Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2017
Volume 62, Number 4
Monday–Friday, March 13–17, 2017; New Orleans, Louisiana
Session V34: Advanced MetamaterialsFocus

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Sponsoring Units: DMP DCMP Chair: Alexander Govorov, Ohio University Room: 297 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 2:30PM  3:06PM 
V34.00001: Generation of entangled photon states in nonlinear nanostructures and metamaterials Invited Speaker: Alexander Poddubny Entangled photon states are promising for quantum computing, cryptography and metrology. While room temperature quantum interference of light on a chip has been recently demonstrated, the light generation still relied on external bulk nonlinear crystals [1]. The practical development of compact and robust nonlinear quantum circuits calls for a versatile toolbox which can fully describe the generation and detection of entangled photons and plasmons. Here, we present theoretical and experimental results on entangled photon pair generation and sumfrequency generation in complex nonlinear nanostructures.\\ \\We formulate a general theoretical framework of integrated paired photonplasmon generation through spontaneous wave mixing in nonlinear plasmonic and metamaterial nanostructures, rigorously accounting for material dispersion and losses in the quantum regime through the electromagnetic Green function [2]. As a specific application of our approach we design nonlinear metal/ dielectric plasmonic structures and predict photonplasmon correlations with 70\% internal heralding quantum efficiency. We reveal a novel mechanism of generation enhancement in a multilayered metaldielectric metamaterial, originating from the broadband phase synchronism at the topological transition to the hyperbolic dispersion regime. Next, we prove a general quantumclassical reciprocity relation between the spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) in an arbitrary nonlinear structure and the reverse sum frequency generation process. We formulate a quantum process tomography protocol to determine a biphoton state produced via SPDC by using only classical measurements. The classical reconstruction of amplitude and phase of biphoton wavefunction has been experimentally verified in a multichannel integrated nonlinear waveguide array [3].\\ \\$[1]$ J.S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y.A. Kelaita and H.A. Atwater, Nature Photonics 8, 317 (2014).\newline [2] A. N. Poddubny, I.V. Iorsh, and A.A. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123901 (2016).\newline [3] F. Lenzini, A.N. Poddubny, J. Titchener, P. Fisher, A. Boes, S. Kasture, B. Haylock, M. Villa, A. Mitchell, A. S. Solntsev, A.A. Sukhorukov, and M. Lobino, in preparation (2017). [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 3:06PM  3:18PM 
V34.00002: Coupling of metamaterial resonance with properties of multiferroic TbMn$_{\mathrm{2}}$O$_{\mathrm{5}}$ Daniel M. Heligman, A. M. Potts, M. T. Warren, R. Vald\'es Aguilar, SW Cheong Metamaterials have been extensively studied with a focus on negative index of refraction, resonant absorption, optical phase control, and optical activity among other properties. Although the fundamental properties of metamaterials are interesting, the interaction between them and the properties of exotic substrates has not been researched. We analyze the effect of using a multiferroic material as a substrate on the resonant properties of a metamaterial whose unit structure is a gammadion cross. We use multiferroic material TbMn$_2$O$_5$ as a substrate. This multiferroic has an electromagnon resonance around 300 GHz, close to where the gammadion metamaterial also has a resonant absorption. We find evidence of interaction between these modes in the frequency shift of the electromagnon resonance by a few tens of GHz. We will present these results together with a complete study of gammadion cross metamaterials, experiment and simulation, as a function of their size and the periodicity of the structure grown on Si substrates. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 3:18PM  3:30PM 
V34.00003: EpsilonnearZero Metamaterial to break the FRET distance barrier Rahul Deshmukh, SvendAge Biehs, Emaad Khwaja, Girish Agarwal, Vinod Menon Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in a donor acceptor pair is a tool widely used as a spectroscopic ruler in biology and related fields. The high sensitivity to distance change in this technique comes at the expense of limitation on the spatial range (10nm) that can be measured. Here we present an alternate approach where the epsilonnearzero (EnZ) regime in a metamaterial is used to break the FRET distance limit. We show long range (160nm) energy transfer in a donor acceptor pair across the EnZ metamaterial as proofofprinciple. This scheme can be implemented for any donor acceptor pair by tailoring the metal fillfraction in the metamaterial design appropriately. The experimental data includes change in donor lifetimes as well as increase in the steady state emission of the acceptor. We also show theoretical simulations which suggest that the EnZ regime is the most effective in mediating such longrange energy transfer as compared to Hyperbolic/Elliptical regimes in metamaterials. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 3:30PM  3:42PM 
V34.00004: Tuning Metamaterials by using Amorphous Magnetic Microwires Victor LopezDominguez, Miguel Angel Garcia, Pilar Marin, Antonio Hernando Tuning the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials using external stimulus result appealing for both, fundamental and applied reasons. Little work has been developed in the tuning of the properties of a metamaterial by magnetic fields. The main reason relies on the fact that most magnetic materials tale off their response at the microwave band, or they are moderately active only at their Ferromagnetic Resonance, as it is the case of ferrites. These limitations can be overcome using Cobased Magnetic microwires with a quasizero magnetostriction that leads to a high permeability at microwave frequencies. The inclusion of magnetic microwires in a metamaterial type Split Ring Resonator array (SRR) allows tuning their electromagnetic properties with low magnetic fields. The results clearly show an effective tune of the Scoefficients upto 8 dB using 100 microwires per SRR for DC fields between 0 and 20 Oe. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 3:42PM  3:54PM 
V34.00005: MEMS for Fabrication of Optical Metamaterials Thomas Stark, Lawrence Barrett, Jeremy Reeves, Richard Lally, David Bishop Optical metamaterials are typically fabricated using conventional nanofabrication techniques. Many techniques require resists and are limited to flat substrates that are chemically compatible with the resist and liftoff solvents. Furthermore, improved resolution is typically accompanied by decreased throughput. We present a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)based, resistfree nanofabrication method for fabricating metamaterials on arbitrary substrates. The MEMS consists of a moveable stencil, which can be actuated with nanometer precision using electrostatic comb drive actuators. A flip chip technique enables us to evaporate metals through the MEMS device handle and MEMS stencil for fabrication on an external substrate. While the MEMS method can cover an area of approximately 100 square microns$^{\mathrm{\thinspace }}$with a single stencil, we use many devices in parallel, combined with a piezo stage to step and repeat fabrication over a cm$^{\mathrm{2}}$ range, enabling us to maintain both high resolution and throughput. Fabricating metamaterials on new substrates will enable novel and tunable metamaterials. For example, by fabricating unit cells on a periodic auxetic mechanical scaffold, the optical properties can be tuned by straining the mechanical scaffold. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 3:54PM  4:06PM 
V34.00006: MEMS based stencil lithography for mechanically tunable metasurfaces Jeremy Reeves, Thomas Stark, Rachael Jayne, Lawrence Barrett, Richard Lally, David Bishop We present a scalable technique for nanoscale patterning on soft microstructured substrates. Polymer substrates are 3Dprinted onto a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device which enables the precise alignment of a MEMS stencil relative to the substrate. With this technique, we fabricate optical metamaterials on two dimensional substrates with lattice geometries that allow for the deformation of the lattice unit cells by the application of mechanical strain. Unit cells can be designed to stretch or rotate, giving the substrate auxetic properties. Physical vapor deposition is used to apply metallic metamaterial patterns, defined on the stencil, to the polymer substrates. The fabricated surfaces demonstrate tunable infrared responses, enabled by the elongation or rotation of the substrate lattice unit cells. We discuss our fabrication technique, the potential for use with other types of substrates, and explore its scalability. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 4:06PM  4:18PM 
V34.00007: Metamaterials from discrete models Marc Serra Garcia, Kathryn Matlack, Antonio Palermo, Sebastian Huber, Chiara Daraio Lumped element models containing capacitors and inductors or masses and springs are a powerful tool to discuss metamaterial performance, because they allow us to describe a material's dynamics without having to take into account the particular implementation details (e.g. the exact geometry that results in the desired dynamics). This talk will discuss the extraction of reducedorder models from metamaterial designs in the perturbative regime, where there's weak coupling between the metamaterial's unit cells. In this regime, we can obtain discrete models by performing a rotation of the unit cell modal basis, to separate the dynamics in the frequency range of interest from the irrelevant behavior at other frequencies. Systems with moderate coupling strengths present longrange interactions, while for low coupling strengths we observe a onetoone correspondence between geometric features and dynamical matrix elements. This relation can be exploited to engineer advanced performances such as topological bands or hyperbolic dispersion. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 4:18PM  4:30PM 
V34.00008: Anisotropic Metasurface with NearUnity Circular Polarization Conversion Xiaoxiao Wu We demonstrate a bilayer ultrathin anisotropic metasurface which could nearcompletely convert the circularpolarized electromagnetic (EM) wave to its cross polarization. The bilayer metasurface is composed of periodic 180°twisted doublecut split ring resonators on both sides of an F4B substrate. At resonance, crosspolarized transmission larger than 94{\%} is observed both in simulations and experiments. The resonant frequency of the metasurface could be effectively tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters of the metasurface, while relatively high conversion efficiency is preserved. The high efficiency and ease of fabrication suggest the ultrathin metasurface could have potential applications in telecommunications. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 4:30PM  4:42PM 
V34.00009: Nonlocal dielectric response of metamaterials and their corresponding magnetic response Lucila JuarezReyes, W. Luis Mochan We use an efficient recursive formalism [1] for the calculation of the frequency $\omega$ and wavevector $\vec k$ dependent macroscopic dielectric function $\epsilon_M(\omega,\vec k)$ of a nanostructured metamaterial made of dielectric and metallic nonmagnetic components, and we obtain its magnetic permeability $\mu_M(\omega)$ from the wavevector dependence of $\epsilon_M$. We apply the formalism to simple systems for which approximate analytic expressions are available, in order to test the limits of applicability of the formalism. We compare the dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves within the system as obtained from the full nonlocal response $\epsilon_M(\omega,\vec k)$ to the dispersion relation obtained from the local approximation characterized by $\epsilon_M(\omega)\equiv\epsilon_M(\omega,\vec k=0)$ and $\mu_M(\omega)$ in regions of both positive and negative dispersion. \\[10pt] [1] Jose Samuel PerezHuerta, Guillermo P. Ortiz, Bernardo S. Mendoza, and W. Luis Mochan, {\em Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands}, New Journal of Physics {\bf 15}(4), 043037 (2013).\\[2pt] [2] W. Luis Mochan, Guillermo Ortiz, Bernardo S. Mendoza and Jose Samuel PerezHuerta, {\em Photonic}, Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN), https://metacpan.org/pod/Photonic. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 4:42PM  4:54PM 
V34.00010: Metamaterials for mass separations Juan Manuel RestrepoFlórez, Martin Maldovan Metamaterials have recently spread from the field of optics to other areas such as acoustics as well as heat and mass diffusion. In the case of mass transport, the tailoring of metamaterial anisotropy allows to rationally design physical systems in which separation of different and arbitrary compounds can be achieved. The fundamental principle behind these metamaterial devices is the independent manipulation of the diffusion path of the species of interest. In this work, we design the diffusion in metamaterial structures such that different compounds are rerouted along different directions, thus achieving separation via independent control of mass diffusion processes. In particular, we introduce metamaterialmembranes with applications in chemical and biomolecular systems. As a practical example of the capabilities of mass diffusion metamaterials we show how the separation of oxygen and nitrogen can be performed though a polymeric metamaterial. Our results suggest that metamaterialbased membrane separations have higher efficiencies than isotropic and homogeneous membranes. This work opens a new paradigm in the understanding and manipulation of separations by introducing radically new anisotropybased physical mechanisms for separations. [Preview Abstract] 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 4:54PM  5:06PM 
V34.00011: A Relativistic Interpretation of Nonlinear Transformation Optics Sophia Sklan, Baowen Li The advances in geometric approaches to optical devices due to transformation optics has led to the development of cloaks, concentrators, and other devices. Furthermore, it has been shown that transformation optics can be used to model general relativity. Here we show how transformation optics can be extended to nonlinear optics and thereby used to model nonlinear effects in general relativity. We develop a set of constitutive to relations for classical and relativistic cloaks in arbitrary nonlinear backgrounds. [Preview Abstract] 
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