Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2019
Volume 64, Number 2
Monday–Friday, March 4–8, 2019; Boston, Massachusetts
Session V24: General Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics II: Photonics and New Platforms for Topological States |
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Sponsoring Units: DAMOP Chair: Stojan Rebic, American Physical Society APS Room: BCEC 159 |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 2:30PM - 2:42PM |
V24.00001: Aharonov-Bohm cages in photonic lattices Sebabrata Mukherjee, Marco Fedele Di Liberto, Patrik Öhberg, Robert R. Thomson, Nathan Goldman We report on the experimental realization of a uniform synthetic magnetic flux and the observation of Aharonov-Bohm cages in a rhombic photonic lattice of optical waveguides. In the regime where half a flux quantum is realized in each plaquette, all the energy bands collapse into nondispersive (flat) bands. The resulting localized eigenstates are then probed by studying the propagation of light in the bulk and at the edge of the photonic lattice. Our photonic lattice constitutes an appealing platform where the interplay between engineered gauge fields, frustration, localization, and topological properties can be finely studied. We further theoretically explore the localization properties of this system in the presence of interparticle mean-field interactions, which appear in photonic lattices as optical nonlinearities when increasing the light beam power. Surprisingly, we find that there still exist caged solutions and their nonlinear dynamics is accompanied with a breathing motion of the particle density reminiscent of a bosonic Josephson junction. Our results open an interesting route towards the characterization of nonlinear dynamics in flat band systems. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 2:42PM - 2:54PM |
V24.00002: Role of long-range interactions in one-dimentional non-Hermitian topological photonic systems Boxiang Wang, Changying Zhao We study topological phonon polaritons (TPhPs) in one-dimensional dimerized silicon carbide nanoparticle chains. While the topological property of longitudinal modes is like the conventional Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, for transverse modes, we find a topological phase transition at a substantially large lattice constant, due to the presence of long-range non-Hermitian interactions in an infinitely long chain. On the other hand, in the finite chain, due to these interactions, the edge and bulk modes become hybridized. In this situation, the non-Hermitian skin effect, i.e., the emergence of localized bulk modes over the edges, leads to the breakdown of bulk-boundary correspondence. By considering this effect and subsequently proposing a modified complex Zak phase for a finite chain, the topological behavior of the conventional SSH model is still recovered. Our study provides profound implications to the fields of non-Hermitian topological physics and quantum mechanical models with long-range interactions. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 2:54PM - 3:06PM |
V24.00003: Optical Information Processing with Entangled Topological States David Simon, Shuto Osawa, Alexander Sergienko Topological quantities such as winding number or Chern number have become important tools for solid state physics, and more recently for photonic systems. These topological numbers are highly stable against external perturbations, which makes them attractive for encoding qubits in a robust manner. But they are difficult to determine by local measurements, especially in photonic systems, where the relevant information is often carried by a single photon that is destroyed in the measurement. Here, we use linear optical multiports as a means of constructing systems in which winding number and polarization are jointly entangled. This leads to a reduction in bit flip errors, due to the topological stability of the winding number, while the linkage to polarization simplifies the process of measuring the topological variable. This opens a new range of possible quantum information processing applications. We examine topologically-entangled bulk and boundary states, and outline several applications, such as the construction of topologically-protected photonic memory registers and of entangled memory registers. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 3:06PM - 3:18PM |
V24.00004: Near-field levitated optomechanics with a photonic crystal cavity Sungkun Hong, Lorenzo Magrini, Richard Norte, Ralf Riedinger, Igor Marinković, David Grass, Uros Delic, Simon Groeblacher, Markus Aspelmeyer Optically levitated dielectric particles has recently emerged as a new system in quantum optomechanics. It offers excellent mechanical coherence under high vacuum and a possibility to optically configure potential landscapes. An outstanding problem is the lack of methods to manipulate the particle at the quantum level. Here we introduce a nanophotonic interface that addresses this challenge. By optically trapping a 150 nm silica particle and placing it in the near field of a nanofabricated photonic cavity, we achieve a single-photon optomechanical coupling of up to g_{0}/2π = 9 kHz. Combined with an efficient guiding of light through the nanophotonic structure, we demonstrate a 'per-photon' displacement sensitivity increased by two orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments using far-field detection. I will discuss future outlook of the work, including several room-temperature quantum experiments that can be performed. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 3:18PM - 3:30PM |
V24.00005: Electromagnetically induced transparency in disordered and bidirectional chiral waveguide quantum electrodynamics Imran Mirza, John C Schotland Emitters coupled to nanophotonic waveguides architectures have gained a lot of attention due to the possibility of chiral (unidirectional) couplings between the emitters and the waveguide field [Nature, 541, 473-480 (2017)]. Till date most of the work on many emitter-waveguide quantum electrodynamics has focused on the scenario in which emitters are periodically placed and are symmetrically coupled with the waveguide. I this talk, I'll present single-photon transport problem in a one-dimensional disordered lattice of three-level emitters coupled to a waveguide [JOSA B, 35, 5 (2018)]. In particular, I'll consider Λ-type three-level emitters capable of exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency and separately consider disorder in the atomic positions and transition frequencies. The question I'll address is how chiral emissions can imapct the formation of spatially localized states. This work has possible applications to quantum networks and quantum communications. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 3:30PM - 3:42PM |
V24.00006: Light localization in disordered medium by scattering dislocation sites Farbod Shafiei, Tommaso Orzali, Man Hoi Wong, Gennadi Bersuker, Michael C Downer Threading dislocation defects at mismatch interfaces between III-V and Si substrate, act as light scattering sites in this disordered medium. Light get localized within the semiconductor film due to multiple scattering by these sites. We had studied the signature of such localizations in nonlinear regime (to avoid the dominating surface linear reflection). Localization signatures are observed in the series of optical measurements using a fiber scanning probe microscope that allows to analyze the light–matter interaction at these atomic irregularities in the material stacks. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 3:42PM - 3:54PM |
V24.00007: Disordered photonic bandgap materials, from functional deice design to self-assembly progress. Bowen Yu, Brandon Gunn, Zhennan Feng, Remi Dreyfus, Weining Man Disordered photonic band gap materials are not limited to crystalline symmetries, hence offering unprecedented freedom for functional-defect designs, an inherent advantage associated with the isotropy of the structure. Beyond our previous works in disordered photonic structures, we made further progresses in both functional device designs and self-assembling attempts. We designed hyperuniform-disordered wall-networks for coupling 1.55-micron waves effectively in and out thin Silicon slabs. We systematically studied how various design parameters can be optimized for the best total efficiency, the best directional coupling and the broadest angle coupling. This can be potentially useful for integrated photonic circuits, and large-area and wide-angle light emitters and sensors. Microscopic disordered patterns with different degrees of hyperuniformity can be experimentally realized by driving colloidal suspensions out of equilibrium in a flow with different degrees of shearing. We found a clear correlation between the easiness (minimum required index-contrast) in opening photonic bandgap with the transition of displacement amplitude. This may open new routes for bottom-up self-assemblies of functional photonic materials. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 3:54PM - 4:06PM |
V24.00008: Chiral transport and localization in a bosonic analogue of the Kitaev-Majorana chain Alexander McDonald, Tami Pereg-Barnea, Aashish Clerk We study a bosonic system whose real-space Hamiltonian has a form analogous to the celebrated Kitaev chain model of a 1D p-wave superconductor [1]. The system is a 1D chain of non-interacting bosonic cavities which are subject to nearest-neighbour parametric driving. With a suitable choice of drive phases, the system has a number remarkable properties. It exhibits phase dependent chirality: photons propagate and are amplified in a direction that is determined by the phase of the initial drive or excitation. Further, we find a extreme sensitivity to boundary conditions which could serve as a potential quantum sensor. We show that many of these properties can be connected to the dynamics and topology of effective non-Hermitian models (despite our system being fully Hermitian). Our model could be realized in several different superconducting microwave circuits setups (e.g. [2,3]) or silicon photonic platforms (e.g. [4]). |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 4:06PM - 4:18PM |
V24.00009: Topological bands and triply-degenerate points in non-Hermitian hyperbolic metamaterials Junpeng Hou, Zhitong Li, Xiwang Luo, qing gu, Chuanwei Zhang Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), an unusual class of electromagnetic metamaterials, have found important applications in various fields due to their distinctive properties. A surprising feature of HHMs found recently is that even continuous HMMs can possess topological edge modes. However, previous studies based on equal-frequency surface (analogy of Fermi surface) may not correctly capture the topology of entire bands. Here we develop a topological band description for continuous HMMs that can be described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian formulated from Maxwell’s equations. We find two types of three dimensional photonic triply-degenerate points with topological charges ±2 and 0 induced by chiral and gyromagnetic effects that break spatial inversion and time-reversal symmetries, respectively. Because of the photonic nature, the vacuum band plays an important role for topological edge states and bulk-edge correspondence in HMMs. The topological band results are numerically confirmed by direct simulation of Maxwell’s equations. Our work presents a general nonHermitian topological band treatment of continuous HMMs, paving the way for exploring interesting topological phases in photonic continua. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 4:18PM - 4:30PM |
V24.00010: Large Stark Tuning of InAs/InP Quantum Dots Shahriar Aghaeimeibodi, Chang-Min Lee, Mustafa Atabey Buyukkaya, Christopher Richardson, Edo Waks Quantum dots are excellent sources of single-photon emission and are among the most promising candidates for scalable quantum photonic circuits. However, geometric differences in each quantum dot lead to slightly different emission wavelengths and hinders the possibility of generating multiple identical quantum emitters on the same chip. Stark tuning is an efficient technique to overcome this issue by controlling the emission energy of individual quantum dots. InAs/InP quantum dots are bright single-photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength band. Stark tuning of these quantum dots has been previously limited to shifts below 1 nm due to the introduction of additional charges. Here, we demonstrate up to 8 nm of Stark tuning in the emission wavelength of InAs/InP quantum dots. Moreover, the single-photon nature and narrow linewidth of the quantum dot emission is preserved under the applied electric field. This result is an important step toward implementing multiple identical quantum emitters at telecom wavelengths, which is crucial for realizing complex quantum photonic circuits for quantum information processing. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 4:30PM - 4:42PM |
V24.00011: A nanomechanical-circuit QED analogue of the Unruh effect Hui Wang, Miles P Blencowe, Alexander J Rimberg, Christopher Wilson In the Unruh Effect (UE), a uniformly accelerating detector is predicted to `see' thermal photons in the vacuum. A longstanding challenge is to demonstrate the UE in tabletop experiments. However, impracticably high accelerations are required in order to produce a measurable thermal photon signal. An alternative approach is to consider condensed matter analogues, where the governing quantum dynamics closely maps onto that of the genuine UE, but which are more easily realised in experiment. We consider a feasible UE analogue involving two coupled superconducting circuit microwave resonators, one playing the role of the photon detector, the other the vacuum cavity. The coupling is via a GHz mechanically oscillating film bulk acoustic resonator, with its fundamental dilatational frequency matching the microwave resonators' fundamental frequencies, functioning effectively as a non-degenerate parametric amplifier with mechanical pump. We show how the resulting photon pair production from vacuum can be verified through available quantum limited linear detection techniques. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 4:42PM - 4:54PM |
V24.00012: Experimental design and theoretical model building for higher-order topological insulators Ronny Thomale Higher-order topological states establish a new complexity class of topological matter. The contemporary challenge is to devise experimental scenarios in which such exotic states of matter can unfold. We report on a synthetic topological matter realization of a quadrupolar topological insulator in a topolectrical circuit array [Imhof et al., Nature Physics 14, 925 (2018)]. Transcending from specific realizations of this phenomenon, we attempt to draw a line to previous observations of dimensional edge mode hierarchies [Sessi et al., Science 354, 1269 (2016)] before the field's terminology first emerged in 2017. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 4:54PM - 5:06PM |
V24.00013: Measurement of fractional corner charges in rotationally symmetric crystalline topological insulator metamaterials Christopher Peterson, Wladimir Benalcazar, Tianhe Li, Taylor Hughes, Gaurav Bahl Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) with bulk dipole and higher multipole moments can host quantized fractional charges at their boundaries. Recently, it was shown that rotationally symmetric TCIs with vanishing bulk electric moments can also host quantized fractional electric charges at their corners. We used arrays of coupled microwave frequency resonators to experimentally investigate the local density of states (LDOS) in C3- and C4-symmetric crystalline topological lattices. We find that the LDOS is indeed fractionally quantized, in an analogous way as what is expected for the corner charge in their fermionic counterparts. Moreover, we show experimentally that these fractional LDOS are associated with corner-localized states that, although initially may be hidden within bulk energy bands, can be pulled out of them and be spectrally isolated. When these arrays are transitioned into their topological trivial phase, on the other hand, no fractionalization is observed, and consequently, corner-localized states cannot be isolated. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 5:06PM - 5:18PM |
V24.00014: Weyl exceptional rings in a lossy magnetically biased plasma Kunal Shastri, Francesco Monticone Weyl exceptional rings are closed contours in momentum space along which both energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a system coalesce. These rings emerge in Weyl semimetals subject to non-Hermitian perturbations. We report the existence of Weyl exceptional rings in the electromagnetic dispersion of a lossy plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. We describe the conditions under which topologically protected surface states can be preserved or destroyed by changing losses in the system. Increasing losses changes the size of the exceptional rings and anisotropic losses at certain angles relative to the external magnetic field can cause two rings of opposite charge to annihilate each other. This system offers a window to study the rich physics of exceptional rings in a range of plasmonic materials including the optical response of magnetically biased metals and semiconductors. |
Thursday, March 7, 2019 5:18PM - 5:30PM |
V24.00015: Microwave shielding of ultracold polar molecules Tijs Karman, Jeremy M. Hutson We use microwaves to engineer repulsive long-range interactions between ultracold polar molecules [1]. The resulting shielding suppresses various loss mechanisms and provides large elastic cross sections. Hyperfine interactions limit the shielding under realistic conditions, but a magnetic field allows suppression of the losses to below 10^{-14} cm^{3} s^{-1} . The mechanism and optimum conditions for shielding differ substantially from those proposed by Gorshkov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073201 (2008)], and do not require cancelation of the long-range dipole-dipole interaction that is vital to many applications. |
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