Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2018
Volume 63, Number 4
Saturday–Tuesday, April 14–17, 2018; Columbus, Ohio
Session G09: Dark Matter Theories, Models, and Phenomenology |
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Sponsoring Units: DPF DAP Chair: Matthew Graham, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Room: A111 |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 8:30AM - 8:42AM |
G09.00001: A Comparison of Future Dark Matter Searches Jeffrey Hutchinson, Kara Farnsworth, Anthony Grippo We analyze the projected limits from current and upcoming direct detection, indirect detection and collider searches in the context of minimal extensions to the standard model with thermal relic dark matter called Effective WIMPs. These models contain a singlet dark matter particle and a lepton ``partners'' with renormalizable cubic couplings between dark matter, the lepton partners, and leptons. Within this framework, we consider four models where the dark matter is a real scalar boson, complex scalar boson, Majorana fermion, or Dirac fermion. [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 8:42AM - 8:54AM |
G09.00002: Direct Detection of Dark Matter as Three-Body Bound States Hershdeep Singh, Arman Margaryan, Thomas Mehen We consider the possibility of dark matter consisting of strongly interacting particles with universal short-range interactions. It is known that such particles can form three-body bound states, and we consider a scenario in which dark matter consists of these bound states. We calculate the scattering of these three-body bound states with a target nucleus in the context of dark matter direct detection experiments. A signature of this novel proposal for the dark matter is the nuclear recoil energy spectrum which differs from that of an elementary particle or two-body bound state. [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 8:54AM - 9:06AM |
G09.00003: A Composite Mediator Philip Tanedo The WIMP framework naturally connects dark matter to electroweak naturalness, but most of the parameter space has been ruled out experimentally. One alternative is a dark sector with light mediators, though these constructions are typically unrelated to stabilizing the Higgs mass. We present a class of models that extend the composite Higgs proposal to include a composite mediator. We identify models in this framework that are predictive with few parameters and embed the dark sector into an extended electroweak sector. The models tie together the naturalness of the Higgs with the phenomenological properties of the dark sector. [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 9:06AM - 9:18AM |
G09.00004: Annihilation rates of wino dark matter from an effective field theory approach Evan Johnson, Eric Braaten, Hong Zhang Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to complex values. The parameters of ZREFT can be determined by matching wino-wino scattering amplitudes calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation for winos interacting through a real potential due to the exchange of electroweak gauge bosons and an imaginary potential due to wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons. ZREFT at leading order gives an accurate analytic description of low-energy wino-wino scattering, inclusive wino-pair annihilation, and a wino-pair bound state. ZREFT can also be applied to partial annihilation rates, such as the Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation rate of wino pairs into monochromatic photons. [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 9:18AM - 9:30AM |
G09.00005: Spin-independent interactions between fermions induced from the exchange of two light axion-like particles Sheakha Aldaihan, Dennis Krause, William Michael Snow Lab-based experiments have been extensively used to search for new macroscopic interactions originating from possible Weakly-Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs). Spin-dependent experiments which search for spin-dependent interactions between fermions continue to set far less stringent limits than spin-independent searches for scalar and vector particles. A single pseudoscalar exchange gives rise to the same spin-dependent interaction for both derivative and Yukawa pseudoscalar couplings, thus limiting our ability to constrain specific models. We calculate the spin-independent potential due to the exchange of two light pseudoscalar bosons between two fermions with derivative couplings. In the massless limit, the spin-independent contribution falls off as $1/r^3$ for the Yukawa coupling, whereas we find that the derivative coupling yields a $1/r^6$ dependence, which differs from the $1/r^5$ dependence found in previous work [1]. Together, the spin-independent Yukawa and derivative coupling potentials can be used with experiments utilizing unpolarized test bodies to set tighter constraints on new pseudoscalar interactions, and allow one to distinguish the type of coupling if a new force is observed. [1] F. Ferrer and J. A. Grifols, Phys. Rev. D 58, 096006 (1998) [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 9:30AM - 9:42AM |
G09.00006: Fermionic dark matters, dark energy, massive graviton and extended standard model Jae-Kwang Hwang Three generations of leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges (LCs) in this work [1,2]. Then, the leptons have the electric charges (ECs) and LCs. The quarks have the ECs, LCs and color charges (CCs). Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced to make the missing third flavor of EC. Then the three new particles which have the ECs are proposed as the bastons (dark matters) [2]. It is proposed that the gravitational force between dark matters should be much stronger than the gravitational force between the matters and the electromagnetic force between dark matters in order to explain the observed dark matter distributions of the bullet cluster, Abell 1689 cluster and Abell 520 cluster [1].Also, the accelerated space expansion is caused by the new space quanta created by the evaporated gravitons into the x1x2x3 space and repulsive electromagnetic force between dark matters corresponding to the dark energy [1]. And the space evolution can be described by using these graviton evaporation and repulsive electromagnetic force, too [1]. The presence of the 3.5 keV cosmic X-ray supports the presence of the Q1 quark with the EC of -4e/3 [2]. New particles can be indirectly seen from the astrophysical observations like the cosmic ray and cosmic gamma ray. 1. J.K. Hwang, www.researchgate.net/publication/320695036 . 2. J.K. Hwang, Modern Physics Letters A32, 1730023 (2017). [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 9:42AM - 9:54AM |
G09.00007: Quantum measurement and fuzzy dark matter Adam Helfer It has been suggested that dark matter is a superfluid of particles of mass $\sim 10^{-22}$ eV. It has generally been assumed that a classical effective non-relativistic treatment is adequate. However, the Compton wavelength would be $\sim 1$ pc, and this macroscopic scale raises foundational issues. It has been known for decades that conventional quantum measurement theory is not compatible with conservation laws, but also that the problems may be insignificant if, as is usually the case in laboratories, the measuring apparatus is much larger than the system probed. Because of fuzzy dark matter's large Compton scale, it is possible to invert this ratio. I describe a thought-experiment using a modest apparatus to measure the matter's stress--energy on parsec scales, and show that conventional quantum theory gives unphysical results. It predicts the measurement itself would excite the particles to relativistic energies, a substantial violation of energy conservation. (In fact, they would escape the Galaxy.) This means the conventional quantum theory supposed to underly the effective classical treatment of fuzzy dark matter is unsatisfactory. But more broadly, it points to a new perspective from which to view foundational issues in quantum measurement. [Preview Abstract] |
Sunday, April 15, 2018 9:54AM - 10:06AM |
G09.00008: Adjoint matter, affine Lie algebras and MCRG Joel Giedt Adjoint matter appears prominently in grand unified theories, extended supersymmetry field theories, conformal and quasi-conformal theories related to dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and composite Higgs models. But is it possible to get it from compactifications of string/M theory, and if so, what are the constraints that come from this underlying theory? What are the implications of an N$=$2 or N$=$4 sector in a semi-realistic string-inspired model that also contains a chiral gauge theory accommodating the Standard Model? Can dark matter be ``unparticles?'' I will address these questions, along with what we have learned from lattice gauge theory about nonperturbative dynamics of theories with adjoint matter. [Preview Abstract] |
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