Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2015
Volume 60, Number 4
Saturday–Tuesday, April 11–14, 2015; Baltimore, Maryland
Session D1: Poster Session I (14:00  17:00) 
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Sponsoring Units: APS Room: South Foyer 

D1.00001: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH 

D1.00002: Coupling Algorithm for $\mathrm{Sp}(3,R)$ Irreducible Representations James F. St. GermaineFuller, Anna E. McCoy, Mark A. Caprio The nuclear symplectic model based on $\mathrm{Sp}(3,R)$  the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra  connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot $\mathrm{SU(3)}$ model to multiple shells. However, $\mathrm{Sp}(3,R)$ is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus which can be broken by spinorbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will break $\mathrm{Sp}(3,R)$ symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for enumerating the irreps that arise from the coupling of two symplectice irreps and evaluating their multiplicities in the product. This should assist in performing such multiirrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00003: Relativistic orbits in a generalized uncertainty principle spacetime Rhys Taus, Jonas Mureika Many theories of quantum gravity corroborate the notion of a minimal length scale. The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), an extension of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle also incorporates this feature. Recent work has yielded a modification to the Schwarzschild solution that incorporates the GUP, making the theory selfcomplete and modifying the associated black hole characteristics. In this project, corrections to the orbits of timelike and lightlike test particles are explored in the GUP spacetime through the modified effective potential. Corrections to the classical experimental tests, notably the advancement of the perihelion of mercury and the deflection of starlight, are found and compared to results from other studies of a noncommutative spacetime. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00004: CMS Made Simple: A ROOTless workflow for educating undergraduates about CMS data analysis Jessica Muenkel, Matthew Bellis Involving students in research is an important part of the undergraduate experience. By working on a problem where the answer is unknown, students apply what they learn in the classroom to a realworld challenge, which reinforce the more theoretical aspects of their courses. Many undergraduates are drawn to the idea of working on big particle physics experiments like CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but the threshold is high for them to contribute to an analysis. Those of us who perform research spend much of our time debugging scripts and C$++$ code, usually specific to that one experiment. If an undergraduate is not going on to grad school in particle physics, much of that work can be wasted on them. However, there are many general skills that students can learn by working on parts of a particle physics analysis (relativistic kinematics, statistics, coding, etc.), and so it is worth trying to lower the threshold to engage students. In this poster, we present a suite of datasets and tools, built around the Python programming language that simplify the workflow and allow a student to interact with CMS data immediately. While it is a staple of the particle physics community, we avoid using the ROOT toolkit, so as to stick to more broadly used tools that the students can take with them. These tools are being used to supplement the educational examples for the CERN Open Data Portal, a project to make LHC datasets available to the general public. The successes and limitations of CMS Made Simple will be discussed and links are provided to these tools. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00005: Incorporation of Advanced Laboratory Equipment into Introductory Physics Labs John Gilbert, Matt Bellis, John Cummings Siena College recently completed construction of the Stewart's Advanced Instrumentation and Technology Center (SAInt Center) which includes both a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The goal of this project is to design laboratory exercises for introductory physics courses that make use of this equipment. Early involvement with the SAInt center aims to increase undergraduate lab skills and expand research possibilities. These lab exercises are tested on select students and evaluated as to their effectiveness in contributing to the learning goals.The current status of this work is presented here. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00006: Single Photon Interference with Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion Source Preston Alexander, Scott Baldwin, S. Blane McCracken, R. Seth Smith During the past two years, a Quantum Optics Laboratory was constructed and tested at Francis Marion University. A spontaneous parametric downconversion source was used to create pairs of correlated photons for use in single photon tests of quantum mechanics. In this experiment, single photon interference was demonstrated by using a spontaneous parametric downconversion source. The two beams emanating from the downconversion crystal are referred to as the signal and idler beams. Detector A was placed in front the idler beam. The signal beam was sent to a polarization interferometer that was followed by a 50/50 beam splitter. The reflected and transmitted beams were incident on Detectors B and B'. By observing the presence or absence of coincidences, it was possible to demonstrate both particle and wave behaviors for light. In particular, if individual photons are passed through a polarization interferometer, it was shown that they will interfere with themselves. The details of the experimental setup and the results will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00007: Spectroscopy of Vibrational States in Diatomic Iodine Molecules Mary Mulholland, Charles H. Harrill, R. Seth Smith This project is focused on understanding the vibrational structure of iodine, which is a homonuclear diatomic molecule. A 20 mW, 532 nm cw diode laser was used to selectively excite neutral iodine molecules to a higher energy electronic state. By performing spectroscopy on the transitions from this state to a lower energy electronic state, the data only showed those vibrational bands which connect the two electronic states. Since a number of vibrational levels are populated in the higher energy electronic state, the transitions to all of the allowed vibrational levels in the lower energy electronic state provided sufficient data to determine the vibrational structures of both states. Emission spectra were collected with an Ocean Optics USB4000 Compact CCD Spectrometer. The spectrometer had a range of 500  770 nm with a resolution of approximately 0.5 nm and was sensitive enough to resolve the vibrational states in diatomic iodine molecules. The results were compared to a simple harmonic oscillator model. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00008: Electromagnetic Radiative Corrections for the Qweak Experiment Karthik Garimella, D. T. Spayde The principle of the Qweak experiment is to accurately determine the weak charge of the proton through study of electron asymmetry in electronproton scattering. The Qweak experiment utilizes the parityviolating nature of the weak force in order to evaluate the weak charge. The weak charge enables the calculation of the weak mixing angle at specific Q$^{2}$ values, a testable parameter of the Standard Model. During a target event, the electron may emit or absorb photons  a process known as bremsstrahlung. This particle exchange can occur internally when the electron is within the field of the nucleus or externally. It affects the energy of the electron and must be accounted for during the analysis of electron asymmetry. The data from the experiment can be corrected to include the effects of bremsstrahlung using a simulation created by the Qweak collaboration using the GEANT4 software toolkit developed at CERN. The effects of bremsstrahlung on the parityviolating asymmetry will be discussed and the modifications implemented in the simulation will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00009: The GlueX Start Counter Anthony Llodra, Eric Pooser The GlueX experiment, which is online as of October of 2014, will study meson photo production with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H$_{\mathrm{2}}$ target kept at a few degrees Kelvin. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 nanoseconds apart, and to provide accurate timing information. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 $\gamma $/s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution of less than 350 picoseconds so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. The EJ200 scintillator is best suited for the Start Counter due to its fast decay time on the order of 2 nanoseconds and long attenuation length. Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system and are to be placed as close as possible, less than 300 micron, to the upstream end of each scintillator. The methods/details of the assembly and the optimization of the surface quality of scintillator paddles are discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00010: A New Integral Transform for Solving Physical Problems John Vastola, Costas Efthimiou Finding a good integral representation of the reciprocal gamma function is a problem that arises naturally from a certain method of evaluating infinite sums. After finding one representation, and observing that its form is suggestive of an integral transform, we naively define one, and go on to explore its properties. While our transform as we initially define it turns out to be problematic, we demonstrate how to redefine it so that important properties (reminiscent of the Laplace and Fourier transforms) are preserved. Of particular interest is that we may transform any entire function, and that the values of the transform at the nonnegative integers correspond to the function's Taylor coefficients. We may also transform large classes of continuous and meromorphic functions. Interestingly, the aforementioned relationship between a function's transform and a function's Taylor series can be exploited to calculate analytic ``approximations'' to transformable functions. Other topics, like defining the transform for real and complex arguments, and the geometry of transformed functions, are considered. Applications to ordinary and partial differential equations, and related physical problems (from classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics, among others) are discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00011: Increased Strength and Longevity of Cryogenically Treated 52100 Gauge Steel Components James Seyfert, Kyle Leadlove, Casey Watson, Peter Paulin We review the cryogenic treatment procedures utilized by 300 Below Inc. to strengthen a variety of metal components. We place particular emphasis on the properties of treated 52100 gauge steel samples, with an eye toward the gearbox components of failing wind turbines, which are primarily composed of this type of steel. Based on our testing of 52100 gauge steel samples, we project 300\%  400\% extended lifetimes for cryogenically treated gearbox components. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00012: Electromagnet Design for an Experimental Search for CP Violation in Positronium Decay Ryan Petersburg, Reyco Henning, Chelsea Bartram The 3photon decay of spinaligned triplet positronium could be used to search for a charge conjugation and parity (CP) symmetry violation. This CP violation would manifest as a nonzero angular correlation $(\vec{S} \cdot \vec{k_1})(\vec{S} \cdot \vec{k_1} \times \vec{k_2})$ between the three decay photons' momentum vectors ($\vec{k_1}>\vec{k_2}>\vec{k_3}$) and the triplet positronium spin ($\vec{S}$). Current limits on this correlation are at the $\sim 10^{3}$ level; therefore, we propose an experiment to improve this limit. In our experiment, the positronium is spinpolarized by a uniform magnetic field from a conventional electromagnet, and the photons are detected by a segmented NaI gamma detector array with large angular acceptance. This talk discusses the design of this unique electromagnet, which requires good field uniformity for the positronium source and a novel yoke design to minimize fringe field effects for the NaI array's PMTs. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00013: Monitoring Rotational Components of Seismic Waves with a Ring Laser Interferometer Jackson Gakundi, Robert Dunn It has been known for decades that seismic waves can introduce rotation in the surface of the Earth. There are historic records of tombstones in Japan being rotated after large earthquakes. Until fairly recently, the primary way to detect ground rotation from earthquakes was with an array of several seismographs. The development of large ring laser interferometers has provided a way for a single instrument to make extremely sensitive measurements of ground motion. In this poster, a diagram of a large ring laser will be presented. For comparison, seismograms recorded with a ring laser and a collocated standard seismograph will be presented. A major thrust of this research is the detection and analysis of seismic responses from directional drilling sites in Arkansas and Oklahoma. There are suggestions that the injection of pressurized water used to fracture gas bearing shale may cause small earthquakes. The Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission ordered the closing of certain waste water disposal wells in North Central Arkansas. Apparently, these wells injected waste water into a previously unknown fault causing it to slip. An attempt is being made to determine if the seismic wave patterns from earthquakes generated near directional drilling sites differ from those generated miles away. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00014: Measured Absolute Cross Section of Charge Transfer in H$+$H$_{2}^{+}$ at Low Energy: Signature of v$_{i} \quad =$ 2 and Trajectory Effects$^{1}$ R.A. Strom, K.G. Bacani, R.M. Chi, S.L. Heczko, B.N. Singh, J.A. Tobar, A.K. Vassantachart, V.M. Andrianarijaona, D.G. Seely, C.C. Havener Measurements of absolute cross sections of charge transfer (CT) in H $+$ H$_{2}^{+}\to $ H$^{+} \quad +$ H$_{2}$~were conducted at the mergedbeam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which can reliably create and access collision energies as low as 0.1eV/u. The measured absolute cross section shows evidence of trajectory effects at low energy. Also, the comparison to statetostate calculations (PRA \textbf{67} 022708 (2003) suggests a strong contribution from v$_{i} \quad =$ 2 of the H$_{2}^{+}$ that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The data analysis will be presented here. \newline \newline $^{1}$Research supported by the NASA Solar {\&} Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY1068877 [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00015: Detecting atmospheric cosmic ray induced muon showers with the NO$\nu$A Far Detector Mehreen Sultana The research goals of Fermilab's NuMi OffAxis Electron Neutrino Appearance (NO$\nu$A) are to observe muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, determine the ordering of neutrino masses, and explain violation of matter/antimatter symmetry. However, NO$\nu$A can also be used to study cosmic ray induced high energy extensive air showers. This poster describes the initial characterization of NO$\nu$A as a cosmic ray detector. The detector has a combination of large size and high spatial resolution that will allow future studies of the hadronic cores of cosmic ray air showers. A large component of these showers are muons. Multiple parallel muon tracks seen in a single event with the NO$\nu$A detectors result from the same primary cosmic ray collision in the upper atmosphere. In order to use these muon bundles to probe the cosmic ray physics involved, we determine event characteristics such as the multiplicity of observed multiple muons, the effective area of the detector, the angular resolution of the detector, the scattering of individual muons, and the effectiveness of identifying and isolating these parallel muon shower events from background and noise. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00016: Radiological Assessment of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Mission (Texas) Surface Soils via Gammaray Spectroscopy Kareem Wahid, Mohammad Hannan, Nam Nguyen Residents living near decommissioned chemical facilities in the city of Mission, Texas have been noted to complain of physiological abnormalities and health related problems associated with low dose radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify radioactivity levels in the entire Mission area by measuring natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in 30 representative surface soil samples through highresolution gammaray spectroscopy. The mean specific activity concentrations for these radionuclides were similar to other comparable locations and followed an approximately normal distribution across the samples. In addition, radiological impact assessment factors such as the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, radium equivalent activity, and external radiation hazard index were calculated and found to be lower than recommended values, thereby signifying that there seems to be no potential radiological threat associated with Mission surface soils. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00017: Optimizing UVglass multianode PMTs with a pTerphenyl wavelength shifter Melanie Rehfuss, Sylvester Joosten, ZeinEddine Meziani Due to their small formfactor, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields and potential for advanced noiserejection, multianode (MA) PMTs are supremely suited for application in future openenvironment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV upgrade, as well as for a future electronion collider. I will present the results from performance characterization and magnetic field sensitivity testing of the 64channel Hamamatsu H8500C03 series MA PMT conducted at Temple University. Moreover, I will explore their behavior after the application of a pTerphenyl wavelength shifter. Such a wavelength shifter can dramatically boost the quantum efficiency below 300nm, strongly improving the overall Cherenkov detector efficiency. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00018: Testing improved length and accuracy of numerical simulations of merging black holes Nick Demos Gravitational waves are ripples in space and time that Einstein predicted in 1916. Merging black holes are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves, and highly accurate numerical simulations of these sources are crucial for helping experiments detect as many gravitational waves as possible. Using the newest version of the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), I simulated equal mass, nonspinning, merging black holes, a wellstudied benchmark case, and I compared the numerical waves' accuracy against a previous simulation. The new simulation is significantly longer, and it includes recent changes in SpEC designed to improve the simulated waves' accuracy, such as better resolving the unavoidable initial high frequency burst of spurious gravitational waves. This and future long, highaccuracy simulations will help develop improved approximate, analytic models of the waves for gravitationalwave searches. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00019: Comparing initial data for rapidly rotating, merging black holes Haroon Khan Detecting gravitational waves (ripples of curved spacetime) requires accurate predictions of the expected waveforms. Only numerical simulations can predict the waveforms near the time of merger, because then all analytical approximations fail. These numerical simulations must begin with initial data that satisfy the Einstein constraint equations while yielding a pair of merging black holes of the desired physical configuration. Different methods of constructing initial data yield physically different systems, which lead to different initial bursts of spurious ``junk'' gravitational radiation as the system relaxes to equilibrium. By extending work by [1] to the case of rapidly spinning black holes, I am using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) to test whether such physically different initial data are nevertheless astrophysically equivalent (i.e., whether the waveforms agree after the initial relaxation). Specifically, extending the work of [2], I am using two different initial data methods to simulate merging black holes with equal masses and equal spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum of the system. \\[4pt] [1] arXiv:1206.2943\\[0pt] [2] arXiv:0805.4192 [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00020: Analysis of Flight of NearSpace Balloon Zech Miller, Austin Evans, James Seyfert, Kyle Leadlove, Kaitlyn Gumina, Eric Martell In December 2014, the Electronics class at Millikin University launched a balloon designed to travel into the nearspace region of the atmosphere. The balloon was equipped with an instrumentation package including a camera, accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor, temperature probes, as well as a system for tracking using an Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS). The balloon was launched from Decatur, IL, and landed in Marysville, OH, nearly 320 miles away. The students then analyzed the data from the flight and compared results to expectations. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00021: Sonochemical Synthesis and Magnetic Imaging of HollowShell IronPlatinum Nanoparticles Remmi Baker, Paris Barnes, Eric Martell As science has continued to evolve, scientists have been diving deeper and deeper, researching and analyzing the tiniest of objects. Interestingly, materials such as gold, silver, iron, and platinum behave differently on the nanoscale than the macroscale. Discrepancies between the behaviors of macro and nanoparticles of the same substance are not well understood, which has led scientists to pursue the question as to why nanoparticles behave differently. Further research into the fabrication of hollowshell ironplatinum nanoparticles and their unique properties may lead to realworld applications. Ironplatinum (FePt) nanoparticles are recognized for their unique magnetic properties; however, these properties have largely not been researched. FePt samples were prepared using sonochemical techniques. We report on the magnetic force microscopy imaging for selfassembled hollowshell FePt nanoparticles, and relate our findings to the physical characteristics of the hollowshell FePt nanoparticles. Additionally, we investigate the magnetic properties for FePt nanoparticles by analyzing the role of the electrons and their interactions occurring within the magnetic domain. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00022: Chicane current setting for the Heavy Photon Search Mathieu Ehrhart The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment at Jefferson Laboratory will search for hypothetical massive vector boson, called ''heavy photon''. The commissioning run began in the fall of 2014 and will continue to run in Hall B in the spring of 2015. In this first phase of the measurements, HPS will search for a heavy photon in the mass range of 20 to 200 MeV/c$^2$. In this mass range, the heavy photon is predicted to decay into $e^{+}e^{}$ pair. The HPS experiment uses an electromagnetic calorimeter for energy measurements and triggering, and a silicon vertex tracker located inside the HPS analyzing magnet (AM) for momentum and vertex measurements. Two small Hdipole magnets are needed before and after the analyzing magnet to form a chicane and ensure beam alignment. In this poster, determination of the current settings for the AM and the two small bending magnets as a function of the beam energy will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00023: Cosmic Ray Induced BitFlipping Experiment Ge Pu, Ed Callaghan, Matthew Parsons CRIBFLEX is a novel approach to midaltitude observational particle physics intended to correlate the phenomena of semiconductor bitflipping with cosmic ray activity. Here a weather balloon carries a Geiger counter and DRAM memory to various altitudes; the data collected will contribute to the development of memory device protection. We present current progress toward initial flight and data acquisition. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00024: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN 

D1.00025: The Uses and Benefits of Thermal, Acoustic, and Electromagnetic Stimuli in Conjunction with Standard Cryogenic Treatment of Metals Kyle Leadlove, James Seyfert, Casey R. Watson, Peter Paulin We explore modifications to the basic cryogenic procedures utilized by 300 Below Inc. to strengthen metal components. We consider combinations of additional thermal, acoustic, and electromagnetic stimuli in our efforts to further optimize the cryogenic treatment  i.e., to augment the already improved tensile strength, shear strength, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. resulting from traditional cryogenic treatment. We report the relative benefits of each stimulus independently as well as the effects of combinations of stimuli used in concert. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00026: Lifetime of CosmicRay Muons and the Standard Model of Fundamental Particles Sahansha Mukherji, Yash Shevde, Walerian Majewski Muon is one of the twelve fundamental particles of matter, having the longest freeparticle lifetime. It decays into three other leptons through an exchange of the weak vector bosons W$^{+}$/W$^{}$. Muons are present in the secondary cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere, reaching the sea level. By detecting time delay between arrival of the muon and an appearance of the decay electron in our single scintillation detector (donated by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA), we measured muon's lifetime at rest. It compares well with the value predicted by the Standard Model of Particles. From the lifetime we were able to calculate the ratio g$_{\mathrm{w}}$ /M$_{\mathrm{W}}$ of the weak coupling constant g$_{\mathrm{w}}$ (an analog of the electric charge) to the mass of the Wboson M$_{\mathrm{W}}$. Using further Standard Model relations and an experimental value for M$_{\mathrm{W}}$, we calculated the weak coupling constant, the electric charge of the muon, and the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. We determined the sealevel flux of cosmic muons. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00027: The Derivation of Frequency Modulation Equations for Compton Sources Todd Hodges, Geoff Krafft, Wally Melnitchouk, Balsa Terzic Thomson sources of electromagnetic radiation utilizing relativistic electrons have seen increased use in fundamental physics research in the past several years. The small frequency range, or bandwidth, of the emitted radiation is highly desirable for applications in nuclear and particle physics. However, as the intensity of the incident laser pulse involved in the scattering event increases, the bandwidth of the emitted radiation increases. In accelerators, this increase in bandwidth may be negated through frequency modulation of the incident laser pulse. Current analytic solutions governing this frequency modulation are only applicable when the energies of the individual photons in the laser pulse are within the Thomson limit. We derive analytic solutions applicable to laser pulse frequency modulation both within, and beyond, the Thomson limit using Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). Currently, the derived expression pertains to polarized scattering events in which one photon emitting processes significantly contribute to the overall reaction. At energies beyond the Thomson limit, processes involving the emission of multiple photons may play a more important role, and we will report on recent progress made in estimating their significance. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00028: Film Vetoes for Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors Nicholas DePorzio, Carlo Bucci, Lucia Canonica, MariaLaura Divacri This study characterizes the effectiveness of encasing bolometer detectors in scintillating, metal ionization, and more exotic films to veto alpha radiation background. Bolometers are highly susceptible to alpha background and a successful veto should improve the statistical strength, speed, and signalbackground ratio of bolometer particle searches. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4 MeV to 6.0 MeV alpha particles that are representative of detector conditions. Photomultipliers detect the keV range scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Also, layered films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as goldpolyethylenegold films, are cooled to millikelvin temperatures and biased with 0.1 V to 100 V to produce a current signal when incident alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Veto signals are characterized by their affect on bolometer detection of 865 keV target signals. Similar methods are applied to more exotic films. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00029: Software development for a Ring Imaging Detector Benjamin Torisky, Fatiha Benmokhtar ~Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a largescale upgrade to their Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beam. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon  pion separation throughout the 3 to 12 GeV range. With this addition, when the electron beam hits the target, the resulting pions, kaons, and other particles will pass through a wall of translucent aerogel tiles and create Cherenkov radiation. This light can then be accurately detected by a large array of MultiAnode PhotoMultiplier Tubes (MAPMT). I am presenting my work on the implementation of Java based reconstruction programs for the RICH in the CLAS12 main analysis package. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00030: Transmission of NonPerpendicularly Incident Light Jacob Maibach I conducted two experiments to quantify optical effects of a linearly polarizing film. Particularly, two polarizing films were placed at a fixed distance apart and aligned with a light beam perpendicularly incident to both films. The first polarizer (closer to the light source) was held fixed while the other was rotated, and the intensity of the transmitted light was measured. In the first experiment, the second film was rotated around the light beam, and the transmission decayed with $\cos^{2}(\theta)$, verifying Malus' Law. In the second experiment, the second film was rotated towards the light beam, so that incidence was nonperpendicular. Contrary to expectation, the transmission was higher when incidence was nonperpendicular. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00031: Star Formation in the Zw1400$+$09 Poor Cluster Galaxies Alyssa McElroy Galaxies in dense clusters are known to have less gas and star formation, likely due to environmental interactions within the clusters. Less is known about the properties of galaxies in lower density poor clusters and group environments. In this project, star formation properties of galaxies in the Zwicky 1400$+$09 (NRGb282, NGC 5416) poor cluster were found by reducing and analyzing narrowband Halpha and broadband R images taken with the WIYN 0.9m MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Surface photometry and total star formation rates and extents are presented for a sample of galaxies within the cluster. This work is supported by NSF AST0725267 and AST1211005 and is a part of an Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team study of the star forming and gas properties of 16 nearby groups of galaxies. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00032: Macroscopic Velocity Amplification in Stacked Disks Srividya Murthy, Gary White When a small sphere rests atop a larger sphere (for example, a basketball with a tennis ball balanced on top), and both are released from a height, the resulting ``velocity amplification'' of the small sphere when the pair rebound from a hard floor, is a staple of the physics demonstration toolkitusually impressive, sometimes dangerous. While this phenomenon has been studied in the literature in some detail, we set out to explore this effect by constructing a device involving stacked disks falling in a plane, fashioned after an online design by Wayne Peterson of Brigham Young University. When two disks, stacked edge to edge atop one another and confined to a vertical plane, are dropped, the top disk rebounds to a much greater height than it started from, as expected. In this talk, we report on experiments conducted by dropping the disks and recording the heights to which they rise on rebound, and the comparison of these results with our theoretical predictions and computer simulations. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00033: Coherent Scattering of Neutrinos on Nuclei in Core Collapse Supernovae Ian Scott, Evan O'Connor When calculating the coherent scattering cross section of neutrinos on nuclei for core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) simulations, it is commonplace to use a representative average nucleus rather than the full distribution of nuclei that is actually predicted for CCSN conditions. This may lead to errors when predicting the cross section of neutrinos on the matter. To determine the extent of this error, or to justify the use of the representative nucleus, we use a full distribution of nuclei and their respective cross sections to calculate how the scattering of neutrinos is effected by this approximation. In particular, we apply this to typical matter conditions during the collapse phase of a CCSN. In order to explore potential effects of variations of the neutrinonucleus cross section on the CCSN itself, we also run core collapse simulations with varied cross sections and analyze the results. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00034: GRAVITATION 

D1.00035: A LightForce Duality Principle Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov The light used in the Michelson interferometer has the electromagnetic structure. Its source must be unified system of the photon and monophoton. The structural particles suffer in it the periodical interconversion [1], in which an electric force is converted into a magnetic one and vice versa. Furthermore, the electromagnetic light with his own speed can possess either longitudinal or transversal spin polarization owing to which, ether, namely gravity bends its trajectory in the Michelson interferometer. Of course, in such phenomena appears a part of Newton and Coulomb components of each of the electric and magnetic forces. If these situations follow from a unified principle, the light and force correspond to the two forms of the same matter. Such a correspondence principle expresses the lightforce duality. Therefore, any of gauge bosons may serve as the source of a kind of light, confirming that we cannot exclude the existence of both strong and weak light beams in nature. They together with an electromagnetic light constitute naturally united light beam which comes forward in the universe either as a flux of gravitons or as a gravitational wave.\\[4pt] [1] R.S. Sharafiddinov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(5), T1.00005 (2014). [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00036: Is Biology based on Physics? Shantilal Goradia The equation on Boltsmann's tomb is S = K log W, giving 137 = 10E60 where 10E60 closely stands for the age of the universe in Plank times. We wish we could add ``137 = 10E60'' on his tomb as a contribution leading physics towards information in biology as explained in our book ``Quantum Consciousness  the Road to Reality.'' (1) We draft our speculation that such a step may explain the underlying physical cause for mutations. Tiny immeasurable and slow changes well beyond the tenth digit of fine structure constant may suffice to change the information system in constituent particles of nucleotides with their external effects forcing changes in the genetic code with successful changes resulting into mutations. (2) Our quantum mechanical published derivation of the strong coupling implies gravity as a cumulative effect of quantum mechanical particles further implying that the universal constant of gravity (G) can not be constant everywhere. (1) and (2) put together should remove Darwin's confusion about the constancy of gravity. Moving planets and Sunstorms should also cause changes in G on earth unnoticeable to mankind, but large enough to have an impact on the internal particles of nucleotides which should implicitly have an external effect on the genetic code per our theory. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00037: Finite Element Methods for Modelling Mechanical Loss in LIGO coating optics. Jonathan Newport, Gregg Harry Gravitational waves from sources such as binary star systems, supernovae explosions and stochastic background radiation have yet to be directly detected by experimental observations. Alongside international collaborators, the Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO) is designed to realize detection of gravitational waves using interferometric techniques. The second generation of gravitational wave observatories, known as Advanced LIGO, are currently undergoing installation and commissioning at sites in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana. The ultimate sensitivity of Advanced LIGO within select spectral bands is limited by thermal noise in the coatings of the interferometer optics. The LIGO lab at American University is measuring the mechanical loss of coated substrates to predict thermal noise within these spectral bands. These predictions use increasingly sophisticated finite element models to ensure the ultimate design sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and to study coating and substrate materials for future gravitational wave detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00038: Gravitational Waves and Protoneutron Star Oscillations in Rotating CoreCollapse Supernovae Hannah Klion, Christian Ott, Ernazar Abdikamalov, Jim Fuller In the milliseconds following the core bounce of a rapidly rotating corecollapse supernova, there are correlated oscillations at 700800 Hz in the central density of the protoneutron star and in the emitted neutrino and gravitational wave signals. It has been hypothesized that these oscillations arise from an excited nonlinear quadrupolar mode of the protoneutron star. Using a 3D generalrelativistic hydrodynamic code, we further study these oscillations by simulating the iron core collapse of a $12\, M_\odot$ progenitor in an octant of the 3D cube with periodic boundaries in the azimuthal direction. We study the initial rotational configurations that lead to correlated oscillations and the relationship between the oscillation frequency and properties of the progenitor and protoneutron star. We find that the oscillation frequency increases monotonically with the postbounce rotation rate. To better understand the effect of rotation on the oscillation modes, we also study the modes of protoneutron star models in rotational equilibrium. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00039: Use of gravitational waves to measure alignment of spins in compact binaries Philip Graff, Salvatore Vitale, Ryan Lynch, Riccardo Sturani Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spinorbit (and eventual spinspin) interactions, and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this work, we first consider the simple case when all simulated signals are either nearly aligned or isotropically distributed. We build a cumulative Bayesian odds ratio between the two models and we show that for both cases the right model is preferred already after a few detections; it is decisively preferred after less than a year of observation at the realistic detection rate. We also consider the scenario of a mixed population, where a fraction of signals are nearly aligned in spin and the rest are isotropic. We find that the posterior distribution for the mixture fraction is biased to larger fractions of aligned spins. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00040: Experimental Search for a Violation of Einstein's Equivalence Principle Michael Abercrombie, Adam Archibald, Tsitsi MadziwaNussinov, Kasey Wagoner, Ramanath Cowsik The Equivalence Principle (EP) states that a gravitational field is locally equivalent to a uniformly accelerated reference frame, and it is this idea that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity (GR) is largely based upon. A direct consequence of the EP is the universality of free fall; that is, all objects, regardless of their composition, fall at the same rate in a given gravitational field. Motivated by theoretical attempts to unify GR with the Standard Model that predict possible violations of the universality of free fall, we have developed an E\"{o}tv\"{o}stype torsion balance experiment capable of testing the EP at unprecedented sensitivities. Using a balance configured as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution, a violation of the EP would cause a diurnal modulation of the balance orientation in response to the gravitational field produced by the Sun. To monitor the torsion balance we use a multislit autocollimating optical level capable of measuring angular displacements on the scale of nanoradians. The recent relocation of our experiment to an isolated bunker built into a hillside at the Tyson Research Facility reduces the seismic and thermal noise in our measurements. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00041: The Concept of General Relativity is not Related to Reality Ronald Kotas The concept of general relativity is not related to reality. It is not real or factual Science. GR cannot account for objects falling to earth or for the weight of objects sitting on the earth. The Cavendish demonstration showing the attraction between two masses at right angles to earth's gravity, is not explained by GR. No one can prove the existence of ``space fabric.'' The concept of ``space time'' effects causing gravitational attraction between masses is wrong. Conservation law of energy  momentum does not exist in GR. LIGO fails in detecting ``gravity waves'' because there is no ``space fabric'' to transmit them. The Gravity B Probe data manipulated to show some effects, is not proof of ``space fabric.'' It is Nuclear Quantum Gravitation that provides clear definitive explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 clear, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santillifoundation.org/inconsistenciesgravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics, by Paul Marmet http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/ [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00042: Solar System Test for Alternative Gravity Theories Richard Bustos Over the past year I've worked with Dr. Biswas and Dr.Brans from Loyola University, on different aspects of General relativity. More recently we have been focusing on particle and photon orbits in Schwarzschildlike metric which is relevant to understand observations such as photon deflection and perihelion precession of Mercury. These observations can be used to test alternative gravity theories, such as f(R) Theories. Such solar system tests have proved extremely useful to constrain alternative theories of gravity, such as f(R) theories that try to solve the dark energy problem. While so far most theorists have focused on the simplest f(R) type of modification of gravity to realize the phase of late time cosmic speedup that we are observing, there are several other viable candidates. In particular, many ``effective'' approaches to gravity gives rise to f(R,G) type of modifications, where G is the Gauss Bonnet term. Accordingly, we are currently trying to understand how solar system tests can constrain this more general class of f(R,G) dark energy models. In my talk I will present our progress in this direction. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00043: Derivation of EinsteinCartan theory from general relativity Richard Petti General relativity cannot describe exchange of classical intrinsic angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. EinsteinCartan theory fixes this problem in the least invasive way. In the late 20th century, the consensus view was that EinsteinCartan theory requires inclusion of torsion without adequate justification, it has no empirical support (though it doesn't conflict with any known evidence), it solves no important problem, and it complicates gravitational theory with no compensating benefit. In 1986 the author published a derivation of EinsteinCartan theory from general relativity, with no additional assumptions or parameters. Starting without torsion, Poincar\'{e} symmetry, classical or quantum spin, or spinors, it derives torsion and its relation to spin from a continuum limit of general relativistic solutions. The present work makes the case that this computation, combined with supporting arguments, constitutes a derivation of EinsteinCartan theory from general relativity, not just a plausibility argument. This paper adds more and simpler explanations, more computational details, correction of a factor of 2, discussion of limitations of the derivation, and discussion of some areas of gravitational research where EinsteinCartan theory is relevant. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00044: Reduced Model for Gravitational Wave Sources Lorena Magana Zertuche, James Clark, Deirdre Shoemaker Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a promising and efficient method to distill the essence of the waveforms in a way that explores the capabilities to mine information for LIGO. This tool acts on collections of numerical relativity waveforms to find bulk features such as the energy and momentum radiated and also other black hole parameters like spin, mass, eccentricity, and sky location. These features may provide the ``smoking gun'' of mergers for gravitational wave burst detection. Here, we explore the use of PCA as an efficient means to characterize the numerical relativity waveforms and identify certain phenomenological features. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00045: Orbits and Scaling for an Isotropic Metric Joseph Rudmin An isotropic metric is offered to resolve well known gravitational paradoxes and inconsistencies of general relativity with quantum mechanics. Reasons for and against an isotropic metric are presented, such as conservation of momentum and energy in multiple reference frames, and violation of the equivalence principle. Orbits are derived in the conventional way, showing that objects do not cross event horizons for an isotropic metric. Scaling of physical quantities elucidates some powerful symmetries. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00046: K12 EDUCATION 

D1.00047: Innovative Outreach Programs Inspire Interest in Science Alice Hawthorne Allen, Julie Lauderman The NASA West Virginia Space Grant Consortium has given Concord University financial support to develop, acquire materials for, and implement an outreach program in physics and astronomy that will provide handson learning opportunities related to outer space and to inspire interest in science. Using materials purchased with these funds, we have developed successful outreach programs related to the electromagnetic spectrum, the launching of objects into space, and the challenges of building objects in space. The success of these outreach projects in our rural region of southern West Virginia will be presented. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00048: POSTDEADLINE POSTERS 

D1.00049: Modeling {\&} Simulation of Ionospheric Disturbances: A Novel Proposition Stuart Barron, Dominic Bett, Monisha Cunningham, Sudip Sen We will develop a numerical model of plasma turbulence in the presence of inhomogeneous flows. This model is novel and complete because of its inclusion of realistic spatial profiles in flows including both flow shear (first order spatial derivative of flow) and flow curvature (second order spatial derivative of flow). With these inclusions the picture of stability of various plasma instabilities and disturbances is expected to be changed drastically. The inhomogeneous parallel (magnetic field aligned) flow can actually stabilize plasma turbulence because of the new flow curvature effect. This differs from the prevalent notion that the parallel flow shear is responsible for the excitation (destabilization) of plasma turbulence. In space plasma, it is usually believed that the spatial transverse shear in the parallel flow destabilizes many low frequency oscillations and this may be the origin of low frequency oscillations and disturbances in the space. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00050: ASTRA Simulation Results of RF Propagation in Plasma Medium Joshua Goodwin, Brandon Oneal, Aaron Smith, Sudip Sen Transport barriers in toroidal plasmas play a major role in achieving the required confinement for reactor grade plasmas. They are formed by different mechanisms, but most of them are associated with a zonal flow which suppresses turbulence. A different way of producing a barrier has been recently proposed which uses the ponderomotive force of RF waves to reduce the fluctuations due to drift waves, but without inducing any plasma rotation. Using this mechanism, a transport coefficient is derived which is a function of RF power, and it is incorporated in transport simulations performed for the Brazilian tokamak TCABR, as a possible test bed for the theoretical model. The formation of a transport barrier is demonstrated at the position of the RF wave resonant absorption surface, having the typical pedestallike temperature profile. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00051: Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Aaron Smith, Dominic Bett, Monisha Cunningham, Sudip Sen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) is a process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate. Recent study from the Xray diffraction spectra of \textit{SnO}2 films deposited as a function of RF power apparently indicates that RF power is playing a stabilizing role and hence in the better deposition. The results show that the RF power results in smoother morphology, improved crystallinity, and lower sheet resistance value in the PECVD process. The PECVD processing allows deposition at lower temperatures, which is often critical in the manufacture of semiconductors. In this talk we will address two aspects of the problem, first to develop a model to study the mechanism of how the PECVD is effected by the RF power, and second to actually simulate the effect of RF power on PECVD. As the PECVD is a very important component of the plasma processing technology with many applications in the semiconductor technology and surface science, the research proposed here has the prospect to revolutionize the plasma processing technology through the stabilizing role of the RF power. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00052: Neutrino Yongquan Han The most basic Quantum are the particles who mutual rotation, quantum is composed of basic quantum.Quantum convergence or divergence is conditional, the faster the particle rotates, the smaller the orbiting radius will be, the greater quality is, the more density will be. The orbiting radius of less than 10$^{15}$ meters in the order of convergence, convergence of neutron, proton, and then they are in the formation of the nucleus, and the convergence of quantum can make extra nuclear electron and the formation of atomic; if rotation radius is more than 10$^{15}$ meters of magnitude, the internal quantum atoms diverge to outer space in the form of electromagnetic waves. The quality of magnetic wave particle is composed of the rotation speed of the particle which is internal of the electromagnetic, it doesn't matter about the electromagnetic wave propagation velocity of particles. Neutrinos are orbiting particles, the orbiting radius is about 10$^{15}$ meters, is a special kind of radiation. Neutrino is between the virtual particles (according to modern science, the electromagnetic wave doesn't have quality) and modern scientific ( the particle who has quality) special particles [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00053: Transitions in expanding cosmological spacetimes Beverly K. Berger One may easily construct a sequence of vacuum spacetimes by starting with the spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, vacuum Kasner solution and adding one direction of spatial dependence (polarized Gowdy), rotations in the spatial symmetry plane (generic Gowdy), and the remaining allowed spatial rotations (Gowdy plus twists). In the timedirection of expanding spatial volume, the spatially dependent cases may be analyzed as averaged background spacetimes containing gravitational waves. The nature of the averaged background spacetime is known to change abruptly in moving from Kasner to Gowdy to Gowdy with twists. In addition, as pointed out by Ringstrom, generic Gowdy models exhibit two distinct behaviors for the averaged wave amplitude. The focus is on transitions involving the introduction of twists where the phenomenology is not well understood. Numerical simulations are used to study the details of the behavior in the transition from one case to another especially to investigate possible scaling relationships. A final topic will be the effect of the addition of matter and/or a cosmological constant to these models. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00054: Evaluation of MultiAnode Photomultipliers for the CLAS12 RingImaging Cherenkov Detector Jenna Samuel Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has recently upgraded its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) to provide a comprehensive study of the complex internal structure and dynamics of the nucleon. The upgrade includes new detectors such as the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The RICH will use multianode photomultipliers (MAPMTs) for the detection of Cherenkov photons. Our study compared two models of Hamamatsu MAPMTs (H8500 and H12700) under consideration for the CLAS12 RICH in terms of their single photoelectron (SPE) peak, dark current, and crosstalk. The MAPMTs were tested inside a lighttight box, using a low intensity laser to simulate single photoelectron events similar to Cherenkov radiation. The H12700's SPE peaks were on average 78\% the width of the H8500's peaks. For both models, the probability of dark current was on the order of $10^{4}$. The probability of crosstalk for H8500s was 1.6 to 2.7 times that for H12700s. The H12700s were deemed better because they had negligible crosstalk and dark current while providing a narrower peak for single photoelectron events. [Preview Abstract] 
(Author Not Attending)

D1.00055: Multifractality to Photonic Crystal {\&} SelfOrganization to Metamaterials through Anderson Localizations {\&} Group/Gauge Theory Widastra HidajatullahMaksoed Arthur Cayley at least investigate by creating the theory of permutation group[F:$\backslash \backslash $Group\textunderscore theory.htm] where in cell elements addressing of the lattice Qmf used a Cayley tree, the selfafine object Qmf is described by the combination of the finite groups of rotation {\&} inversion and the infinite groups of translation {\&} dilation[G Corso {\&} LS Lacena: \textbf{``Multifractal lattice and group theory'', } Physica A: Statistical Mechanics {\&}Its Applications, \textbf{2005 }, v 357, issue I, h 6470; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articel/pii/S0378437105005005 ] hence multifractal can be related to group theory. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00056: A Scientific Analysis of Galaxy Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves III Laurence Taff I last reported on my preliminary analysis of 350$+$ spiral, lenticular, irregular, polar ring, ring, and dwarf elliptical galaxies' tangential speed of revolution curves [TSRCs; and not rotation (\textit{sic}) curves]. I now know that the consensus opinion in the literaturefor which I can find no geometrical, numerical, statistical, nor scientific testing in 2,500$+$ publicationsthat the TSRC, v$_{\mathrm{B}}$(r), in the central bulges of these galaxies, is a linear function of the radial distance from the minor axis of symmetry ris false. For the majority (\textgreater 98{\%}) v$_{\mathrm{B}}$(r) is rarely well represented by v$_{\mathrm{B}}$(r) $=$ $\omega_{\mathrm{B}}$r (for which the unique material model is an homogeneous, oblate, spheroid). Discovered via a scientific analysis of the gravitational potential energy computed directly from the observational data, v$_{\mathrm{B}}$(r) is almost exactly given by v$_{\mathrm{B}}^{\mathrm{2}}$(r) $=$ ($\omega _{\mathrm{B}}$r)$^{\mathrm{2}}$(1 $+ \quad \eta $r$^{\mathrm{2}})$ with $\eta$ \textless 10$^{\mathrm{2}}$ and frequently orders of magnitude less. The corresponding mass model is the simplest generalization: a two component homoeoid. The set of possible periodic orbits, based on circular trigonometric functions, becomes a set of periodic orbits based on the Jacobian elliptic functions. Once again it is possible to prove that the masstolight ratio can neither be a constant nor follow the de Vaucouleurs R$^{1/4}$ rule. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00057: Modeling the Effect of Refractive Optics on CMB Polarization Sarah Marie Bruno, Patricio Gallardo, Brian Koopman, Michael Niemack Precise CMB polarization measurements are crucial in investigating dark energy. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) in Chile is built to simultaneously measure temperature and polarization. Polarization angle measurements require an error margin \textless\ 0.1$^{\circ}$, or these will limit our results. This requires greater understanding of how refractive optics alter the polarization of the microwave radiation. Lens coatings are necessary to avoid the reflection of the majority of the incoming light. Early experiments found that there were systematic angular distortions in the data, in which the optical elements in the ACTPol telescope rotated the polarization of the incoming microwave radiation slightly. We modeled a single lens using two commercial optics modeling software packages, CodeV and Zemax, with single and doublelayer coatings. Unexpectedly, significant disparities between these models were observed. We subsequently developed our own Python model of the single lens system in order to predict the polarization rotation values. I will present the results of this work. Our next aim is to reproduce the modeled phenomena using physical lenses. [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00058: Helium, from He$^{3}$ Superfluid to Alphaspin Fatahillah HidajatullahWidastra, Widastra HidajatullahMaksoed Accompanying heliumusing of ``Two Eagles'' balloon group 2015 World record pacificballoon.com@FlightStatus.php, superfluid He$^{3}$ offers a unique ``testing ground'' for rapid phase transitions. Recent experiments where a rotating superfluid He$^{3}$ was locally heated well above the critical temperature by absorption of neutrons [4,5] receved vortex formation under a rapid 2$^{\mathrm{nd}}$ order phase transitionI.S. Aranson, \textit{et.al,} Physica C, \textbf{``Vortex Matter in Superconductors at Extreme SCALES and Conditions'',} v 332, n 14, May 2000, h 129. Further for ``alphaspin resembles the vortex formed as a consequence of the interaction of 4 vortexes'' sought the ``it will be sufficient to calculate the energy shift with the singlet {\&} triplet $m=$0S Gasiorowics:\textbf{''Quantum Physics'',}2003, h 220 [Preview Abstract] 

D1.00059: The Geometry of Imaginary Length in Maxwell's Equations and Relativity Felix T. Smith Since the beginnings of relativity the reason for the imaginary timedependent component in its $(x,y,z,ict)$ 4space and in Minkowski's spacetime has been a mystery. The investigation of an unresolved issue in the structure of Maxwell's equations leads unexpectedly to a recognition that the central imaginary quantity is a length and not a time. The geometry of this Maxwellian system is found to be both minutely time dependent with the Hubble expansion and Lobachevskian with a negative curvature. Because curvature is an inverse squared length, $K_{\mathrm{curv}}= R_{\mathrm{curv}}^{2}$, this negative curvature of the nonEuclidean geometry creates a generalized curvature length that is imaginary. It is the combination of global expansion with this negative curvature $K_{\mathrm{curv}}^{\mathrm{Lob}}<0$ that results in a curvature length that is both imaginary and increases with time, $dR_{\mathrm{curv}}(t)=icdt$. The imaginary is thus associated primarily with geometric concepts of length and curvature, connected only secondarily with time because of the expansion. Minkowski's spacetime associated the imaginary signature entirely with time and not with length, and cannot be sustained. [Preview Abstract] 
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