Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2017
Volume 62, Number 4
Monday–Friday, March 13–17, 2017; New Orleans, Louisiana
Session A42: Optomechanics and Microwave Mechanical HybridsFocus

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Sponsoring Units: GQI Chair: John Teufel, National Institute of Standards and Technology Room: 389 
Monday, March 13, 2017 8:00AM  8:36AM 
A42.00001: Quantum transduction with mechanical oscillators Invited Speaker: Konrad Lehnert In modern information technology, micromechanical oscillators are ubiquitous signal processing elements. Because the speed of sound is so slow compared to the speed of light, mechanical structures create superb compact filters and clocks. Moreover they convert force and acceleration signals into more easily processed electrical signals. Although these humble devices appear manifestly classical, they can exhibit quantum behavior when their vibrations are strongly coupled to optical light or to microwave electricity. I will describe our progress in using this recent result to develop quantum information processing elements. First, we are developing a device that uses a mechanical oscillator to transfer information noiselessly between electrical and optical domains. Second, we prepare propagating microwave fields in superpositions of 0 and 1 photon, and use an electromechanical device to store and amplify these fragile quantum bits. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 8:36AM  8:48AM 
A42.00002: Towards the strong dispersive coupling of a superconducting qubit to a mechanical oscillator. Jeremie Viennot, Xizheng Ma, Will Kindel, Konrad Lehnert The preparation and readout of arbitrary nonclassical states of motion is an important goal in the field of quantum cavity optomechanics or electromechanics. One strategy is to couple a mechanical system directly to a strong nonlinearity such as a two level system, or qubit. I will present our recent progress on the realization of a hybrid system consisting of an aluminum drumhead and a Cooper pair box. We use a DCbiased capacitive coupling scheme in which coupling strength scales with DC voltage. The maximum DC voltage that can be applied is limited by an electrostatic instability, which we mitigate using a capacitance bridge geometry. This system should be able to reach a regime where the mechanical oscillator can be cooled and prepared in a nonclassical state using qubit control. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 8:48AM  9:00AM 
A42.00003: Towards an acoustical platform for manybody spin emulation: Transmon qubits patterned on a piezoelectric material Brad A. Moores, Lucas R. Sletten, Jeremie Viennot, K. W. Lehnert Manmade systems of interacting qubits are a promising and powerful way of exploring manybody spin physics beyond classical computation. Although transmon qubits are perhaps the most advanced quantum computing technology, building a system of such qubits designed to emulate a system of many interacting spins is hindered by the mismatch of scales between the transmons and the electromagnetic modes that couple them. We propose a strategy to overcome this mismatch by using surface acoustic waves, which couple to qubits piezoelectrically and have micron wavelengths at GHz frequencies. In this talk, we will present characterizations of transmon qubits fabricated on a piezoelectric material, and show that their coherence properties are sufficient to explore acoustically mediated qubit interactions. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 9:00AM  9:12AM 
A42.00004: Multimode surface acoustic wave resonator on GaAs with high quality factors for acoustical manybody spin emulation Lucas R. Sletten, Brad A. Moores, Jeremie J. Viennot, K.W. Lehnert A scheme coupling qubits to multiple cavity modes has been proposed as a means of creating distancedependent qubitqubit interactions. Despite the success of the circuit QED architecture, the dimensions required to implement an electromagnetic cavity with a narrow free spectral range are awkwardly large. In contrast, the slow propagation velocity of surface acoustic waves (several km/s) allow resonators with MHz mode spacing to be fabricated on chip, thus making them a promising means to achieve distancedependent qubit coupling. In this talk, we will show that surface acoustic wave cavities fabricated on GaAs can support many resonant modes above 4 GHz with internal quality factors exceeding 105. We will also discuss the prospects for using these resonators to study multimode interqubit coupling with the ambition of investigating quantum spin chains with tunable and distancedependent interactions. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 9:12AM  9:24AM 
A42.00005: Quantum Acoustics with Superconducting Qubits Yiwen Chu, Prashanta Kharel, William Renninger, Luke Burkhart, Luigi Frunzio, Michel Devoret, Peter Rakich, Robert Schoelkopf In the field of quantum electromechanics, creating and controlling quantum states of mechanical motion is an important goal. Achieving this goal requires the interaction of a robust quantum system with a longlived mechanical mode. We experimentally demonstrate resonant strong coupling of a superconducting qubit with the modes of a bulk acoustic phononic resonator. The system directly incorporates a piezoelectric transducer into a standard 3D transmon geometry and can be made with straightforward fabrication techniques. Both the qubit and phonon exhibit long lifetimes of many microseconds. We use this system to perform basic quantum operations on the phonons and explore the rich mode structure of the bulk acoustic resonator. Straightforward improvements to the current system would allow for more sophisticated protocols analogous to what has been demonstrated in optical and microwave resonators, resulting in a novel resource that can be used for quantum information processing in circuit QED systems. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 9:24AM  9:36AM 
A42.00006: Observation of Lamb shift in an artificial atom caused by coupling to the phonon vacuum Thomas Aref, Maria Ekstr\"om, Martin Gustafsson, Anton Kockum, Andreas Ask, G\"oran Johansson, Per Delsing Recently, it has been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be coupled to an artificial atom in the form of a transmon qubit. We have experimentally measured the response of such an artificial atom placed on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate. The artificial atom has an interdigitated capacitance which gives multiple coupling points to SAW resulting in a strong frequency dependent coupling to the phononic vacuum. This coupling results in a nonmonotonic Lamb shift due to causality, via the KramersKronig relation. We observe a frequency dependent Lamb shift and corresponding coupling variation which agree well with theory. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 9:36AM  9:48AM 
A42.00007: Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency Jacob Pate, Alessandro Castelli, Luis Martinez, Johnathon Thompson, Ray Chiao, Jay Sharping Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobiumcoated, siliconnitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recentlyreported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of $g_{0}=2\pi \cdot 1 \times 10^{5}$ Hz and is roughly $\approx 38$ mm in diameter. The $Q=5\times 10^{7}$ for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 9:48AM  10:00AM 
A42.00008: A dissipative quantum reservoir for microwave light using a mechanical oscillator Laszlo Daniel Toth, Nathan Bernier, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Alexey Feofanov, Tobias Kippenberg Isolation of a system from its environment is often desirable, from precision measurements to control of individual quantum systems; however, dissipation can also be a useful resource. Remarkably, engineered dissipation enables the preparation of quantum states of atoms, ions or superconducting qubits. Here we realize a dissipative quantum reservoir for microwave light in a circuit electromechanical system. Coupling to this reservoir enables to manipulate the susceptibility of a microwave cavity, corresponding to dynamical backaction control of the microwave field. Additionally, we observe the onset of parametric instability, i.e. the stimulated emission of microwaves (masing). Equally important, the reservoir can function as a useful quantum resource. We evidence this by employing the engineered cold reservoir to implement a large gain (above 40 dB) phase preserving microwave amplifier that operates 0.87 quanta above the limit of added noise imposed by quantum mechanics. We also analyse the system as a frequency converter. Such a dissipative cold reservoir, when coupled to multiple cavity modes, forms the basis of microwave entanglement and squeezing schemes, recently predicted nonreciprocal devices and the study of dissipative quantum phase transitions. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 10:00AM  10:12AM 
A42.00009: QuantumCircuit Refrigerator Mikko Möttönen, Kuan Y. Tan, Shumpei Masuda, Matti Partanen, Russell E. Lake, Joonas Govenius, Matti Silveri, Hermann Grabert Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solidstate implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltagecontrollable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantumcircuit refrigerator [1], we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the socalled P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipationassisted quantum annealing. [1] K. Y. Tan et al., arXiv:1606.04728 (2016). [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 10:12AM  10:24AM 
A42.00010: Improving microwave single photon detection efficiency with shaped photon capture A. Narla, S. Shankar, S.O. Mundhada, J. Venkatraman, W. Pfaff, L. Burkhart, C. Axline, L. Frunzio, R.J. Schoelkopf, M.H. Devoret Traveling single microwave photons are an invaluable resoure as carriers of quantum information between remote systems but efficiently detecting these single microwave photons can be challenging. One demonstrated microwave photodetector is based on a 3D qubitcavity system where single photons are detected by applying a numberselective pipulse on the qubit, exciting it only when a single photon is present inside the cavity. The efficiency of this detector is ultimately limited to about 50\% because the cavity is not modematched to perfectly absorb the photon. We present one approach to increasing the detection efficiency that relies on driving a twophoton transition to capture the incident photon. We will discuss simulations and experimental results in a part of a system that robustly generates entanglement between distant superconducting qubits. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 10:24AM  10:36AM 
A42.00011: Quantum backaction evading measurement of collective mechanical modes Matt Woolley, Caspar OckeloenKorppi, Erno Damskagg, Juha Pirkkalainen, Aash Clerk, Mika Sillanpaa The standard quantum limit constrains the precision of an oscillator position measurement. It arises from a balance between the imprecision and the quantum backaction of the measurement. However, a measurement of only a single quadrature of the oscillator can evade the backaction and be made with arbitrary precision. Quantum backaction evading measurements of a collective quadrature of two mechanical oscillators, both coupled to a common microwave cavity, have been demonstrated. The work allows for quantum state tomography of two mechanical oscillators, and provides a foundation for macroscopic mechanical entanglement and force sensing beyond conventional quantum limits. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, March 13, 2017 10:36AM  10:48AM 
A42.00012: Floquet Approach for twotone cavity optomechanics Daniel Malz, Andreas Nunnenkamp We develop a Floquet approach to solve timeperiodic quantum Langevin equations in the steady state. We show that twotime correlation functions of system operators can be expanded in a Fourier series and that a generalized Wiener–Khinchin theorem relates the Fourier transform of their zeroth Fourier component to the measured spectrum. We apply our framework to bichromatically driven cavity optomechanical systems, a setting in which mechanical oscillators have recently been prepared in quantumsqueezed states.\footnote{PRA, doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.023803} Furthermore, we find the exact analytical solution of the explicitly timeperiodic quantum Langevin equation describing the twotone backactionevasion measurement of a single mechanical oscillator quadrature due to Braginsky, Vorontsov, and Thorne beyond the rotatingwave approximation.\footnote{arXiv:1610.00154} We show that counterrotating terms lead to extra sidebands in the optical and mechanical spectra and to a modification of the main peak. Our solution of the backactionevading measurement can be generalized, including to dissipatively or parametrically squeezed oscillators, as well as recent twomode backaction evasion measurements. [Preview Abstract] 
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