Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2017
Volume 62, Number 1
Saturday–Tuesday, January 28–31, 2017; Washington, DC
Session R2: Computational Physics |
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Sponsoring Units: DCOMP Room: Maryland B |
Monday, January 30, 2017 10:45AM - 10:57AM |
R2.00001: DSMC simulations of leading edge flat-plate boundary layer flows at high Mach number Dr. Sahadev Pradhan The flow over a 2D leading-edge flat plate is studied at Mach number \textit{Ma }$= (U_{inf}/ \backslash $\textit{sqrt\textbraceleft k}$_{B}T_{inf}$\textit{/ m\textbraceright ) }in the range \textit{\textless Ma \textless 10}, and at Reynolds number number \textit{Re }$= (L_{T} U_{inf}$\textit{ rho}$_{inf\thinspace }$\textit{)/ mu}$_{inf\thinspace }$ equal to 10$^{\mathrm{\thinspace \thinspace }}$using two-dimensional (2D) direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to understand the flow phenomena of the leading-edge flat plate boundary layer at high Mach number. Here, $L_{T}$is the characteristic dimension, $U_{inf}$and $T_{inf}$are the free stream velocity and temperature, \textit{rho}$_{inf}$ is the free stream density, $m$is the molecular mass, \textit{mu}$_{inf\thinspace }$is the molecular viscosity based on the free stream temperature $T_{inf},$and $k_{B}$is the Boltzmann constant. The variation of streamwise velocity, temperature, number-density, and mean free path along the wall normal direction away from the plate surface is studied. The qualitative nature of the streamwise velocity at high Mach number is similar to those in the incompressible limit (parabolic profile). However, there are important differences. The amplitudes of the streamwise velocity increase as the Mach number increases and turned into a more flatter profile near the wall. There is significant velocity and temperature slip ((Pradhan and Kumaran, J. Fluid Mech-2011); (Kumaran and Pradhan, J. Fluid Mech-2014)) at the surface of the plate, and the slip increases as the Mach number is increased. It is interesting to note that for the highest Mach numbers considered here, the streamwise velocity at the wall exceeds the sound speed, and the flow is supersonic throughout the flow domain. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 10:57AM - 11:09AM |
R2.00002: Exploring the Dynamics of a Quantum-Mechanical Compton Generator Martin Kandes, Ricardo Carretero In 1913, when American physicist Arthur Compton was an undergraduate, he invented a simple way to measure the rotation rate of the Earth with a tabletop-sized experiment. The experiment consisted of a large diameter circular ring of thin glass tubing filled with water and oil droplets. After placing the ring in a plane perpendicular to the surface of the Earth and allowing the fluid mixture of oil and water to come to rest, he then abruptly rotated the ring, flipping it 180 degrees about an axis passing through its own plane. The result of the experiment was that the water acquired a measurable drift velocity due to the Coriolis effect arising from the daily rotation of the Earth about its own axis. Compton measured this induced drift velocity by observing the motion of the oil droplets in the water with a microscope. This device, which is now named after him, is known as a Compton generator. The fundamental research objective of this project is to explore the dynamics of a quantum-mechanical analogue to the classical Compton generator experiment through the use of numerical simulations. We present our preliminary results on this system and the future direction of the project. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 11:09AM - 11:21AM |
R2.00003: The Phase-Amplitude (PhA) representation of a wave function George Rawitscher The PhA representation of an oscillatory wave function is $\psi (r)=y\ \sin (\phi )$, where $y(r)$ is the amplitude and $\phi (r)$ the phase. Since these quantities depend on distance $r$ slowly and generally monotonically, they can be calculated numerically out to large distances with a relatively small number of mesh-points. A linear equation for $y^{2}$ exists that has been overlooked in the past. The advantage of this equation is that it avoids the non-linearity difficulties encountered with the equation for $y$ given In 1930 W. E. Milne. This equation will be shown and a solution method will be described, that uses expansions into Laguerre polynomials. A numerical example for the Coulomb potential will be presented, including the region of turning points. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 11:21AM - 11:33AM |
R2.00004: Computational Medical Apportionment Determination for Impairment Ratings Jerry Artz, Marten Thompson, John Alchemy, MD, Daniel Penn, MD Unique computational techniques are used to calculate apportionment percentages for Whole Person Impairment (WPI) Ratings for workers with job-related injuries/illnesses. This interdisciplinary project includes collaboration among physicists, engineers, and concerned medical professionals. Medical providers are often asked to medically determine multiple contributing factors to disease states (e.g. diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and prior injury) in the context of personal injury as it pertains to permanent impairment. The process of making this determination is referred to as “apportionment”. The economic value of apportionment is far reaching and represents a significant impact to all stakeholders in the injury resolution and settlement arena. The process of apportionment is necessary to assign monetary value for the stakeholders when an injury occurs. The ultimate trier-of-fact is the judicial system. The medical provider’s role in this capacity is to apply known medical scientific knowledge and present it in a format that is objective and reproducible for the stakeholders. In this presentation the traditional challenges of apportionment will be outlined, and a novel approach creating mathematical bounding and modeling of pathology-weighted data sets will be presented. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 11:33AM - 11:45AM |
R2.00005: Simulation and Digitization of a Gas Electron Multiplier Detector Using Geant4 and an Object-Oriented Digitization Program Timothy McMullen, Nilanga Liyanage, Weizhi Xiong, Zhiwen Zhao Our research has focused on simulating the response of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector using computational methods. GEM detectors provide a cost effective solution for radiation detection in high rate environments. A detailed simulation of GEM detector response to radiation is essential for the successful adaption of these detectors to different applications. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo (GEMC), a wrapper around Geant4 which has been successfully used to simulate the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab, we are developing a simulation of a GEM chamber similar to the detectors currently used in our lab. We are also refining an object-oriented digitization program, which translates energy deposition information from GEMC into electronic readout which resembles the readout from our physical detectors. We have run the simulation with beta particles produced by the simulated decay of a $^{\mathrm{90}}$Sr source, as well as with a simulated bremsstrahlung spectrum. Comparing the simulation data with real GEM data taken under similar conditions is used to refine the simulation parameters. Comparisons between results from the simulations and results from detector tests will be presented. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 11:45AM - 11:57AM |
R2.00006: Final Results from A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA Joseph Trout, J. Russell Manson, David King, Nicolas DeCicco, Alyssa Prince, Alexis Di Mercurio, Manual Rios Wake Vortex Turbulence is the turbulence generated by an aircraft in flight. This turbulence is created by vortices at the tips of the wing that may decay slowly and persist for several minutes after creation. These vortices and turbulence are hazardous to other aircraft in the vicinity. The strength, formation and lifetime of the turbulence and vortices are effected by many things including the weather. Here we present the final results of the pilot project to investigation of low level wind fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and an analysis of historical data. The findings from the historical data and the data simulations were used as inputs for the computational fluid dynamics model (OpenFoam) to show that the vortices could be simulated using OpenFoam. Presented here are the updated results from a research grant, ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Stockton University and the FAA'' [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 11:57AM - 12:09PM |
R2.00007: Computing Critical Properties with Yang-Yang Anomalies Gerassimos Orkoulas, Claudio Cerdeirina, Michael Fisher Computation of the thermodynamics of fluids in the critical region is a challenging task owing to divergence of the correlation length and lack of particle-hole symmetries found in Ising or lattice-gas models. In addition, analysis of experiments and simulations reveals a Yang-Yang (YY) anomaly which entails sharing of the specific heat singularity between the pressure and the chemical potential. The size of the YY anomaly is measured by the YY ratio $R_{\mu } =\tilde{{C}}_{\mu } /C_{V} $ of the amplitudes of $\tilde{{C}}_{\mu } =-T{\kern 1pt}d^{2}\mu /dT^{2}$ and of the total specific heat $C_{V} $. A ``complete scaling'' theory, in which the pressure mixes into the scaling fields, accounts for the YY anomaly. In Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 040601 (2016), compressible cell gas (CCG) models which exhibit YY and singular diameter anomalies, have been advanced for near-critical fluids. In such models, the individual cell volumes are allowed to fluctuate. The thermodynamics of CCGs can be computed through mapping onto the Ising model via the seldom-used great grand canonical ensemble. The computations indicate that local free volume fluctuations are the origins of the YY effects. Furthermore, local energy-volume coupling (to model water) is another crucial factor underlying the phenomena. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 12:09PM - 12:21PM |
R2.00008: The generalized Onsager model and DSMC simulations of high-speed rotating flows with product and waste baffles Dr. Sahadev Pradhan The generalized Onsager model for the radial boundary layer and of the generalized Carrier-Maslen model for the axial boundary layer in a high-speed rotating cylinder ((S. Pradhan {\&} V. Kumaran, J. Fluid Mech., 2011, vol. 686, pp. 109-159); (V. Kumaran {\&} S. Pradhan, J. Fluid Mech., 2014, vol. 753, pp. 307-359)), are extended to a multiply connected domain, created by the product and waste baffles. For a single component gas, the analytical solutions are obtained for the sixth-order generalized Onsager equations for the master potential, and for the fourth-order generalized Carrier-Maslen equation for the velocity potential. In both cases, the equations are linearized in the perturbation to the base flow, which is a solid-body rotation. An explicit expression for the baffle stream function is obtained using the boundary layer solutions. These solutions are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations and found excellent agreement between the analysis and simulations, to within 15{\%}, provided the wall-slip in both the flow velocity and temperature are incorporated in the analytical solutions. [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 12:21PM - 12:33PM |
R2.00009: DSMC Simulation of High Mach Number Taylor-Couette Flow Dr. Sahadev Pradhan The main focus of this work is to characterise the Taylor-Couette flow of an ideal gas between two coaxial cylinders at Mach number \textit{Ma }$=$\textit{ (U\textunderscore w / }$\backslash $\textit{sqrt\textbraceleft kb T\textunderscore w / m\textbraceright )}in the range 0.01 \textless Ma \textless 10, and Knudsen number \textit{Kn }$=$\textit{ (1 / (}$\backslash $\textit{sqrt\textbraceleft 2\textbraceright }$\backslash $\textit{pi d\textasciicircum 2 n\textunderscore d (r\textunderscore 2 - r\textunderscore 1))) }in the range 0.001 \textless Kn \textless 5, using two-dimensional (2D) direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. Here, \textit{r\textunderscore 1}and \textit{r\textunderscore 2}are the radius of inner and outer cylinder respectively, \textit{U\textunderscore w}is the circumferential wall velocity of the inner cylinder, \textit{T\textunderscore w}is the isothermal wall temperature, \textit{n\textunderscore d}is the number density of the gas molecules, $m$and $d$ are the molecular mass and diameter, and \textit{kb}is the Boltzmann constant. The cylindrical surfaces are specified as being diffusely reflecting with the thermal accommodation coefficient equal to one. In the present analysis of high Mach number compressible Taylor-Couette flow using DSMC method, wall slip in the temperature and the velocities are found to be significant. Slip occurs because the temperature/velocity of the molecules incident on the wall could be very different from that of the wall, even though the temperature/velocity of the reflected molecules is equal to that of the wall. Due to the high surface speed of the inner cylinder, significant heating of the gas is taking place. The gas temperature increases until the heat transfer to the surface equals the work done in moving the surface. The highest temperature is obtained near the moving surface of the inner cylinder at a radius of about (1.26 r\textunderscore 1). [Preview Abstract] |
Monday, January 30, 2017 12:33PM - 12:45PM |
R2.00010: High Precision Calculations of the Lennard-Jones Lattice Constants for Five Lattices Matthew Stein The total potential energy of a crystal as described by the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential depends in part upon the calculation of lattice constants. Knowing these constants to high precision is useful for prediction of the lattice type and simulation of crystals such as rare-gas solids or germanium detectors, but reaching higher precision is computationally costly and challenging. Presented here is the extension of the precision of the lattice constants, $L_p$, up to 32 decimal digits, and in some cases corrections from previous publication. The $L_p$ terms are given for $4\leq p\leq30$ in the simple cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, hexagonal-close-pack, and diamond lattices. This precision was obtained through the use of careful parallelization technique, exploitation of the symmetries of each lattice, and the "onionization" of the simulated crystal. The results of this computation, along with the tools and algorithm strategies to make this computation possible, are explained in detail graphically. [Preview Abstract] |
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