Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2020
Volume 65, Number 2
Saturday–Tuesday, April 18–21, 2020; Washington D.C.
Session R05: Tests of General Relativity with Gravitational Waves IILive

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Sponsoring Units: DGRAV Chair: Helvi Witek, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Room: Washington 6 
Monday, April 20, 2020 1:30PM  1:42PM Live 
R05.00001: Exploring the Multipole Structure of Binary Black Hole Spacetimes Ish Gupta, Anuradha Gupta, K.G. Arun, B.S. Sathyaprakash Gravitationalwave (GW) observations facilitate a new probe of the strongly nonlinear dynamics of black hole spacetimes. This is the regime where modified theories of gravity could differ markedly from general relativity (GR). Thus, GW observations can be used to put constraints on certain modified theories of gravity and test the validity of GR. Such a test was proposed in arXiv:1905.07277, where the phase evolution of black hole binaries derived in the Multipolar PostMinkowski (MPM) formalism is used to probe the validity of GR by introducing nonGR parameters for each multipole. In this presentation, we describe the implementation of this test using the LALSuite framework and its application to a subset of events from the first and second observing runs of LIGO and Virgo. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 1:42PM  1:54PM Live 
R05.00002: Probing Compactified Extra Dimensions with Gravitational Waves. Shammi Tahura, Yuchen Du, Diana Vaman, Kent Yagi One of the many avenues of modifying the fourdimensional general theory of relativity is to introduce extra dimensions. Such modifications are motivated by string theory in order to achieve a quantum theory of gravity. Tabletop experiments and highenergy particle accelerators have stringently constrained such extra dimensions, although the dynamical and strong gravitational field tests have been made possible only with the recent advent of gravitationalwave observations. While large extra dimensions have been constrained with the gravitationalwave observations, the existence of compact extra dimensions is yet to be explored. In this talk, I will discuss how the presence of a compact extra dimension modifies the binding energy of binaries and the luminosity of gravitational waves generated by them, namely the conservative and dissipative corrections to gravitational waveforms. Considering both corrections I will present constraints on compact extra dimensions from existing gravitationalwave events. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 1:54PM  2:06PM Live 
R05.00003: Testing gravity with standard sirens Jose Maria Ezquiaga Multimessenger gravitational wave (GW) astronomy offers exciting new avenues to test Einstein's theory of gravity. In this talk I will summarize what we could learn about gravity using standard sirens. In particular, I will focus on tests of the propagation speed, the GW luminosity distance and additional polarizations. Moreover, I will present recent results on how to probe additional cosmological fields with GW oscillations. FinalIy, I will discuss the prospects of observing these effects with present and future GW observatories such as LIGO/VIRGO and LISA. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 2:06PM  2:18PM Live 
R05.00004: Prospects of Probing Relativity in the DeciHertz Range Rhondale Tso, Yanbei Chen Spacebased detectors serve as the most promising method to detect inspiral signals of LIGO sources and act as a forewarning to groundbased detectors. A LISAlike detector is capable of detecting massive enough stellar mass and intermediatemass black holes, yet is incapable of detecting certain populations of these sources as well as early neutron star inspirals. A decihertz detector fills this void and also dramatically increases the number of possible sources detectible. This talk will overview the science payoff of such decihertz detectors, like the recently proposed TianGO and previously proposed DECIGO. Included are improvements of tests of GR through weakfield constraints, dispersion tests, and ringdown consistency. Further possibilities are detection of gravitational wave memory, intermediate mass black hole detections, and early warning of neutron star mergers. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 2:18PM  2:30PM Live 
R05.00005: Testing GR with Stochastic Gravitational Wave Backgrounds Alexander Saffer, Kent Yagi The stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB) is the collective signal from many individual, unresolved sources. By studying this background, we may obtain information about the statistical nature of the sources of gravitational radiation. We focus on a GWB of binary black hole mergers and attempt to place constraints on particular deviations from general relativity (GR) at given postNewtonian orders. By placing limits on the magnitude of GR deviations, we determine whether or not the study of the GWB is useful in probing gravitational theories beyond GR. In this talk, I will present the results of a parameter estimation study which includes both GR and nonGR variables for groundbased observations. We find that while the GWB can indeed be used to test GR, individual resolved detections can place stronger bounds when using groundbased detectors. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 2:30PM  2:42PM Live 
R05.00006: Testing the “nohair” nature of binary black holes using the consistency of multipolar gravitational radiation Tousif Islam, Ajit Kumar Mehta, Abhirup Ghosh, Vijay Varma, Parameswaran Ajith, B.S. Sathyaprakash Gravitationalwave (GW) observations of binary black holes offer the best probes of the relativistic, strongfield regime of gravity. Gravitational radiation, in the leading order is quadrupolar. However, nonquadrupole (higherorder) modes make appreciable contribution to the radiation from binary black holes with large mass ratios and misaligned spins. The multipolar structure of the radiation is fully determined by the intrinsic parameters (masses and spin angular momenta of the companion black holes) of a binary in quasicircular orbit. We develop multiple ways of testing the consistency of the observed GW signal with the expected multipolar structure of radiation from binary black holes in general relativity. We call this a ``nohair" test of binary black holes as this is similar to testing the ``no hair" theorem for isolated black holes through mutual consistency of the quasinormal mode spectrum. We use Bayesian inference on simulated GW signals that are consistent/inconsistent with binary black holes in GR to demonstrate the power of the proposed tests. We also estimate systematic errors arising as a result of neglecting companion spins. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 2:42PM  2:54PM 
R05.00007: The Search for Chaos in Modified Gravity Alexander Deich, Alejandro CárdenasAvendaño, Nicolás Yunes While recent observations by the LIGO/Virgo have given us the ability to test general relativity in the extreme gravity regime, they are still blind to a large swath of phenomena that is outside the sensitivity curve of these instruments. Future detectors such as LISA will enable us to probe longerduration, lowerfrequency events, and in particular enable us to search for chaos in the trajectories of an extreme massratio inspiral (EMRI), when a small compact object falls into a supermassive black hole. In this talk, I will discuss the possibility of detecting chaos in EMRIs, and how we can use them to constrain modified gravity theories. I will focus on one quadratic modification, EinsteindilatonGaussBonnet (EdGB), a theory with a nontrivial scalar field. I will present a framework and codebase used to search for chaos, and discuss the implications for finding chaos in EMRI observations with LISA. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 2:54PM  3:06PM On Demand 
R05.00008: Probing beyondKerr spacetimes with the inspiralmergerringdown consistency tests of gravitational waves Zack Carson, Kent Yagi The extremegravity collisions between black holes allow us to probe the underlying theory of gravity sourcing their interactions in the extremegravity regime. For the first time, we apply the theoryagnostic inspiralmergerringdown consistency tests to both an example theory beyond general relativity, as well as a generic bumpyKerr spacetime metric. With this new prescription, we demonstrate how one can modify the inspiral, the ringdown quasinormal modes, and the remnant black hole properties of the gravitational waveform with relative ease. Here we focus on the stringinspired Einsteindilaton GaussBonnet theory of gravity, as well as the JohannsenPsaltis bumpyKerr spacetime which can be mapped to several alternative theories of gravity. We then show that future multiband observations allow us to constrain the example theories stronger than current observations by an order of magnitude using the inspiralmergerringdown consistency test. The formalism developed here can easily be applied to other alternative theories of gravity given the necessary ingredients. [Preview Abstract] 
Monday, April 20, 2020 3:06PM  3:18PM Not Participating 
R05.00009: Toward Merger and Ringdown Waveforms for Modified Gravity Theories Gabriel Bonilla There is great interest in using binary black hole mergers to look for deviations from GR in the strongfield regime. The parameterized postEinsteinian (ppE) formalism provides a framework for modifying frequency domain GR waveforms into corrected waveforms that account for leading PN order deviations predicted by a beyondGR theory. These corrections are computed assuming a quasicircular inspiral, making the correction applicable only in the inspiral regime. We examine various procedures that can be used to extend the ppE correction into the merger and ringdown regimes with minimal assumptions, as well as the effect these assumptions have on parameter estimation efforts making use of ppE waveforms as matched filter templates. [Preview Abstract] 
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