminate other possible explanations such as quantumentangled electrons. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00025: Every Heavenly Body When Created Will Have No Motion, Linear, Rotational and/or Vibratory Motion, Singly or in Some Combination Stewart Brekke Each galaxy, star and planet is in a state of no motion, linear, rotational and/or vibratory motion. Orbital motion is linear motion in a force field such as gravity. These motions were created in the formation of the galaxy, star or planet unless modified by external events such as colliding galaxies or impacts such as meteors. Some motions, such as rotations and vibrations may be differential such as in the cases of our sun and the Milky Way galaxy. The basic equation for each heavenly body is as follows. $E = mc^2 + 1/2mv^2 + 1/2I\omega^2 + 1/2Kx^2 + W_G + W_E + W_M$. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00026: Orbits in a two Dimensional Nonaxissymmetric Galactic Potential Nelson Zamorano, Alfredo Gomez, Andres Meza The dynamics of stellar objects, considered as point test particles in a nonaxissymmetric logarithmic galactic potential U(x,y)$\propto \,Ln\left[ {R_c ^2\,+\,x^2\,+\,\frac{y^2}{b^2}} \right]$ are studied numerically and analytically, using a Leapfrog Integrator. This potential is considered as a model of a galaxy in astrophysics since it includes the gravitational effects of both the visible and the dark matter composing it. The ellipticity parameter 0$<$b$<$1~generates a fluctuating torque acting on the moving test particles of the galaxy (actually the stars) and triggers the emergence of a set of non conventional families of orbits. This fluctuating torque provides, in our opinion, a rich field to test concepts like conserved quantities and compare them with the known conventional orbits in mechanics. We provide a simple numerical approach that reproduces most of the orbits associated with this potential. We also analyze the behavior of the torque and angular momentum at the different orbits. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00027: Atom Wavelike Nature Solved Mathematically Charles Sven Like N/S poles of a magnet the strong force field surrounding, confining the nucleus exerts an equal force [noted by this author] driving electrons away from the attraction of positively charged protons force fields in nucleus  the mechanics for wavelike nature of electron. Powerful forces corral closely packed protons within atomic nucleus with a force that is at least a million times stronger than proton's electrical attraction that binds electrons. This then accounts for the ease of electron manipulation in that electron is already pushed away by the very strong atomic N/S force field; allowing electrons to drive photons when I strike a match. Ageless atom's electron requirements, used to drive light/photons or atom bomb, without batteries, must be supplied from a huge, external, super high frequency, supercooled source, undetected by current technology, one that could exist 14+ billion years without degradation  filling a limitless space prior to Big Bang. Using only replicable physics, I show how our Universe emanated from that event. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00028: Renormalization of QED in Hot and Dense Media Samina Masood We study the renormalization of QED in hot and dense media up to the two loop level using realtime formalism. We compare first order contributions to the second order ones in different ranges of temperature and density in reference to the Astrophysical systems. We do the quantitative analysis and study some of the applications to astrophysics and cosmology. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00029: Spin and its relation to the Horizon Richard Kriske The author had previously suggested the the CMBR was not necessarily the result of just the bigbang, but may in fact be the Horizon of the Universe. This conclusion was reached by noting the fact that Horizons of curved surfaces, unlike flat surfaces are nonmagnifiable. If one looks at the Horizon of the earth, say on a beach by the ocean, everything reduces to a line, since the objects at the horizon are tilted backward. If one extends this idea to three curved spatial dimensions and one perpendicular time dimension at each point, it is clear the time dimension tilts back away from the observer at the horizon resulting in what appears to be a velocity at the horizon and the CMBR. Of course, like the earth, the horizon is perfectly relative and it moves with the observer. Light generated at the horizon contains information as to what the perpendicular time dimension was where it was generated and by parallel displacement carrys this information to the observer who compares it to his perpendicular time. The problem is how is this done in Quant. Mechanics. The spin of the photon is an integer that has a set orientation to the time dimension, at the point it was created. The author believes that this may be part of the mechanism, the other part is those photons created on the other side of the horizon. Those photons appear to be going backward in time when they are parallel displaced to the observer and these account for some strange phenomena of light. The spin of fermions is even more interesting. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00030: Inflationary Expansions Generated by a Physically Real Kinematic Acceleration David Savickas A repulsive cosmological acceleration is shown to exist that exhibits a behavior very similar to that found in both inflationary models at the time of origin of the universe, and also in the repulsive acceleration found in presentday cosmological observations. It is able to describe an inflationary model of a radiation universe in considerable numerical detail. It is based on a method that defines the Hubble parameter H, and consequently inertial systems themselves, directly in terms of the positions and velocities of mass particles in a universe. This makes it possible to describe a mass particle's motion relative to other particles in the universe, rather than relative to inertial systems. Because of this, the repulsive acceleration is a real kinematic effect existing in the presentday universe. This definition of H cannot include the use of photon positions or velocities because H determines the velocities of receding inertial systems of galaxies, and the velocity of a photon in a distant inertial system then depends on the definition of H itself. Therefore, at the time of its origin the magnitude of H in a radiation dominated universe would be solely determined by the behavior of the relatively few mass particles that it contained while allowing for a near balance with the gravitation of the FriedmannLema\^itre model. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00031: Dark Matter Waves Orvin Wagner Most physicists believe that dark matter interacts only with gravity. To the contrary, I found a simple way to send signals through mountains. I cannot explain this by any mechanism other than dark matter (DM) waves. In 1999 I published an article explaining the placement of the planets by DM standing waves produced by the solar cycle. DM oscillating gaseous planets organize their satellites with DM waves. The rings of the gaseous planets, without shepherd moons, cannot be placed by gravity alone because most are too sharp and permanent. DM oscillating layers in the planets explain them. Variable stars have layers oscillating with dark matter. DM waves may have had and now have much to do with organizing the universe such as with the recent ``big wave theory.'' Much of local nature may be organized by DM waves, For example plants seem to be organized by waves. A plant's shape has much to do with wave velocity increasing as the angle of the plant part increases to the vertical. In a Ponderosa pine tree the ratio of the vertical velocity to the horizontal velocity is 3/1 while in apple it is 4/3. This may indicate that dark matter's interaction with gravity is anisotropic. See www.home.budget.net/$\sim$oedphd. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00032: Dark matter wave solutions of planetary rings Claudia Wagner, Orvin Wagner To solve ring systems without shepherd moons requires some special assumptions. It is assumed that the planet is layered and the layers are oscillating with dark matter waves, which penetrate the planet's surface with a node at the surface. Velocities above the surface are proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of the dark matter density. The wave amplitude is strong enough to produce a ring 1/2 wavelength above the surface of the planet. For a thick ring we use the outermost radius for calculating the 1/2 wavelength since the lowest frequency is produced by the total layer thickness. I use very approximate wave velocities in each layer so that the added periods of the layer oscillations are equal to (or twice) the total thickness of the oscillating layers in the planet. The composition of the layers is unknown so the result just gives us order of magnitude values. For Saturn the thickest oscillating layer is approximately 4208 km thick. The assumptions are probably fairly good since from previous work the velocity is probably between 1 and 2 m/s. Gaseous planets often have nonoscillating rocky cores, which radii I also calculate. See abstract 1 [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00033: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN 

C1.00034: The Early Universe: Information Dynamics and the Structure of Time William Burdett The evolving concept of time has marked the progress of physics from the Newtonian framework through relativistic revisions and the quantum revolution. It has also vexed and challenged theoretical model building as time proved difficult to define in a consistent manner. Why is time readily reversible in simple dynamical equations while there is an ``arrow of time'' in the behavior of complex systems? While the subjective experience of the passage of time cannot be set aside, the discipline of physics must invest the concept of time with measurable substance to build successful explanatory models. The author contends that functional information as a measure of system complexity can fulfill this task [For example, see Hazen RM, Griffin PL, Carothers JM, and Szostak JW (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA104:85748581]. In the case of the early universe, the singular event was not the ``beginning of time'' but the partition of the universe into observerdependent domains of accessible and inaccessible functional information. Information dynamics at the common domain boundary accounts for the ``arrow of time'' or natural time. Cyclical or ordinary time is confined to the accessible information domain. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00035: A Physical Model of the Metric Expansion of Space John Laubenstein At the heart of IWPD's Scale Metrics (ISM) theory is the realization that any orthogonal relationship may be equivalently expressed as a linear relationship multiplied by a mathematical scalar. This has significance in the relationship of a worldline to its 4Velocity and observed 3Velocity, as well as in understanding the divergence between energy and momentum as invariant mass increases. Spacetime may be depicted by taking the time dimension within fourdimensional spacetime and rotating it until it becomes embedded as a line segment (or ring) within the three spatial dimensions. This allows velocity and momentum to be determined based upon a linear subtraction of physical entities multiplied by a mathematical scalar (X). We will provide evidence supporting the mathematical and physical significance of this scaling factor along with the benefits of ISM theory. This model provides a physical explanation of the metric expansion of space and defines the initial singularity present at the earliest moment of the universe. ISM theory addresses many of the current challenges in physics and makes predictions that are testable with technologies currently in place. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00036: The Physical Origin of LambdaCDM: DM and DE explained James Beichler In the past few decades two new `crises' for fundamental physics have emerged by the observation of phenomena that indicate the existence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. These are not problems which can be solved by quantum theory, but rather problems that are related to gravity theory as expressed by the general theory of relativity. Numerous suggestions and hypotheses have been suggested to explain these problems, but no particular hypothesis or resulting model has proven satisfactory and no model yet proposed seems to be able to explain both DM and DE even though most physicists agree that the two should have a single common explanation. However, one new model has emerged that simply explains both DM and DE. This model includes a fundamental change in Newtonian gravity theory that expands threedimensional space to four dimensions and thus forces the acceptance of an extrinsically curved four dimensional spacetime. The extra term added to Newton's gravity can then be equated to the LambdaCDM or `quintessence' that has been added to Einstein's formula. Yet this new model is not without consequences for the rest of physics and science. Accepting this new model would mean accepting the existence of a macroscopically extended fourth spacelike dimension. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00037: Mass, Energy, Space And Time Systemic TheoryMESTStar And Black Hole Dayong Cao Things have their physical system of the mass, energy, space and time of themselvesMEST The spactime is from the amplitudefrequency. Also them have different spacetime and MEST of themselves, but them have the same formula of the physical lawsprinciple of relativity. There is the balance system of MEST. Also thing can leave off it's old balance system, it will go into a new balance system. The solar system have the massenergy center and the spacetime around. So there is the equation of planet (with a Round revolution orbit), $\frac{1}{2}mv^2+m'c^2=mgr=G\frac{Mm}{r}.$ Among it, $m'c^2$ is the energy of spacetime of planet. And there are these equations: $\Delta \frac{1}{2}mv^2=\Delta m'c^2,{\begin{array}{*{20}c} \hfill \\ \end{array} }\frac{1}{2}mv^2=\frac{1}{2}mgr\to \frac{1}{2}mv^2=m'c^2\to mv^2=mgr\to ma=mg$. It is a energy balance system that is one kind of formula of the balance system of MEST. The black hold system have the spacetime center and the dark massenergy around. The black hole has not a big mass and energy. The light can not leave off it, because the back hole absorb the spacetime (light). When a star burn out, it's massenergy change into the spacetime, so the star change into a big wave ballphotosphere, and go into the black hole. We suppose that there is the nuclear fusion of spacetime of black hole, and the dark massenergy can control the nuclear fusion (of sun). So we can make a new spacecraft with the wave energy driver. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00038: Photons are Weightless in the Local System of Reference Ari Brynjolfsson It is generally surmised that photon's gravitational mass $m_g$ is equivalent to its inertial mass $m_i = h\nu/c^2$. This is derived from incorrectly designed and incorrectly interpreted experiments. For measuring the energy change $\Delta E$ (the gravitational redshift) of a photon during its time of flight $\Delta t$, we must have that $\Delta E \cdot \Delta t > h/(2 \pi)$ (confer uncertainty principle). But in all the many experiments, the product $\Delta E \cdot \Delta t$ is much smaller than $h/(2 \pi )$; see e.g. those by Pound and Repka in Phys. Rev. Lett. 4 (1960) 337. In all the experiments, it was therefore impossible to detect any change in $\Delta E$. No conclusion about photons weight or weightlessness can be derived from any of these experiments. However, plasma redshift and solar redshift experiments, see: Brynjolfsson, arXiv:astroph/0401420, make it clear that $m_g = 0$ for the optical photons in a local system of reference, while in a distant reference system the gravitational redshift is reversed; that is, the photons are seen as gravitationally repelled; see: Brynjolfsson, arXiv:astroph/0408312. The plasma redshift and weightlessness of photons revolutionize the basic physics and cosmology. I will briefly discuss the theory and the cosmological perspective. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00039: PLASMA PHYSICS 

C1.00040: Experimental conditions to observe critical points in fine particle (dusty) plasmas: An inverse problem and solution Hiroo Totsuji Statistical properties of fine particle (dusty) plasmas are characterized by dimensionless parameters and critical points are expected to be observed at some specified combinations. When the experimental conditions of density and temperatures are known, the dimensionless parameters are readily computed. However, it is not straightforward to determine experimental conditions to realize a given combination of dimensionless parameters including charging condition of fine particles. We show some possibilities of critical points [1] and solve this inverse problem as much as possible analytically, giving typical example by finally resorting to numerical methods [2]. The dependency of experimental conditions on various dimensionless characteristic parameters is obtained. We also analyze the dependency on species of neutral atoms. The results may be helpful to observe various phenomena related to the strong coupling between fine particles including possible existence of the critical point. \\[4pt] [1] H. Totsuji, Physics of Plasmas, Vol.15, 072111(2008); Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Vol.42, 214022(2009).\\[0pt] [2] Earlier results have been given in, H. Totsuji, Plasma and Fusion Research, Vol.3, 046(2008). [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00041: First Results from the Wheaton Impulsive Reconnection Experiment D. Craig, D. Blasing, J. Dahlin, D. Stapleton A new experiment for the study of impulsive magnetic reconnection in three dimensions began operation in Spring 2009. The experiment is composed of two parallel electrodes, linked by a magnetic arcade that is generated by a coil surrounding the electrodes. Plasma current I has been varied from 0.5 kA to 11 kA and the startup magnetic field B has been independently varied from 0 to 400 Gauss. A large ratio of I/B is expected to result in instability and potentially reconnection. As this ratio is increased, we observe a sharp transition towards higher fluctuation levels. Two different fueling configurations have been explored  distributed fueling along the cathode and fueling from one end of the cathode. Distributed fueling resulted in discharges extending further down the length of the electrodes. Intensified CCD cameras explore the formation and subsequent evolution of the discharge. Pinhole photodiode array cameras are being constructed to measure emission profiles throughout a single shot. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E. grant DEFG0208ER55002. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00042: The isotropic random path: analysis, simulation, and a physical realization Don Lemons, Trevor Lipscombe, Blake Johnson We derive a set of stochastic differential equations, parameterized with a single diffusion constant, that describes an isotropic, onedimensional random path embedded in three dimensions. These equations apply to several diverse systems: charged particles, photons, and polymers. The mean and variance of the squared distance between the ends of the path depend only upon the diffusion constant and the path length. We illustrate this dependence with numerical simulations and test it by gathering data on a physical realization consisting of segments of thread suspended in glycerol. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00043: Influence Of Finite Larmor Radius Effects On Development Of Drift Flute Turbulence With The Presence Of Ion Temperature Gradient Essam Yasin, V. Sotnikov, J. Kindel, O.G. Onishchnko, J.N. Leboeuf Investigation of flute mode instability in the presence of ion temperature gradient effects will be presented. The approached used in this study allows to analyze spatial scales comparable with the ion Larmor radius. Linear analysis of this system shows that the range of unstable wavelengths in a plasma with large ion charge numbers extends into the region of spatial scales of the order of the ion Larmor radius. Nonlinear stage of the instability was analyzed numerically using the modified FLUTE code. Mixing length estimates of nonlinear saturation levels are in good agreement with simulation results. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00044: Quasisymmetry in magnetic fusion energy confinement devices Andrew Ware, Kathleen McGarvey Quasisymmetry in threedimensional magnetic confinement devices provides a path for external control of the confining magnetic field while achieving confinement comparable to axisymmetric configurations. In a quasisymmetric toroidal configuration, magnetic field strength in magnetic flux coordinates depends primarily on two coordinates, $B\left( \psi, \theta, \zeta \right) \approx B\left( \psi, M\theta + N\zeta \right)$ where $M$ and $N$ are integers. Here, $\psi$ is the flux coordinate (analogous to a toroidal radial coordinate) while $\theta$ and $\zeta$ are the poloidal and toroidal angles in magnetic flux coordinates (a coordinate system in which the magnetic field lines are straight). In this work, different classes of quasisymmetric configurations are compared from quasiaxisymmetric ($M=1,N=0$) to quasihelically symmetric ($M\ne 0, N\ne 0$) to quasipoloidally symmetric ($N=1,M=0$). This is a numerical investigation in which equilibria are optimized for different quasisymmetries but with other parameters such as average field strength, major radius, and aspect ratio, equivalent across the configurations. Equilibrium and transport characteristics will be compared across the configurations. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00045: First Deployment of an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an Advanced Source of Hard Xrays J.D. Gillaspy, E. Silver, E.P. Kanter, N.S. Brickhouse, R.W. Dunford, K. Kirby, T. Lin, J. McDonald, D. Schneider, S. Seifert, L. Young We have deployed an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) at the Advanced Photon Source. The EBIT was cooled to 4K with a cryocooler and mounted on stepper motors to allow precise adjustment relative to the xray beam. The electron and xray beams crossed at a right angle in the horizontal plane. Spectra of photons emitted offaxis from the incident beams were recorded as Kr26+ and Ar8+ ions were subjected to xrays up to 18 keV. No heating or other adverse effects on the operation of the cryogenic ion trap were experienced. Spectra and lessons learned for future work will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00046: Experimental Measurement of Whistler Waves at the LAPTAG high school plasma laboratory Chloe Echtebas, Roland Hwang, Jane Shin, Walter Gekelman, Patrick Pribyl, Joe Wise, Robert Baker, Amy Lee The vector magnetic field of whistler waves above and below half the electron cyclotron frequency is measured in 2 dimensions in a 51$\times $31 plane with $\delta z=1$cm, $\delta x=1$cm, $B=B_{0z} \le 100$ G, and $\delta t=0.4$ns. The experiments are performed in a high school plasma physics lab featuring a 1.5 meter long, 30 cm diameter pulsed, inductively coupled RF Argon plasma ($F_{rf} =625$Hz, $P\le 1$kW, $\tau _{plasma} =10$ms, $\tau _{rep} =50$ms, $10^8\le n\le 10^{12}\;\mbox{cm}^{3})$. The three axis $\frac{d\vec {B}}{dt}$ probe, single loop launch antenna and signal detection amplifiers were constructed by the high school students. A phaselocked tone burst is generated at a fixed frequency and launches a whistler wave; each data plane takes six hours to acquire. Data is acquired with a computer controlled 2D drive and a networked 2.5 Gs (440 MHz) digital oscilloscope. The experiment is conducted in the quiescent afterglow 1 to 20 ms after the RF plasma production is terminated. The plasma density is also measured at each position. We present maps of the phase fronts of the wave, and group velocity as a function of frequency together with movies. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00047: Comparison of measured whistler wave energy flow to theory in the LAPTAG plasma device Amy Lee, Yuhou Wang, Chloe Echtebas, Walter Gekelman, Patrick Pribyl, Joe Wise, Robert Baker The two dimensional structure of whistler waves measured in a high school plasma laboratory device is compared to theory. The wave dispersion is dependent on the plasma density and magnetic field. Spatial variation of the magnetic field is determined by the currents in coils surrounding the chamber. Magnetic field gradients can be imposed by programming individual coil currents and density variations along the field can be changed by varying the chamber pressure. The magnetic fields are measured with a Gaussmeter and calculated with a computer program. The wave propagation is analyzed using a ray tracing program. Index of refraction curves are generated from the measured plasma parameters. The magnetic wavefield data is acquired at a variety of background magnetic fields, wave frequencies and plasma densities. The experimental data is then located on the index of refraction curve. The group velocity of the wave is compared to ray tracing predictions. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00048: Using a plasma physics experiment to expand student understanding of the index of refraction Joe Wise, Walter Gekelman, Robert Baker, Patrick Pribyl The Los Angeles Physics Alliance Group (LAPTAG) Plasma Lab has met regularly at UCLA for the past 9 years. High school students have been involved in the construction of probes, amplifiers, antennae, machine shop use, printed circuit construction, experimental design, and scientific programming for the analysis of data. We describe a unique opportunity for high school students to participate in the process of science. Using plasma physics as an educational ``hook,'' students are engaged through a series of experiments, lectures, presentations, and group discussions. The outcome is that students gain a deeper understanding of the scientific method and in this case, the concepts of index of refraction and its effects on wave propagation. For example, students comprehend such advanced topics as dispersion, kspace, plasma properties, and wave group and phase velocities. This engagement supports efforts to improve STEM career choices by exposing high school students to challenging and interesting experiences in preparation for advanced study. [Preview Abstract] 

C1.00049: A FEMFCT Modeling for Gas Discharge Simulation Wook Hee Koh A fluid model for gas discharge simulation using finite element method flux corrected transport (FEMFCT) scheme is presented. In this model, the convectiondiffusion equations include the effects of ionization, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and is formulated by FEMFCT. The electric field in discharge region is calculated by solving Poisson's equation. The results of applying to a corona discharge simulation agree well with previously published results. [Preview Abstract] 
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