Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2019
Volume 64, Number 3
Saturday–Tuesday, April 13–16, 2019; Denver, Colorado
Session Z15: Alternative Approaches to Gravitation and Cosmology 
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Sponsoring Units: DAP DGRAV Chair: J.E. Kim, Seoul National University Room: Sheraton Plaza Court 4 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 3:30PM  3:42PM 
Z15.00001: From Hubble's law 2 Our static Universe_{} C. Greg Hood Hubble’s law states that recession speed, v_{R}, is equal to H_{0}D, where H_{0 }is Hubble’s constant,_{ }2.37E18 s^{1}, and D is the distance to the intergalactic photon source. When the relativistic Doppler equation is solved for (v_{R} /c), it is wellknown that (v_{R} /c) → 1 as the received wavelength → ∞. The standard conclusion is that distant galaxies approach light speed. This is a preHubble conclusion. However, using Hubble’s law, one gets instead, (H_{0}D /c) → 1. Therefore, in the limit, D = (c/H_{0}) ≡ R_{0} = 13.4 billion lightyears. R_{0} is the constant radial limit of our observable universe: photons emitted from beyond this distance can never reach us. The size of the universe is unknown: an observer 10 billion light years from us would be bound by this same limit. The energy loss of intergalactic photons is due to the universal deceleration,  cH_{0,} not to space expnasion. It has a magnitude of 0.711nm/s^{2} and is denoted DAlpha. It is related to the constant acceleration used in MOND, and is comparable to the deceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft, 0.874nm/s^{2}. Direct detection of DAlpha may be possible by a variation of the LIGO experiment. When DAlpha is used in a Newtonian approach to orbital motion in the solar system, nonKeplerian orbits are the necessary result.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019 3:42PM  3:54PM 
Z15.00002: Calculation of the radius of the universe han yong quan Scientists speculate that the mass of the universe is 10^{56} grams. The density of the universe is 10^{94}g/cm after 10^{43} seconds after the Big Bang. At that moment, the volume of the universe is 10^{56}/10^{94}=10^{38}, and the radius of the universe is 10^{38}, which is equal to three times. 2.15×10^{13}cm. The universe expands in rotation, the total mass of the universe is constant, and the angular momentum is conserved. M1V1R1=M2V2R2, where M1, V1, and R1 represent the mass, rotation speed, and radius of the superexplosion 10^{43} seconds, respectively. V2 and R2 represent the mass, rotation speed and radius of the universe, respectively. Since M1=M2, the law of conservation of angular momentum of the universe can be simplified as: V1R1=V2R2, V1/V2=R2/R1=4.65×10^{41}, at this time R1=2.15×10^{13}, R2 is the current universe radius: R2 = 4.65 × 10^{41} × 2.15 × 10^{13} = 10^{29}cm = 10^{27}m, which is the radius of the current universe. What is the value and how many light years? A light year is about 9.5×10^{15}m, 10^{27}/9.5×10^{15}=1.05×10^{11} light years, and 105 billion light years. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 3:54PM  4:06PM 
Z15.00003: Physics of Dark Energy Charles J Sven All of physics are descriptions of aspects of our world as scientists perceive them and in that pursuit they search how to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomenon and thereby generate descriptions that today we call – laws of physics. In that light, I will show how our understanding of some of the various aspects of atoms, properly arranged, allows us to understand the ‘physics’ of dark energy – before, during, and after the Big Bang. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 4:06PM  4:18PM 
Z15.00004: Dark energy from vacuum pairs Allan Rosencwaig In a previous paper, April 2018 Meeting Y13.00003, we proposed that vacuum pairs could account for cosmic inflation . We here propose that vacuum pairs may also account for dark energy. Vacuum pairs represent the transient fluctuations of quantum fields and have the following properties: they are composed of particles with opposite polarizations and momenta; have positive (bosonic) or negative (fermionic ) energies; being critically damped in both space and time, all pairs satisfy the relativistic energymomentum relationship and thus are physical transient particles; all pairs have zero electrical and color charge; all pairs of a given energy are indistinguishable except for symmetry. Thus bosonic and fermionic pairs of the same energy have the same energy density although differing in sign, thereby making the net vacuum energy density identically zero when both symmetries are present. But up to the threshold energy for the creation of the lightest fermion, the electron neutrino, only the bosonic photon pairs are present. The net vacuum energy density is then the energy density associated with the threshold energy of the electron neutrino. This net energy is equal to the observed dark energy if the mass of the electron neutrino is a reasonable 4.5 meV. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 4:18PM  4:30PM 
Z15.00005: A Description of Dark Matter and an Explanation for Five or Six Observed Ratios of Dark Matter Effects to Ordinary Matter Effects Thomas J. Buckholtz We suggest a wellspecified description for dark matter. We use the description to explain five or six observed ratios of dark matter to ordinary matter. Ratios (plus phenomena and bases) include 5+:1 (densities of the universe, CMB {cosmic microwave background} analysis); 5+:1 (densities in some galactic clusters, gravitational lensing); 4:1 (recent densities in some galaxies, gravitational lensing); 0+:1 (early densities in some galaxies, rotation curves); ~1000:1 (densities in a dark matter galaxy, starlight); and possibly 1:1 (hydrogen hyperfine interactions, CMB analysis). Steps toward the explanation include the following. Develop a mathematicsbased framework for cataloging elementary particles, augmenting quantum field theory, and embracing classical and quantum kinematics theories. Develop an elementaryparticle analog to the periodic table. Predict new elementary and hadronlike particles. Reexpress and unify electromagnetism and gravity. Describe dark matter. (We suggest that nature embraces six copies of an expanded Standard Model particle set. Five copies correlate with dark matter. Regarding the sixth copy, most stuff measures as ordinary matter and some new hadronlike particles measure as dark matter.) Provide a theory of galaxy evolution. Explain the ratios. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 4:30PM  4:42PM 
Z15.00006: Dark Matter as an EPR effect in Outer Space Richard M Kriske, Richard M Kriske This author has previously championed a theory in which a field theory becomes the basis for Modern Physics, as opposed to Particle Physics. In Particle Physics, all energy forms a particle, which was originally due to a rather backward argument made by Richard Feynman, in which he simply stated that all electrons are particles, in that, that was the only way they are ever detected, never in their wave form. Apparently, the EPR system with Electron Pairs, casts some doubt on the idea that energy only shows up as particles. The collapse of the spin superposition, apparently is done without the exchange of a photon between the members of the pair. This gives rise to a similar theory that this author put forward about Neutron Stars having the ability to form Pauli Pairs of a sort in Neutrons, and perhaps Gravitons. These fields enable Neutrons and Gravitons to have action between them, yet have no momentum exchanged. In this way it mimics the behavior of Dark Matter, in that it has an optical effect, yet does not slow moving bodies. This new field theory, which the author calls Kriske's Field Theory may be able to describe the filaments of Dark Matter. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 4:42PM  4:54PM 
Z15.00007: Quantum Mechanic Gravity Javad Fardaei It is known that the building blocks of the Universe is Quantum Mechanics Elementary Particles (QMEP); therefore, all mass and force must originate from Quantum Mechanics Principles (QMP). You will learn of the Law of Accretion through the QM structure of the atom for unification through Gravity. Gravity is the most mysterious force in the Universe; but when we consider Gravity as one of the QMEP’s in the atom, then the origination of all elements in the Universe become transparent. Therefore, many wellknown theories are put in jeopardy, such as: the Big Bang theory, string theory, mechanical gravity, the theories of General & Special Relativity, the theory of electromagnetism in the atom, and it even makes us realize that the Universe must go through a prestaging period to shape the universe; yet it is an organized entity that operates billions of galaxies in a limited space. I am presenting the unprecedented theory that intelligent gravity, with its multiduties inside the hadron, supplies the gravity and unification among all the elements in the Universe. By knowing the QMP, you will understand how easy it is to discard the majority of beliefs of a mechanical Universe. By introducing this efficient organization, it makes us realize that an atom is an intelligent entity. 
Tuesday, April 16, 2019 4:54PM  5:06PM 
Z15.00008: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN

Tuesday, April 16, 2019 5:06PM  5:18PM 
Z15.00009: LobachevskyPoincaréDirac Space and Quantum Nature of Internal Spacetime versus External Space and Time in Cosmology Siavash H Sohrab Some implications of an invariant model of Boltzmann statistical mechanics to thermodynamics [1] and quantum nature of space and time are described. Kelvin absolute temperature is identified as Wien wavelength λ_{w}_{b} of thermal oscillations (kT_{β }= kλ_{wβ} = m_{β}(v_{wβ})^{2 }, v_{wβ} = λ_{wβ}ν_{w}_{β}) and applied to introduce internal measures of space and time called spacetime (λ_{wβ}_{1}, τ_{wβ}_{1}) and external measures of space and time (x_{β} = N_{x}λ_{w}_{β1}, t_{β} = N_{t}τ_{w}_{β1}). Because of its hyperbolic geometry, its discrete fabric, and its stochastic atomic motions, physical space is called LobachevskyPoincaréDiracSpace. When Casimir vacuum is identified as Planck compressible ether, LorentzFitzGerald contractions become causal, Pauli [2], in accordance with PoincaréLorentz dynamic as opposed to Einstein kinematic theory of relativity [3]. Mach, Lorentz, Michelson numbers (v/c_{m}, v/c_{e}, v/c_{k}) lead to a unified description of supersonic, superelectronic, and superluminal flows involving (Mach, Lorentz, PoincaréMinkowski) cones. The “time problem” of GTR and Gödel closed timelike world lines are also discussed. ^{1} Sohrab, S. H., ASME J. Energy Resoures Technology 138: 112 (2016). ^{2} Pauli, W., Theory of Relativity, Dover (1958).^{ } ^{3 }Sohrab, S. H., Chaotic Modeling and Simulation (CMSIM) 3, 231245 (2016). 
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