Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2010
Volume 55, Number 1
Saturday–Tuesday, February 13–16, 2010; Washington, DC
Session R1: Poster Session III: (2:00  5:00 PM) 
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Room: Exhibit Hall AB 

R1.00001: PHYSICS EDUCATION 

R1.00002: GraduateStudent Teaching Assistants: A Crucial Element in Improving Undergraduate Physics Cassandra Paul, Emily West, Wendell Potter, David Webb At large research universities, undergraduate students spend more time in a typical physics (or other science class) being taught by graduate teaching assistants (TAs) than by regular faculty. Student time with TAs occurs in lab or discussion sections, which by design are usually more interactive than lecture. Since physics education research has solidly established that interactive learning environments are more successful at fostering student learning than traditional lectures, it follows that graduate students could be in a better position to stimulate meaningful student learning than faculty. Yet there is little research on TAs and their contribution to improved learning. I characterize and discuss the classroom observations of 26 TAs leading interactive discussion/lab sections, describing the types of academic interactions these TAs have with their students and how commonly they occur. I also examine the degree to which these interactions affect undergraduate attitudes and achievement. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00003: Student Involvement in International Research  The IRES Program at MAMI and MAXlab William Briscoe, Grant O'Rielly, Nawal Benmouna Students associated with The George Washington University, Montgomery College, and the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth have the opportunity to participate in an international collaborative research at the Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) at the Johannes Gutenberg Universit\"{a}t in Mainz, Germany or MAXlab at the Lund University in Lund, Sweden. This project supports up to six undergraduate students and two beginning graduate students each year. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the two laboratories. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon and its excitations through the study of meson photoproduction off the nucleon. Along with the US coPIs, members of the international collaborations contribute to the training and mentoring of the students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technologydependent society. We will present a history, goals and outcomes of this program. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00004: Making Physics Fascinating and Fun Vede Ramdass, Amanda White, Wendy Harris, Jerome Mlack, Roberto Ramos Since it's inception the Society of Physics Students at Drexel University established a goal of promoting and encouraging the pursuit of Physics or science among middle school students. As a result, we have established an outreach project that partners with a local Philadelphia middle school in order for us to expose the students to Physics concepts and theories that surpasses their curriculum in a way that is exciting. The program with the school involves biweekly meetings with students interested in science from both 7th and 8th grade classes. At each meeting we first talk about a general topic in physics, such as thermodynamics or kinetics, and then perform demonstrations that are designed to encourage their participation and hence enthusiasm towards the material. The program lasts for school year and culminates in a final project which tries to incorporate all the things they have learned. The final project and by extension the entire outreach has proven great success in motivating these students to becoming more involved in science and most importantly, proving to them that science is fascinating and fun. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00005: Conceptual Electricity and Magnetism Problem Database (http://physinfo.uark.edu/inventory) John Stewart This poster introduces a new digital resource for teaching and evaluating introductory electricity and magnetism classes: a digital library of highly characterized, multiplechoice, conceptual electricity and magnetism problems. The library contains over 1700 problems that were algorithmically constructed from a collection of introductory sources. Each problem is characterized by the complexity of its solution and by the fundamental intellectual steps found in the solution. Evaluation construction, administration, and analysis tools are provided through the library's website. Problems may be downloaded for use in exams or as clicker questions. Instructors may also design and administer conceptual evaluations online. A student selftesting tool is provided and well as an extensive array of supporting materials. There is no cost associated with using any of the facilities of the site. Site address http://physinfo.uark.edu/inventory. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00006: Physics and Religion Leonard Finegold, Timothy ThomsonHohl, Som Tyagi Aspects of religion with science/religion have been covered in the pages of \textit{Physics} \textit{Today} and \textit{Physics News}. They reflect wide student interest in these topics. For a decade, two physicists and a campus minister have taught a writingintensive course ``Issues in Science and Religion'' Physics/Sociology 137. Here we outline our course (open to all students), to encourage others contemplating similar courses. Many students escape an exposure to the basics of science, and so we capture them. We discuss \textit{inter alia} relativity and uncertainties (both quantum and classical, which fascinate students), including their controversial relationships with religion. One of us (LF), as a biophysicist, was asked to cover evolution, which topic has proved to be rather popular: Various scientific organizations have publicly defended evolution against intelligent design and creationism. To keep the quality of the course, we have restricted enrollment. Here we discuss only the science/physics part of the course. Visiting speakers (covering the gamut from religious to nonreligious) have included a Vatican astronomer, a Sloan survey cosmologist, the director of SETI, a neuropsychologist, a sociologist, historians of science and theologians. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00007: More and Better Prepared Teachers, More and Better Prepared Majors Gay Stewart A more scientifically literate society benefits physics as a profession. It is best realized by better serving all undergraduate physics students. Arguably, the most important are future K12 teachers. In better serving all students, the department also benefits. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville has seen a drastic change in number of majors, the number of students active in research and the number of graduates pursuing graduate work while also increasing the number of majors who decide to teach. Building these numbers and strengthening these resources at Arkansas began with an NSF course revision project, grew as a we became primary program institution in the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (www.PTEC.org), received a Noyce Scholarship grant, and now continues in our building of an NSF Math Science Partnership utilizing our experiences coupled with PTRA materials, and expanding our efforts to Mathematics. Through APLU's SMTI, we are making changes in chemistry as well. These efforts will be discussed, with additional information on PTEC which is bringing together innovative ideas and practices throughout the country to help meet the critical shortage of well prepared and actively supported teachers.~ [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00008: Evaluation of a two year undergraduate research experience Daniela M. Topasna, Gregory A. Topasna We present a longitudinal study of a two year undergraduate research experience. While the project involves open ended research in thin films, we believe our experiences can easily be representative of other research areas. We observed a connection between complexity and amount of tasks versus interests and performance and remark on the factors that influence the outcome. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00009: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN 

R1.00010: Epistemological Effect of Assessment Style in Introductory Physics Mark Bowen Epistemologies were measured across two separate lecture sections of introductory algebrabased physics at UC Davis. Remarkable differences in epistemologies, as measured by the MPEX II survey were noted with one section's students (section A) showing significantly better gains in almost all epistemological categories than the other (section B). One difference between the sections was the style of the assessment (quizzes) employed by each lecturer. Section A's assessment required complex reasoning using basic physics concepts while section B's assessment consisted of standard physics problems which could be solved algorithmically. Although there may have been other important differences between the sections such as lecture style, we hypothesize the assessment in section A sent a strong, positive epistemological message to the students. In an attempt to control for any strong lecture style effect, a new investigation has begun, varying assessment style in two separate lecture sections, each with the same instructor. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00011: Restructured Graduate Classical Mechanics Course at a Large University Antoinette Stone, Lloyd Knox Implications from Physics Education Research for improving learning were applied to a standard graduate classical mechanics course. The revised format included reduced lecture time, increased discussion time and increased studentinitiated classroom Q{\&}A time. Assessments were changed from 2 midterms and 1 final exam to biweekly quizzes, 1 midterm and 1 final. Discussion time was led collaboratively by a senior graduate student in a role facilitating peertopeer questions and discovery. An initial diagnostic content exam was given pre and post. The language of student's questions during the discussion and Q{\&}A sessions were used to generate a student questioninghierarchy model. Questions were based in the following areas: content clarification, skill building, linking ideas, and extending concepts. Responses were binned according to the model. We measure the correlation between language progression via the model and learning outcomes via assessment. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00012: Conceptual chains and their didactic applications in physics Carlos Enrique L\'opez Campos It is presented the definition of graphical schemas called of conceptual dependency and their particular cases, the conceptual chains, which are useful for the representation of conceptual structures during the learning of a topic or the process of solving problems in physics. We review and we contrast their characteristics in relation to other cognitive structural models as the conceptual maps and the conceptual networks. Finally we discuss points of difference and coincidence between the three schematic models and about various possible applications of the conceptual dependency schemas and the conceptual chains, such as, didactic applications for teaching and learning, detection of conceptual faults in apprentices and as a research tool of the cognition process, showing results obtained of studies realized on the degree of difficulty of problems that were proposed to diverse populations of students. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00013: An interactiveengagement course promotes transfer to upperdivision coursework Emily West, David Webb, Wendell Potter We report two years of data on the initial implementation of a modified largeenrollment introductory physics course for scientists and engineers. The modified course shifted the time balance and student activities, decreasing passive lecture time and increasing interactive discussion/lab time. We compare conceptual learning in the traditional and modified courses using the FCI and CSEM. The first modified mechanics course yielded results similar to the traditional course; future iterations of the modifications in both mechanics and electricity and magnetism result in increased gains in the modified courses. Further, we examine grades in subsequent courses, specifically the upperdivision electromagnetism course and the upper division circuits course. Controlling for GPA, students who participated in the modified introductory course outperformed the students who participated in the traditional course in the upperdivision electromagnetism course, and grades were equivalent in the circuits course. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00014: The Effects of Multiple Reformed Courses on Freshman Cohorts Robert B. Lynch, Emily A. West, Wendell H. Potter Beginning fall 2007 successive 48student cohorts of entering freshmen bioscience majors have been enrolled in reformed course sections to test the proposition that students who were exposed simultaneously to both math and science courses, which explicitly stress sensemaking rather than memorization, would more quickly develop habits of mind and approaches to learning that are more productive and useful than the memorization mindset that is so typical of entering freshmen. Preliminary results show positive performance gains of the cohort students in subsequent courses. Variations in the sequence of course offerings has allowed the separate analysis of the impact of taking a radically reformed physics course even on immediately following science courses in the freshman year. Longitudinal performance data through fallquarter 2009 for cohorts entering in 2007 and 2008 will be presented as well as qualitative interview and survey data. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00015: GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GRAVITATION 

R1.00016: Predicting the direction of the final spin from the coalescence of two black holes Enrico Barausse, Luciano Rezzolla Knowledge of the spin of the black hole resulting from the merger of a generic blackhole binary is of great importance for studying the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes. Several attempts have been made to model the spin via simple expressions exploiting the results of numericalrelativity simulations. While these expressions are in reasonable agreement with the simulations, they neglect the precession of the binary's orbital plane, and cannot therefore be applied directly  \textit{i.e.,} without evolving the system to small separations using postNewtonian theory  to binaries with separations larger than a few hundred gravitational radii. While not a problem in principle, this may be impractical if the formulas are employed in cosmological mergertrees or Nbody simulations, which provide the spins and angular momentum of the two black holes when their separation is of hundreds or thousands of gravitational radii. The formula that we propose is instead built on improved assumptions and gives, for any separation, a very accurate prediction both for the norm of the final spin and for its direction. By comparing with the numerical data, we also show that the finalspin direction is very accurately aligned with the binary's total angular momentum at large separation. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00017: Comparison of postNewtonian gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescences Evan Ochsner, Alessandra Buonanno, Bala Iyer, Yi Pan, B.S. Sathyaprakash The dynamics of a compact binary which inspirals and coalesces along a series of quasicircular orbits in general relativity has been solved perturbatively using the postNewtonian approximation. However, there is no unique postNewtonian waveform for a given binary. One can use different expansion parameters, different methods to solve the relevant differential equations, and resummation techniques to create a number of different postNewtonian waveform families. Here we present a comparison of the different postNewtonian waveform families currently used by the LIGO and Virgo gravitationalwave detectors. These include the timedomain TaylorT1, TaylorT2, TaylorT3, TaylorT4 and TaylorEt models, the frequencydomain TaylorF2 model, and an effectiveonebody model calibrated to numerical relativity simulations. We show the level of (dis)agreement between the various waveform families to determine which are most useful for detection templates for first and second generation gravitationalwave detectors. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00018: Antimatter Gravity Experiment at Fermilab Yaofu Zhou While General Relativity predicts that antimatter and matter feel identical gravitational forces, this prediction has never been tested directly by experiment. The Antimatter Gravity Experiment (AGE) at Fermilab aims to make the first direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration due to the earth on antimatter, directly testing both the equivalence principle for antimatter and the prediction of General Relativity that matter and antimatter behave identically in the gravitational field of the earth. The proposal is to decelerate antiprotons in the Main Injector and transfer them into an antihydrogenproduction Penning trap. The antihydrogen will emerge from the trap in a lowvelocity beam. Initially this beam will be passed through an atomic MachZehnder interferometer where the gravitational deflection will be measured with an expected precision of 0.01\% of local gravity. In a second phase antihydrogen will be slowed and trapped using magnetic field gradients. This will enable a measurement using a laserbased Raman interferometer that has the potential to achieve an ultimate precision better than $10^{9}$ of local gravity. With this precision the measurement will be sensitive to a possible ``fifth force'' significantly weaker than gravity. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00019: Transpectral searches for transient radio pulses and gravitational waves Megan Torpey The detection of radio wavelength transients from astrophysical sources can provide external triggers for gravitational wave (GW) searches within LIGO/Virgo data. There are a variety of sources of GWs that should also produce a radio transient, such as compact object inspirals and mergers, core collapse super novae, and the cusps or kinks of superconducting cosmic strings. Radio polarization and spectral information can help distinguish among candidate sources. Such a pulse may be detected by a transient radio array such as the Eightmeterwavelength Transient Array (ETA). I will present details of an ongoing effort to perform a trans spectral comparison between data from gravitational wave detectors and radio transient arrays. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00020: Choosing the Initial LISA Orbital Configuration Karan Jani, Lee Samuel Finn, Mathew Benacquista The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission proposes to detect gravitational radiation by synthesizing one or more interferometric gravitational wave detectors from fringe velocity measurements generated by chances in the light travel time between three spacecraft in a special set of dragfree, circumsolar orbits. Once the spacecraft are set in their orbits the orientation of the LISA interferometers at any further time is fixed by the Kepler Laws and the initial orientation of the spacecraft constellation. The initial orientation does not affect those locations on the sky where LISA has greatest sensitivity to gravitational waves; however, it does affect those locations where nulls in the LISA response to gravitational waves fall. By artful choice of the LISA initial orientation we can thus choose to optimize LISA's sensitivity to sources or groups of sources whose location (eg., the galactic center or plane, nearby globular cluster, etc.) may be known in advance. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00021: Scaling and Orbits for an Isotropic Metric Joseph D. Rudmin Scaling of physical quantities shows the symmetries of an isotropic metric, which is not conformally flat, and its corresponding energy equation. For example, diagonalization of the metric yields its local rest frame. Agreement on the value of Planck's constant across all reference frames provides self consistency for quantum mechanics under general relativity. In contrast to a Schwarzschild metric, transitivity of scaling for an isotropic metric results in conservation of momentum and energy as measured by observers in gravitational wells. Gravitational scattering, orbital period, and orbital precession offer opportunities to experimentally distinguish between isotropic and Schwarzschild metrics. In particular, stable orbits exist at all distances from an event horizon. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00022: Nuclear Quantum Gravitation, The Explanation of Gravity  Gravitation, With 26 Proofs and Indications Ronald R. Kotas With 26 proofs and indications, Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a coherent, precise explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. General Relativity is not an explanation of Gravitation or Gravity. General Relativity has no definitive proofs. GR does not bend light about the Sun; the Sun's corona does because of Newtonian refraction. The Mercury Perihelion is dynamic Newtonian Mechanics, not a proof of GR. The Red Shift is a Quantum Effect. The shift is in the area of the atomic nucleus, plainly a quantum function. Time is not a type of flowing medium and therefore cannot be changed by GR or its' mathematics. Space is not a type of medium or fabric, only a place where matter may exist and radiation may transpose. No one can explain how, or what mechanism within GR causes actions at a distance. Time does not change or dilate; clocks and oscillators do when in a lesser gravitational field. This is not GR. Therefore GR is an impossible theory and is not an explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is very apparent that Gravity and Gravitation is based in the atomic nucleus as explained by Nuclear Quantum Gravitation. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00023: Symmetry Physics: A possible solution to cosmological gravitational anomalies B.G. Szabo A fundamental theory of physics, including gravity, called Symmetry Physics (``SP'') is introduced. SP  which can be directly deduced from relativistic physics  is contrasted and compared with current modern physics, hereinafter called Legacy Physics (``LP''). The contrast between SP and LP gravitational effects is almost indistinguishable in commonplace experience, however, is most profound in cosmological settings. The SP gravitational simulations shown will demonstrate some observed ``anomalous'' behavior. The comparison between SP and LP will also show that both physics are almost indistinguishable mathematically. In fact, LP can be shown to be a complicated ``asymmetric'' special case of the conceptually simpler SP. Customized SP gravitational simulations are possible. Further information on Symmetry Physics can be found at: http://www.symmetryphysics.com [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00024: MichelsonMorley in Einstein's elevators Fred Pierce, Ayal Pierce Experiments are proposed in which a MichelsonMorley interferometer is placed in Einstein's thought experiments where elevators are subjected to varied accelerated fields. Unbeknownst to the observers inside the elevators, they are placed in different circumstances: on the surface of the Earth, in free fall, in space distant from any mass, and inside a rotating space station. By use of not one, but two objects, the observer will be challenged to determine the nature and shape of the accelerated field, if any, inside the elevator. It will be demonstrated that the nature of the accelerated field can be determined easily from inside the elevator by the motion of the two objects released by the observer. It will also be shown that, for the elevator on the space station which is generating an ``artificial gravity'' field by rotation, MichelsonMorley would have the same null result as on Earth. However, the MichelsonMorley experiment is adapted so that in addition to the two horizontal arms of the interferometer (parallel to the floor of the elevator) a vertical arm is added perpendicular to the floor facing towards the ceiling. Such a vertical arm added to the MichelsonMorley experiment adds a new dimension to examining each accelerated field, including gravity. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00025: Pioneer Anomaly versus Viking Ranging Data Jacques Leibovitz The amount of dark matter (DM) needed in the Solar System to explain the Pioneer anomaly (PA) appears to conflict with the ranging data from Viking [Anderson J. D. et al, 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett., \textbf{81}, 28582861; Anderson J. D. et al, 2002, Phys. Rev. D, \textbf{65}, 082004]. The presence of sufficient DM to produce the PA would imply that we have an error on the mass Ms of the Sun. Such error can be determined experimentally. Available data indicate that DM produces the anomaly. If confirmed, it would resolve the PA and require an explanation of the Viking ranging data. One possibility is that the speed of electromagnetic radiation through DM is a function of DM density, and increases as that density decreases. How the required functionality of DMdensity, as a function of the distance Rs from the Sun, is established is derived in a companion paper. Results are discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00026: Theoretical Derivation of Equations Governing the Coupled Distributions of Dark and Baryonic Matters Jacques Leibovitz A dark matter (DM) particle is yet to be detected. Milgrom's modified Newton dynamics (MOND) successfully models much of the observed DM phenomena. Unfortunately, the modification conflicts with general relativity. Exploring here an alternative model of DM leads to the sequential derivation of an equation of state (EoS) for such DM in a gravitation field, of an equation governing the coupled distributions of DM and baryonic matter around galaxies, of galactic flat rotation curves, of the Pioneer anomaly, of a TullyFisher relation, of a possible mechanism of black hole formation at the center of a large galaxy, and of Milgrom's MOND relation. The conflict between the PA and the Viking ranging data is resolved in a companion paper. Results are discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00027: Continuous image distortion in weak gravitational lensing Thomas Kling We examine the shearing and magnification of images distorted by the weak gravitational lensing of a thick gravitational lens using a perturbation theory approach based on the optical scalar and geodesic deviation equations with no reference to lens planes. We compare the image distortion from optical scalars with the typical thinlens image distortion for realistic, axially symmetric astrophysical lens, finding that the thinlens approach often overestimates the ellipticity by up to 2 sigma near the lens. Application to nonsymmetric lenses is discussed. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00028: The Pioneer Effect as a Local Manifestation of the Global NonHolonomity of Space Dmitri Rabounski This study answers the Pioneer effect  the anomalous braking acceleration gained by the NASA deep space missions, and first observed on Pioneer 10 and 11. The problem is considered by means of the General Theory of Relativity, using the mathematical apparatus of physically observable quantities (Zelmanov A.L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol.1, 227230). A globally nonholonomic space is considered: there the time lines are nonorthogonal to the threedimensional spatial section, which is manifested as threedimensional rotation of the space. If the nonholonomity field is vortexless, it does not produce forces of inertia, or anisotropy of the space; only a uniformly distributed field of the linear velocity of the space rotation, manifested equally in any direction in which we measure it, is present. It is shown, through the geodesic equations, that any body travelling in the space gains an additional braking acceleration along the direction of its travel due to the space nonholonomity. This effect increases with the distance travelled by the body. This calculation meets the Pioneer effect that gives a complete theoretical explanation to it. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00029: Predicting the final spin of the black hole mergers Petr Tsatsin, Wolfgang Tichy We consider black holes resulting from binary black hole mergers. Analytical formulas predicting the mass and spin of the final merged black hole have previously been obtained by fitting data from numerical simulations (Phys.Rev. D, 78, 081501). However, since these simulations all started from small initial separations (initial angular velocity $\omega=0.05/m$), these formulas are inaccurate for large initial separations. To find more accurate results for larger initial separations, we use PostNewtonian equations to evolve the binary system from any large separation to the separation where $\omega=0.05/m$ and then apply the analytical formulas. Using this combined approach we show that the magnitude of the final spin depends only weakly on the initial separation and the accuracy of the prediction for the direction of the final spin significantly improves. Other modeling formulas known in the literature give only the polar angle of the final spin direction. Our approach gives both polar and azimuth angle. We find that the azimuth strongly depends on the initial separation. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00030: TESTS OF PHYSICAL LAWS 

R1.00031: Alternate Realities Robert Jones Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, \# 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4\% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00032: Haunted Quantum Entanglement, Quantum Erasure, and Orthogonality Douglas Snyder Both haunted quantum entanglement (hqe) and quantum erasure (qe) demonstrate interference. For interference, overlapping waves are needed which are likely supplied by equations such as 1/$\surd $2 [$\vert $P{\_}u$>+\vert $P{\_}l$>$] = $\vert $P{\_}s$>$ and 1/$\surd $2 [$\vert $P{\_}u$>\vert $P{\_}l$>$] = $\vert $P{\_}a$>$ where $\vert $P{\_}u$>$ and $\vert $P{\_}l$>$ are generally considered orthogonal (i.e., no overlap) and $\vert $P{\_}s$>$ and $\vert $P{\_}a$>$ are symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions. The conventional consideration of orthogonality in hqe and qe may need adjustment given empirical support for the presence of fringes and antifringes in qe. Orthogonality as regards hqe and qe is tied to the possibility of obtaining which way information. If this possibility is lost, it would appear that orthogonality which is based on this possibility may be lost. A completed measurement appears central to establishing orthogonality as regards hqe and qe. In hqe, this completed measurement could be for example an atom passing through a double slit arrangement after having emitted a photon in one of two micromaser cavities, thus providing general which way information without specifying through which specific slit the atom passed. In qe, the completed measurement could be this atom subsequently striking a detection screen, providing the ability to obtain information regarding through which specific slit the atom passed. Hqe and qe occur when which way information is lost before their respective completed measurements are made. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00033: Progress towards observation of radiation pressure shot noise Benjamin Zwickl, Cheng Yang, Jack Sankey, Andrew Jayich, Jack Harris Quantum mechanics sets fundamental limitations on the accuracy of interferometric displacement measurements of a mechanical oscillator. In the limit of low optical powers this uncertainty is due to the statistical uncertainty of shot noise. In the limit of high optical powers this uncertainty is due to shot noise in the radiation pressure acting on the mechanical oscillator. Although radiation pressure shot noise is predicted to be a fundamental limitation to the next generation of gravitational wave observatories, it has never been directly observed in an optomechanical system. In this work, we describe progress towards the observation of radiation pressure shot noise in a cavity optomechanical system consisting of a high finesse (70,000) cavity dispersively coupled to a 50 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00034: De Broglie's Rest Mass of Light Juliana Brooks An advance has occurred in the foundational problems of quantum mechanics. Examination of a seemingly minor irregularity in Max Planck's work led to the eventual discovery of previously hidden quantum variables and constants, and reinterpretation of the photon and light's elementary quantum. The new work suggests a richer and more realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. (Brooks, J., ``Hidden Variables: The Elementary Quantum of Light'', Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7421, 74210T3, 2009.) One of the hidden constants  Planck's \textit{energy }constant (6.626 X 10$^{34 }$J/osc, the constant mean energy of a single oscillation of EM energy)  led to the discovery of another hidden constant  De Broglie's rest mass of light. Using De Broglie's, E = m$_{0 }$c$^{2}$, the rest mass for the elementary quantum of light (a single EM oscillation) has been calculated. Setting ``E'' equal to Planck's \textit{energy} constant, the mass of a single oscillation of light is: m$_{0 }$ = 7.372 X 10$^{51}$ kg/osc. This calculated value for the rest mass light of is in close agreement with Luo \textit{et al's} calculation for the upper limit of light's rest mass (Phy Rev Let 90(8) 2003). Luo used a rotating torsion balance to detect the product of the photon mass squared and the ambient cosmic magnetic potential vector. Luo's upper limit of 1.2 X 10$^{54}$ kg/photon corresponds to an oscillation mass of 4.32 X 10$^{51}$ kg/osc. De Broglie's rest mass of 7.372 X 10$^{51}$ kg/osc is within the same order of magnitude and is consistent with Einstein's principle of energymass equivalence. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00035: The Speeds of Light Juliana Brooks A recent advance in the foundations of quantum mechanics suggests that light propagating \textit{in vacuo }has two different types of speeds, and obeys both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations (Brooks, J., ``\textit{Hidden Variables: The Elementary Quantum of Light}'' and ``\textit{Is indivisible single photon really essential {\ldots}{\#}4}'', Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7421, 74210T3 and 74210Y7, 2009). The true elementary particle of light is the single EM oscillation, and it is absorbed or emitted as a complete energy unit (6.626 X 10$^{34 }$J/osc). The energy is distributed in space over the physical length of the oscillation (i.e., its wavelength). The speed of the leading and trailing edges of a single oscillation of EM energy (``wave speed'') is constant (3 X 10$^{8 }$m/s). The speed of the \textit{energy} quantum embodied in a single oscillation (light's ``energy speed'') is infinitely variable, however, depending on its wavelength and inertial reference frame. Consider two oscillations of differing wavelengths, both traveling at the constant Lorentzian speed of light, which strike a detector simultaneously. The complete energy quantum of the shorter oscillation is absorbed by the detector before the trailing edge of the longer oscillation reaches the detector. The \textit{energy speed} of the shorter wavelength is faster than that of the longer wavelength oscillation. When Einstein struggled with the law of the propagation of light and the principle of relativity in his special relativity, he was unaware of the distinction between light's \textit{wave speed} and its \textit{energy speed}. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00036: The origin of quantum nonlocality and a new approach to generation of energy Simon Berkovich According to our work [1], the peculiarity of quantum mechanics behavior stems from interactive holography feedbacks. This organization naturally captures the features of quantum nonseparability and waveparticle duality; sliced holographic processing immediately elucidates the inscrutability of quantum entanglement. Traditional physics is an approximation to the holistic picture of the Universe, yet nonlocality does not come out as a small correction to contact interactions. Challenging relativity, a battery of suggested tests could reveal the absolute positioning of the underlying holographic mechanism. In view of A. Einstein, if quantum entanglement ``is correct, it signifies the end of physics as a science''. So, the counterarguments against the surmised operational potentials of nonlocality are irrelevant. It is meaningless to oppose the consequences of what you could not believe to exist in the first place. Remarkably, the holographic infrastructure shows exciting prospects for concentrating and producing energy. The following hypothetical possibilities will be discussed: (1) nuclear fusion fixation with teleportation of D+Dreaction; (2) ball lightning creation through entanglement of SHF; (3) motility of ``artificial muscle''. [1] S.Y. Berkovich, ``A comprehensive explanation of quantum mechanics, the keyword is interactive holography'', http://www.cs.gwu.edu/research/reports detail.php?trnumber=TRGWUCS09001 [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00037: The Logic of Atomic Spectral Calculations in Atonic Mechanics Alfred Phillips Jr We show that the mathematical method used in calculating atomic spectra in Atonic Mechanics is a variational technique. In atomic spectral calculations, for which special relativity need not be used, we treat spin in a phenomenological manner not unlike Pauli's model. The value of Atonic Mechanics is the ease of atomic spectral calculations, as previously demonstrated for helium (see Part Two on the web page sourceinstitute dot org). Atonic mechanics calculations had the same accuracy as that of the Schroedinger Theory but without the mathematical tedium. We proffer that a comparison be made of the accuracy, the clear physical model, and mathematical simplicity of Atonic Mechanics and Schroedinger Theory for atoms at least as complicated as lithium. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00038: Why the Speed of Light Is the Same for All Observers Jeffrey Boyd That the speed of light is the same for all observers, is wellestablished. Einstein couldn't explain it, saying it must be some intrinsic property of light. Now a theory has emerged that offers an explanation: the Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW). TEW starts with the unlikely idea that quantum waves travel in the opposite direction from particles. It turns out that this idea can explain most of quantum physics without quantum weirdness. If one's thinking shifts from forward to backward quantum waves, the world changes into such a different place it is almost impossible to imagine. Reverse quantum waves, which Little calls ``elementary waves,'' cease to be mathematical abstractions and become real entities. In an EPR experiment an elementary wave from the detector goes to the source ``S,'' conveying information about the polarization of the detector. A photon then follows the wave backward to the detector. Since elementary waves coming out of your retinas travel at the speed of light, triggering photons to return to your eyes at the speed determined by those waves, therefore light always comes to you at the same speed. Thus the speed of light is an intrinsic property of these elementary waves, not of photons. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00039: Reverse Quantum Waves Jeffrey Boyd As preposterous as it might sound, if quantum waves travel in the reverse direction from subatomic particles, then most of quantum physics can be explained without quantum weirdness or Schr\"{o}dinger's cat. Quantum mathematics is unchanged. The diffraction pattern on the screen of the double slit experiment is the same. This proposal is not refuted by the Innsbruck experiments; this is NOT a hidden local variable theory. Research evidence will be presented that is consistent with the idea waves travel in the opposite direction as neutrons. If one's thinking shifts from forwards to backwards quantum waves, the world changes so drastically it is almost unimaginable. Quantum waves move from the mathematical to the real world, multiply in number, and reverse in direction. Waveparticle duality is undone. In the double slit experiment every part of the target screen is emitting such quantum waves in all directions. Some pass through the two slits. Interference occurs on the opposite side of the barrier than is usually imagined. They impinge on ``S'' and an electron is released at random. Because of the interference it is more likely to follow some waves than others. It follows one and only one wave backward; hitting the screen where it's wave originated. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00040: The quantumclassical boundary and the moments of inertia of physical objects Caroline Herzenberg During the last few years, several studies have proposed the existence of a threshold separating classical from quantum behavior of objects that is dependent on the size and mass of an object as well as being dependent on certain basic properties associated with the universe as a whole. We have reexamined the results of these studies and recast the threshold criteria in terms of a critical threshold value for the moments of inertia of physical objects. Physical objects having moments of inertia above this critical threshold value would be expected to behave necessarily in a classical manner as entire objects with respect to their center of mass motion, while physical objects having moments of inertia below this threshold value could exhibit quantum behavior unless brought into classicality by other effects. The derived threshold moment of inertia is given to within a small numerical factor by the ratio of Planck's constant to the Hubble constant. Moments of inertia observed for macroscopic objects are found to exceed this theoretically indicated threshold, while moments of inertia of microscale and mesoscopic scale objects are found to fall below it. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00041: On a Developing Entanglement Based on WhichWay Information: The Significance of Oneto One Correspondence and Its Loss Douglas Snyder A developing entanglement involving two entities can be based on which way information supplied by one of the entities. This developing entanglement can be lost because of the loss of the 1 to 1 correspondence between events involving the entities (e.g., an atom and a photon that the atom emits in one of two micromaser cavities) when a measurement is made (e.g., this atom passing through a two slit arrangement after exiting the cavity system). The significance of this 1 to 1 correspondence (e.g., between photon in upper cavity and atom through upper slit or between photon in lower cavity and atom through lower slit) to the developing entanglement based on whichway information is noted, and the consequence of the loss of this correspondence (e.g., through opening the shutter separating the cavities as the atom leaves the cavity system) is discussed. A developing entanglement of two entities based on which way information can be represented by: $\psi $ = 1/$\surd $2 [(A{\_}u)$\vert $P{\_}u$>$ + (A{\_}l)$\vert $P{\_}l$>$] where $\vert $P{\_}u$>$ and $\vert $P{\_}l$>$ are orthogonal. With the loss of 1 to 1 correspondence between (A{\_}u) and $\vert $P{\_}u$>$ and between (A{\_}l) and $\vert $P{\_}l$>$, which way information and the developing entanglement dependent on this information are lost. The wave function is then $\psi $ = [1/$\surd $2 [(A{\_}u) + (A{\_}l)]] [1/$\surd $2 [$\vert $P{\_}u$>+\vert $P{\_}l$>$]] or $\psi $ = (A{\_}s)$\vert $P{\_}s$>$ where (A{\_}s) and $\vert $P{\_}s$>$ are symmetric wave functions. This change in $\psi $ is haunted quantum entanglement. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00042: Planck's Energy Constant Juliana Brooks Planck's proportionality constant ``h'' is \underline {\textit{not}} an action constant. Reexamination of Planck's work has revealed the numerical value for his famous constant ``h'' is actually an \textit{energy }constant.* Planck's \textit{energy }constant is the mean energy of a single oscillation of electromagnetic energy, namely 6.626 X 10$^{34}$ J/osc. The misinterpretation of Planck's constant resulted from an inadvertent mathematical procedure in his 1901 blackbody derivation. Planck's energy constant is found in his original (1897) quantum relationship: E $\approx $ a $\nu $ t$_{m}$ where energy (``E'') is proportional to the product of a constant (``a'', energy per oscillation), the frequency (``$\nu $''), and the measurement time (``t$_{m}$''). Planck's inadvertence fixed the measurement time variable ``t$_{m}$'' at a value of one second, and multiplied it by his constant ``a'', resulting in the product ``h'' which Planck proposed as the ``\textit{quantum of action}''. Planck's blackbody derivation and condensed quantum formula \textit{E = h$\nu $ }were never knowingly premised on one second time intervals, however. Subsequent development of quantum mechanics thus took place against the back drop of a hidden assumption. Numerous paradoxes, problems and a lack of reality resulted. Recognition of Planck's \textit{energy} constant provides a richer and more realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. *Brooks, JHJ, ``Hidden Variables: The Elementary Quantum of Light'', The Nature of Light: What are Photons? III, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7421, 74210T3, 2009. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00043: Too simple  gravity is easy, unlearning gravity is hard Fred Pierce, Yariv Pierce Motion generates bold, powerful accelerated forces. Consistent with that observation, the MichelsonMorley experiment demonstrated that the Earth's motion doesn't generate a ``wimpy'' ether wind. Two undeniable facts that have been disconnected by concept  gravity exists and all matter is in motion  will be connected. The expectation of the moving Earth generating a wind will be replaced with the moving Earth generating an isotropic force  gravity. The Earth's motion is not caused by unbalanced forces so the motion needs to reciprocate with a balanced force. The results of the MichelsonMorley experiment, so brilliantly designed and executed, will be reinterpreted with an isotropic result not the misconceived assumption of an expected wind. CHOCOLATE WILL BE SERVED. [Preview Abstract] 

R1.00044: ABSTRACT WITHDRAWN 

R1.00045: Detecting special nuclear material using a neutron time projection chamber G. Carosi, A. Bernstein, N. Bowden, J. Burke, D. Carter, M. Foxe, M. Heffner, I. Jovanovic, J. Mintz, P. O'Malley Time projection chambers are 3dimensional charged particle cameras based on drifting ionization tracks at a known velocity onto an electronic readout plane. These instruments are capable of detecting fast neutrons which are unique signatures of special nuclear material with low natural background rates. Here we describe a neutron Time Projection Chamber (nTPC) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which has demonstrated directional sensitivity to fission neutrons along with high rejection of background gammaray and electron events. Using a combination hydrogen/methane drift gas at several atmospheres we've demonstrated the ability to point to a Cf252 source simulating 6kg of weapons grade plutonium at 10's of meters with one hour integration time. Plans for future field deployable devices will also be outlined. [Preview Abstract] 
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