Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2019
Volume 64, Number 2
Monday–Friday, March 4–8, 2019; Boston, Massachusetts
Session H02: Topological Metamaterials and Functional NanostructuresFocus

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Sponsoring Units: DMP Chair: Yongmin Liu, Northeastern University Room: BCEC 107A 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 2:30PM  3:06PM 
H02.00001: Topological Metamaterials Invited Speaker: Andrea Alu In this talk, I discuss our recent research activity in electromagnetics, nanooptics, acoustics and mechanics, showing how suitably tailored metaatoms and arrangements of them open exciting venues to induce topological order for light, radiowaves and sound, mimicking the response of electronic topological insulators. Our approaches are based on using suitably tailored mechanical motion, spatiotemporal modulation, large nonlinearities in coupled resonator systems, and bianisotropy in order to induce the required symmetry breaking in periodic systems that yields topologically nontrivial wave propagation. In the talk, I will also discuss the impact of these concepts from basic science to practical technology. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 3:06PM  3:18PM 
H02.00002: Twodimensional mechanical metamaterials with unusual Poisson ratio behavior David Tomanek, Dan Liu, Zhibin Gao We design twodimensional mechanical metamaterials that may be deformed substantially at little or no energy cost. Examples of such deformable structures are assemblies of rigid isosceles triangles hinged in their corners on the macroscale, or polymerized phenanthrene molecules forming porous graphene on the nanoscale. In these and in a large class of related structures, the Poisson ratio ν diverges for particular strain values. ν also changes its magnitude and sign, and displays a shape memory effect. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 3:18PM  3:30PM 
H02.00003: A programmable modular metamaterial with alterable Poisson’s ratio and multistability Xiaoyi Jiang, Jiayao Ma, Yan Chen Modular metamaterials are artificially designed materials constructed by linked modules, often with properties surpassing these constituent modules. To achieve certain required deformation modes and mechanical properties, the modules are usually linked to form a mobile mechanism or a deformable structure. Here we present a novel 3D modular metamaterial constructed of hinged blocks, which utilizes both to realize alterable Poisson’s ratio and multistability. We demonstrate through theoretical analysis and experiments that upon axial compression, a single unit of the new metamaterial has two distinct mechanism motion stages with positive and negative Poisson’s ratio, respectively. And in between there exist a structure deformation stage, thereby forming a mechanismstructuremechanism transition with bistability. Both the magnitude of Poisson’s ratio and the energy needed to bypass the structure deformation stage is programmable through two design parameters. In addition, the single unit can be stacked axially to form a tubular metamaterial with progressive folding deformation mode and multistability. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 3:30PM  3:42PM 
H02.00004: Seeded glancingangle deposition of nanoparticlenanowire hybrid structures Kai Trepka, Ye Tao The controllable handling of an arbitrary single particle of matter < 50 nm is an essential but unsolved technological challenge. Applications are wide, ranging from fabrication of functionalized scanning probe tips and samples to the sorting of biological particles such as enzymes and viruses for research and drug development [14]. Here, we demonstrate a method to handle single copies of nanoparticles (NP) with diameters from 10100 nm. The procedure is based on the production of nanoparticlenanowire hybrid structures using glancingangle deposition (GLAD), with arbitrary NP seeds. The result is a nanoparticle tip attached to a silicon oxide nanowire handle for facile manipulation. To showcase the generality and versatility of the process, we demonstrate its applicability to a range of NP sizes and compositions (FeO, Au, and Fe@C NP). Such tiphandle growth using arbitrary NPs enables manipulation and heterostructure creation at nanoscale, with wideranging applications. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 3:42PM  3:54PM 
H02.00005: Passive Radiative Thermostat Enabled by PhaseChange Photonic Nanostructures Wilton De Melo KortKamp, Shobhita Kramadhati, Abul K Azad, Matthew T Reiten, Diego A R Dalvit A thermostat senses the temperature of a physical system and switches heating or cooling devices on or off, regulating the flow of heat to maintain the system’s temperature near a desired set point. Taking advantage of recent advances in radiative heat transfer technologies, here we propose a passive radiative thermostat based on phasechange photonic nanostructures for thermal regulation at room temperature. By selfadjusting their visible to midIR absorptivity and emissivity responses depending on the ambient temperature, the proposed devices use the sky to passively cool or heat during daytime using the phasechange transition temperature as the set point, while at nighttime temperature is maintained at or below ambient. We simulate the performance of a passive nanophotonic thermostat design based on vanadium dioxide thin films, showing daytime passive cooling (heating) with respect to ambient in hot (cold) days, maintaining an equilibrium temperature approximately locked within the phase transition region. Passive radiative thermostats can potentially enable novel thermal management technologies, for example, to moderate diurnal temperature in regions with extreme annual thermal swings. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 3:54PM  4:06PM 
H02.00006: Quantum electrodynamics of photonic Weyl points Iñaki GarciaElcano, Alejandro GonzalezTudela, Jorge BravoAbad The recent realization of photonic Weyl points in threedimensional photonic crystals [1,2] has drawn significant interest due to their potential as highly controllable platforms to explore topological phenomena [3]. In this talk, we present a systematic study of the decay dynamics of quantum emitters embedded in Weylpoint photonic materials. By combining both analytical and numerical approaches [4], we show how the unique dispersion of photonic Weyl points enables the emergence of a novel lightmatter bound state, which cannot be described by conventional perturbative treatments. Potential applications of these findings in emerging quantum technologies are also discussed. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 4:06PM  4:18PM 
H02.00007: Control of radiative processes using periodic arrays of plasmonic nanostructures Yuwaraj Adhikari, Ying Li, Christos Argyropoulos, Thang Hoang The radiative processes of a quantum emitter can be profoundly altered by its surrounding photonic environment. In this report we explore fundamentals of the lightmatter interactions between quantum emitters (such as semiconductor quantum dots or organic molecules) and periodic lattices of plasmonic nanostructures. A lattice of metallic nanostructures provide high photonic density of states via local and lattice plasmon resonances. Via computational and experimental studies, we demonstrate the emission rate enhancement of quantum emitters by integrating them with arrays of plasmonic nanostructures. A set of parameters including size, shape, and lattice constant will be discussed. In particular, an array of plasmonic nanostructures operating near their cutoff frequency can exhibit effective epsilonnearzero which is expected to trigger both enhanced spontaneous emission and superradiance.[1] Control of radiative processes using local and lattice plasmon resonances also benefits from possibilities of leveraging multiple energy bands. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 4:18PM  4:30PM 
H02.00008: Topological Phononic Logic Jennifer Wang, Harris Pirie, Shuvom Sadhuka, Jennifer Hoffman Topological metamaterials have protected dissipationless boundary modes engineered from their macroscopic arrangement, rather than their microscopic constituency. They can be designed by breaking either symmetryenforced or accidental degeneracy in Dirac metamaterials. The latter case provides greater flexibility because a large number of tuning parameters can break the degeneracy to induce a topological phase. However, the design of a topological logic element, a switch that can be controlled by the output of a separate switch, remains elusive. Here we numerically demonstrate a topological phononic logic gate by exploiting the large phase space of accidental degeneracies in a honeycomb lattice. We find that a degeneracy can be broken by six physical parameters, and we tune these parameters to create a topological phononic switch that can be triggered by ultrasonic heating. Our design scheme is directly applicable to photonic crystals and may guide future designs of electronic topological transistors [1]. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 4:30PM  4:42PM 
H02.00009: Photonic implementation of algebraic number theory Sean Gorsky, Fabrizio Sgrignuoli, Luca Dal Negro We study the unique spectral and optical features of a new class of aperiodic arrays generated from the distribution of prime numbers in complex quadratic fields as well as quaternion primes. By using a multiple scattering spectral method, we have discovered several unique spectral properties, such as light localization, critical level statistics, and the existence of critical modes, i.e. extended fractal modes with long lifetime that cannot be supported in traditional systems. A systematic analysis based on LDOS calculations unveil the new functionalities of these complex aperiodic platforms for lasing applications. Our results unveil the importance of aperiodic structures characterized by a coexistence of singular and continuous spectral components for the engineering of new photonic architectures based on algebraic number theory. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 4:42PM  4:54PM 
H02.00010: “Fractional Photonics”: designing light transport in complex aperiodic media Luca Dal Negro Spacetime fractional transport equations are integrodifferential equations with powerlaw kernels that naturally account for the nonlocal and memory effects that become important in strongly nonhomogeneous environments.In this talk I will discuss the applications of fractional calculus methods to photonics, with emphasis on the physics of multiple light scattering in structurallycomplex, aperiodic optical structures and metamaterials. I will focus on our recent results on tunable, subdiffusive photon transport of ultrashort pulses a across deterministic aperiodic media with multifractal energy spectra and critical mode localization. I will discuss fractional photon diffusion in the presence of optically amplifying media, thus generalizing Letokhov’s treatment of nonresonant uniform random structures to disordered media with arbitrary correlations. The concept of a “fractional random laser” will be introduced along with detailed predictions on its laser threshold and dynamical behavior. The combination of fractional calculus with photonic devices represents a novel and effective approach for the engineering of complex optical structures with anomalous photon transport and amplification properties leading to enhanced lightmatter interaction across multiple spectral bands. 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 4:54PM  5:30PM 
H02.00011: Topological Photonics Invited Speaker: CheTing Chan We will begin with 1D photonic crystals, in which the Zak phase of the bulk bands can be used to predict the existence of boundary modes. For 2D systems, we show that meticulously designed photonic crystals can achieve the duality condition, enabling the realization of photonic topological insulators which can be regarded as classical wave counterparts of electronic topological insulator. We will also see that symmetryprotected pseudospin states that are guided in air ican be realized simply by imposing certain special electromagnetic boundary conditions. Such systems are unique to EM wave and do not have electronic counterparts. We then discuss the realization of Weyl points in 3D photonic crystals carrying chiral structures. Oneway edge modes are found on the boundary of these systems as a result of the synthetic gauge flux emerging from the Weyl nodes. These structures possess single Weyl points, including “typeII” nodes, and Weyl points with topological charges higher then one. Weyl points can also be found in some woodpile photonic crystals. The sign of topological charge will change when the constituent materials change, leading to a topological phase transition and the bands change from topologically trivial to nontrivial. We will see that Weyllike nodal points can be found in the parameter space of a 1D photonic crystals with complex unit cells. The reflection at the surface of these photonic crystals exhibits phase vortexes, which guarantees the existence of interface states between photonic crystals and any reflecting substrates. In addition, we will see that helical structures that be used to realize threedimension photonic Dirac points, with fourfold symmetry stabilized by electromagnetic duality symmetry. These systems carry spinpolarized surface arcs that can be realized experimentally. 
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