Bulletin of the American Physical Society
Fall 2015 Joint Meeting of the Texas Section of the AAPT, Texas Section of the APS and Zone 13 of the Society of Physics Students
Volume 60, Number 15
Thursday–Saturday, October 29–31, 2015; Waco, Texas
Session H1: Poster Session 
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Chair: Walter Wilcox, Baylor University Room: 2nd Floor Landing & Walkway 

H1.00001: Nonlinear Dynamics and ECG Trace Prediction William Oldham The methods of nonlinear dynamics for time series prediction are applied to electrocardiogram traces. In this method the embedding dimension and the embedding dimension (d) and the correlation dimension, we can construct an array of vectors of dimension d. It is assumed that the system under analysis is a dynamical system described by an unknown set of n first order differential equations. At this point a learning algorithm and a prediction algorithm are needed to learn the system dynamics and predict future behavior. The approach used here is to expand the time series vectors in a set of orthogonal polynomials. It is necessary to select a set of ddimensional polynomials. Theoretically, any set of orthogonal polynomials could be used, but our choice of polynomials is what might be called the set of ``natural polynomials'' as they are computed from the time series itself. I use a different way of generating the polynomials than those of earlier works. Earlier works presented computational schemes that seemed difficult to extend to higher dimensions and polynomial degree. The technique used here is natural and is easily extended to higher dimension and polynomial degree. It also yields a simplified way to refer to the polynomials. The expansion coefficients are then determined in the usual way and used to predict future behavior. Some limited results are presented and future work is [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00002: MultiplePulse Pumping for Enhanced Fluorescence Detection and Molecular Imaging in Tissue Ryan Rich, Ignacy Gryczynski, Rafal Fudala, Julian Borejdo, Dorota Stankowska, Raghu Krishnamoorthy, Sangram Raut, Badri Maliwal, Dmytro Shumilov, Hung Doan, Zygmunt Gryczynski Fluorescence based imaging techniques in cellular and tissue environments are severely limited by the background fluorescence of endogenous components of cells, tissue, and the fixatives used in sample processing. We report here a multipulse excitation approach to confocal fluorescence microscopy that allows for a manyfold increase in the relative intensity of a moderately longlived probe above the background. By using separate, closely spaced excitation pulses in repeated bursts, we can increase the number of probe molecules in the excited state. At the end of this multipulse burst, the probe molecules are allowed to spontaneously return to the ground state. The shorterlived background, on the other hand, will completely decay to the ground state in between each excitation pulse, and will therefore will not experience an additive effect on its fluorescence signal. Using a confocal microscopy system equipped with a pulsed laser diode and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) detection, we are able to enhance the signal of a longlived Ruthenium (Ru)based probe by nearly an order of magnitude while the background is unaffected. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00003: Simulated Damp Harmonic Oscillator Zachary Noel In contemporary physics labs, computational simulations are useful and effective tools that model physical systems where mathematicconceptual relationships can be emphasized through the use of basic programming. However, there is a very pertinent matter concerning how accurate these simulations are in comparison to more traditional lab settings. I hope to use the example of a damped harmonic oscillator in order to illustrate the differences between simulated and realworld lab environments, and examine the relationship between the trusted axioms of physics concepts versus authentic physical situations. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00004: \textbf{Timelocal NonMarkovian Quantum Jumps with a NoiseInduced Coherent System} Moochan Kim, ShenWen Li, Marlan Scully One of a fascinating way to describe the Quantum Mechanical Process is by the Quantum Jump [PRL 68, 580 (1992); RMP 70, 101 (1998)]. When the AgarwalFano coupling, known as a noiseinduced interference [Agarwal's Quantum Statistical Theories], is involved in the system, the usual BornMarkovian approximation is not adequate to describe the dynamical behavior. According to Piilo, et al, [PRL 100, 180402 (2008)] this Quantum Jump method can be extended to include this nonMarkovian dynamics. Here, we clarify the origin of negative population of the usual Markovian treatment for AgarwalFano coupling, and present the results using nonMarkovian Quantum Jumps and compare them with those from the nonMarkovian master equation. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00005: Finding the shape of a supernova's core Keeley TownleySmith, Mark Worth, Cristian Bahrim Astronomical measurements indicate that a core collapse supernova has an asymmetric core. The light emitted by the core of a supernova can be polarized by the gaseous cloud which is detaching. The analysis of the polarized light can indicate the asymmetry of the core after the explosion of the supernova [ Leonard, D.C. et al. 2006 Nature 440(March 23): 505507 ]. In our paper we look for assessing the degree of polarization of a glowing object in order to spatially resolve its shape based on the changes in the polarization of light emitted. We design a simple table top setup which uses a glowing object, two polarizers, lenses, a motion sensor and a light sensor to assess the shape of an opening placed in front of the glowing object. We choose a circular opening as our control signal. A rotary motion sensor tracks the rotation of a second polarizer and a light sensor records the variation of light intensity. The probe signal is always a cosine squared function, according to Malus's law, but has variable amplitude. We compare the change in amplitude of different shapes with our control signal in order to determine the eccentricity of the object using a numerical procedure. The equipment can be connected to a telescope in order to spatially resolve the shape of remote objects only by using optical analysis (i.e. metallurgy). [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00006: Identification of atomic constituents in medicines using spectral analysis John Pickren, Keeley TownleySmith, Azam Nurul, Cristian Bahrim We are interested to identify the composition of several overthecounter medicines, including their impurities. For that we analyze the emission spectra of medicines sprayed or scattered in flames using a portable Ocean Optics RedTide USB650 spectrometer with an optical resolution of 0.6 nm and a GLX Xplorer. We compare our emission spectra with reliable spectroscopic databases including optical transitions, transition probabilities, and Grotrian diagrams. In addition to the basic composition of selected medicines we can identify traces of impurities as weak emission lines. We observed similar optical patterns in medicines which serve different purposes, such as Mucinex and Theraflu. For a group of medicines, such as Tylenol and calcium supplements, we have found that surprisingly, stronger emission lines of sodium and potassium than of Calcium. Our purpose is to classify the medicines based on their light pattern and generate characteristic spectra for medicines used in the treatment of similar diseases. Our optical results can be compared with the chemical patterns from chemical reactions. We study medicines in flames also for the purpose of developing an optical method for analyzing pollutants released from industrial flare towers. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00007: What Happens to the Curved Space around a Massive Object that has been Destroyed? Florentin Smarandache According to the General Theory of Relativity the space is curved around a massive object. Then, after the planet explodes (due to internal forces) or destroyed (because of external forces) does the space around it still remain curved or does it straighten back to flat? How would the disappearance of a planet impact the other planets? Will its orbit be occupied by another cosmic object that might be forming from residues that fall into this orbit? If space is curved around a star and forms tracks that planets travel following these tracks as railroads, why not other (small, or medium, or massive) objects are falling into these tracks and traveling around the star on the same orbits? [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00008: Band structure and density of states of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic iron(II) oxide by ab initio simulations Gabriel Leitao, Fidele Twagirayezu, Pablo D. Borges, Luisa Scolfaro, Wim Geerts The Vienna abinitio Simulation Package (VASP) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to determine the spinpolarized band structure and density of states (DOS) of iron(II) oxide (FeO), and partial DOS of each atom. FeO was simulated with a rocksalt crystal structure (Fm3m, No. 225) grown in the [111] direction, with a basis consisting two atoms of iron and two of oxygen. Two Fe atoms allowed for custom spin orientation to simulate both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic cases. Primary lattice vectors were chosen with rhombohedral symmetry in order to simulate unit cell growth along the [111] direction. Multiple runs of VASP code were performed to determine optimal INCAR parameters, producing the band structure of FeO for two different paths of highsymmetry points, FGTL$\Gamma $ and GLKTG, each showing 20 energy bands filled out with all the electrons in the system. GGA calculations resulted in band structures with a band gap of 0.0 eV, showing a metallic character for FeO. Since the band gaps are known not to be well determined using DFT, a GGA$+$U calculation was executed using U value of 3.0 eV for Fe atoms, and 0.0 eV for O, to open up the band gap to about 1.9 eV, as determined from previous ab initio studies. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00009: Thirsty for Knowledge: Applying Classroom Physics Lessons to Design and Build a Water Filtration System for an Underserved Community in Medellin, Colombia Alyssa DavenportHerbst, Daniel Anable, Jordan Butler, Michael Justis, James Robinson, Deyton Riddle, Rafael Sanchez, Tony Roy, Jose Duran, Juan Blandon Access to clean drinking water is a major public health issue that affects close to 1 billion people on a daily basis. Through our Physics Applied to Community Outreach (P. A. C. O.) Program we are working on a research project in which we are designing and building a water treatment system that will be implemented in an underserved community in Medellin, Colombia. Our plan is to implement a 3stage system in which we will coagulate, filter and disinfect water from a flowing stream to provide safe water for people in this community. Right now, we are investigating the use of electroflocculation to coagulate the dissolved solids, a multilayer filtration system using sandlike media of various sizes, reverse osmosis, 3D printed filter parts, a water pump, and a UV source or ozone generator for disinfection. We will also be developing a generator with which we will use the flowing water in the stream to produce our own electricity source to power our flocculator and UV source. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00010: The Numerical Analysis of Baseball's Trajectory in Flight Richard Garcia Research has shown that in addition to gravitational force there are several different factors which contribute to the trajectory of a baseball in flight, such as wind and drag due to the air resistance. A numerical analysis based on the RK4 computational method was performed to predict a baseball’s trajectory, considering the drag factors acting on the baseball. Analysis resulted in a code which successfully produced a graph of a baseball’s trajectory for a given set of initial conditions. Video analysis was performed on a baseball shot out of a Jugg’s pitching machine to produce trajectory graphs in a simulated, reallife scenario. The graph produced by the video analysis was compared with the graph produced by the code to verify the reliability of the numerical analysis. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00011: "From SPATIAL CoordinateScaling to Threekinds of DEMAND ELASTICITIES" WH Maksoed Ought to be disenfies, from theLate Dr. Hans J Wospakrik whose narratives follows 634 yearborn of StCuthbert mimics to HE. Mr. Dr. J. Kristiadi/Jl. Tanah Abang III/27sought any scaling the spatial coordinates x > [2x**2]/aF, further sought Bera Soumya:"Graphene: Elastic properties, signatures of criticality induced by zero modes & multifractality near a quantum Hall transition", June 24, 2011. From Legowo, 1982 as well as,in lieu describe 'demand elasticity' of three kinds: arc, point & constant elasticity, there retrieved the > 1 of demand elasticity govern by x =[ [a.p]**(m)] usually devotes from fractal/multifractal properties quotes for Paul Bowen in Fred GEORGE:"ASTRA SpX", B&CA, August 1995: Bowen EK:"Mathematics with Applications in Management & Economics", Irwin,Inc Georgetown, Ontario, 1980. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00012: Comparison of Electrodes in Soil and Wastewater Microbial Fuel Cells Kevin Powers, Orcun Ozkocak, Amber Ward, Tahzeeba Frisby, Saeed Ahmad Different types of electrodes are used to study efficiency as a function of the cathode surface area in soil and wastewater microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Proton exchange membrane is used as a separator in the two compartment fuel cells. Peak voltage of 6.5 V was obtained for platinumplatinum electrodes with a maximum current of 15$\mu $A and a peak voltage of 1.2 V with a maximum current of 15$\mu $A with carboncopper electrodes of surface area 2.5 cm x 5.0 cm. Maximum power is obtained in a few hours of construction of the MFCs and is observed to sustain for at least two weeks. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00013: Modeling of Fiber Laser Beam Propagation through a Homogeneous Atmosphere Fidele Twagirayezu, Erik Bochove Highbrightness (power per unit area per unit solid angle) laser beams have many demanding applications especially for directed energy weapons. Reaching higher power levels was not possible without the birth of the fiberlaser technology because as the power increases the beam becomes distorted due to thermooptic effects, but the waveguide nature of a fiber overcomes those effects and the large ratio of surface area to volume of a fiber is conductive to efficient cooling. However some applications require greater power than a single fiber can generate and the current solution is by combining $N>>1$ fiber laser elements in an array. The Gaussian Optics Approximation was used to compute the properties of a coherent hexagonal N element array of Gaussian fields. The array elements are assumed to be aligned and identical except for their field amplitudes and phases. The output beam of each is collimated by a small lens and the transmitted beams are focused on a distant target as modeled by a single large lens representing a compound system of equivalent focal length. We evaluated the effectiveness of large (N7 to $>$200) hexagonal coherent laser arrays to propagate through focusing optics and a homogeneous atmosphere to project concentrated power on distant targets (10 to $>$100 km). [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00014: Positivity of open quantum systems with coherent transition in nonthermal bath ShengWen Li, Moochan Kim, Marlan Scully Thermal equilibrium is an idealistic model in theoretical physics. Indeed most baths in daily life are nonthermal ones. When we study a realistic biological system exchanging energy with its nonthermal bath around, it is essential to consider the effects caused by such nonthermal baths, especially when the quantum system has coherent transitions (AgarwalFano interference). Due the presence of the coherent transition, the density matrix of the system may have negative probabilities during the evolution, which indicates the invalidity of the Markovian master equation we often used, even when the systembath coupling strength is quite weak. Especially, when the bath is very far from equilibrium, this negative probability problem becomes much more serious. Fortunately, we find that if we consider some nonMarkovian correction to the decay rates, the negative probability problem could be resolved. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00015: \textbf{Timelocal NonMarkovian Quantum Jumps with a NoiseInduced Coherent System} Moochan Kim, ShengWen Li, Marlan Scully One of a fascinating way to describe the Quantum Mechanical Process is by the Quantum Jump [PRL 68, 580 (1992); RMP 70, 101 (1998)]. When the AgarwalFano coupling, known as a noiseinduced interference [Agarwal's Quantum Statistical Theories], is involved in the system, the usual BornMarkovian approximation is not adequate to describe the dynamical behavior. According to Piilo, et al, [PRL 100, 180402 (2008)] this Quantum Jump method can be extended to include this nonMarkovian dynamics. Here, we clarify the origin of negative population of the usual Markovian treatment for AgarwalFano coupling, and present the results using nonMarkovian Quantum Jumps and compare them with those from the nonMarkovian master equation. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00016: Noninvasive Chemical Detection of Cellular Components and Rhodamine 6G in Erythrocyte Ghost Cells Ansam Talib, Dmitri Voronine, Alexander Alexander Sinyukov1, Sandra Bustamante, Alexei Sokolov, Kenith Meissner, Marlan Scully Noninvasive detection of molecular components in biological cells is challenging due to the spectral overlap of many components. Single molecule detection in biological media is the ultimate challenge. To address the problem, we investigate the ability to detect hemoglobin (Hb) and Rhodamine 6G in erythrocyte ghost cells using fluorescence and Raman scattering. We identify the optimal conditions by varying the laser power and wavelength, and reveal the competition between spectroscopic signals from various components. Our results hold promise for developing new ultrasensitive spectroscopic techniques for single molecule biophotonics. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00017: A versatile setup for FAST CARS Yujie Shen, Dmitri Voronine, Alexei Sokolov, Marlan Scully We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (FAST CARS) $^{[1]}$. We optimize the pulse shape and delay by manipulating the pump/Stokes and probe beams separately using two mirrors in a 4f pulse shaper. Our setup can be easily switched between the collinear singlebeam and the noncollinear twobeam configurations without much effort in alignment. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and rejected signals, respectively. [1]. Y. Shen, D. V. Voronine, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, \textit{Rev. Sci. Instr}. \textbf{86}, 083107 (2015). [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00018: Investigating spatial curvature by adding Hubble Parameter datasets Francis Cavanna, Jacob Moldenhauer, Liam O'toole Spatial curvature, or $\Omega_k$ values on a cosmological scale strongly influence whether General Relativity and the cosmological constant fits the observational data on a cosmological scale. Extreme values of spatial curvature affect certain parameters in General Relativity, and therefore result in exclusion of General Relativity at a high confidence rate. Conversely, if cosmological spatial curvature is flat, we find the observational data fits General Relativity. Previous results with WMAP data indicate that including Hubble parameter datasets in cosmomc simulations constrain $\Omega_k$ around 0.0 with $2540\%$ improvement compared to runs without Hubble parameter data. We use a montecarlo simulation and 2015 Planck data to determine if including Hubble parameter data produces significantly greater constraint on $\Omega_k$ than runs without Hubble parameter data. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00019: Photometric and Spectroscopic properties of two recent Supernovae representing the types with cosmological implication Govinda Dhungana Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been extensively used in the cosmological context. SNe IIP have also been increasingly studied as competitive distance indicators to provide potential additional constraint. We present the spectroscopy and photometry of two recent, extensively studied nearby SNe: SN~2013ej (IIP) and SN~2012cg (Ia). For SN~2013ej, we observe some spectral peculiarities, most notably the early appearance and successive evolution of Si~II $\lambda6355$. We also compare early UV spectra sample of SNe IIP. We use UV, optical ($BVRI$ and open CCD) and NIR photometry to derive the bolometric flux and also derive a $BV$ color dependent bolometric calibration that may yield better than 2\% precision. We estimate the epoch of shock breakout to be MJD $56496.9\pm0.3$. Combined with SN~2002ap data, we estimate the EPM distance of $9.0_{0.6}^{+0.4}$ Mpc. Deriving the photospheric velocity evolution, we estimate the progenitor mass, radius and energy of explosion. Tail luminosity yields the mass of synthesized radioactive material, $M_{Ni}$ to be $0.19\pm0.01$ M$_\odot$. For SN~2012cg, we highlight our recent study based on the observation of excess flux during the very early phase (< $14$d from $B_{max}$), which may shed light on the Ia companion, and discuss the implications. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00020: Exploring the Nature of Dark Energy Gilbert Rivera, Paul Walter After physicists found out that our Universe was accelerating in its expansion, we have all wanted an explanation. The culprit is believed to be dark energy, which is responsible for the observed acceleration we see today. Cosmological parameters from the various models of the Universe actually provide us insight into the nature of dark energy. Constraining these different parameters help describe the evolution of the Universe. The different cosmological and astrophysical observations, i.e., CMB, HST, type Ia supernovae, BAO, etc., provide data about given parameters and are useful to help determine the relative contributions to the current energy density of the Universe. Cosmologists use CosmoMC, a Fortran 2008 fast Markov Chain MonteCarlo (MCMC) machine that utilizes MCMC techniques to examine cosmological parameter space. The data from all the sources of cosmological observations are uploaded into CosmoMC and place constraints on the values of energy densities and other parameters in the $\Lambda $CDM model. We were able to produce plots that show the best fit values for cosmological parameters using the 2015 Planck Mission data. We would like to continue using CosmoMC to ultimately provide insight into the nature of dark energy. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00021: ``Multifractals {\&} Neutrinos'' Fatahillah HIDAJATULLAHMAKSOED, Glory ROSARYOYONG,SE ``For the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows whereas neutrino have mass'' reason for 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded, Dissertation from Paul A Conlon,PhD: \textbf{``Fields, Fractals {\&} Flares:..'', }Oct 2009 to \textit{flare gas }again depict fractal relations, ranging from DNA knots to solar neutrino flux signals. Especially to mtDNA comprises fusion {\&} fission mechanism, ``fractal characters shows in Fig 1.7 through fluorapatite in gelatinebased bionanocomposites Eduardo RuizHitzsky, \textit{et.al}: \textbf{an Introduction to Bionanohybrid Materials''.} Accompanying Wieslaw M Macek:\textbf{''Fractals {\&} Multifractals'' }and Tamas Tel: \textbf{Fractals, Multifractals {\&} Thermodynamics'', }1988, succeeded to retrieves in R.P. Di Sisto, \textit{et.al, }\underline {Physica A, }\textbf{265 } ( 1999 ), h. 591 : \textit{``solar neutrino puzzle based on Tsallis thermostatistics..''} to `` \textit{fractallike relevant phase space'' }[\textit{ibid, }590 ] we have \textbf{``Kajian Analisis Struktur Magnet Nanokomposit'' }S29286 final project in UI since 2007. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00022: Gamma Ray Burst Analysis Using ROTSEIII Data Ryan Staten I present results of gamma ray burst (GRB) searches using data from the Robotic Optical Transient Search ExperimentIII (ROTSEIII) telescopes. Gamma Ray Bursts are extremely energetic bursts of electromagnetic radiation in the form of gamma rays. They are generally observed in very distant galaxies, most of which are billions of light years away, and are the brightest electromagnetic phenomena known to exist in the universe. The research presented here focuses on the photometry of gamma ray bursts, which measures the flux, or intensity, of these events. While many GRBs are associated with released radiation during a supernova which can last for months, their peak intensity will only last on the order of seconds to minutes. However, during this short amount of time, a GRB can emit as much energy as the Sun will emit during its entire lifespan. Although most of this energy is associated with gamma rays, GRBs display very luminous optical counterparts, which can be detected by the ROTSEIII telescopes. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00023: Measuring the Stellar Kinematics of the Compact Galaxy NGC 1270 Raina Musso, Jonelle Walsh NGC 1270 is a nearby elliptical galaxy that is compact with a large stellar velocity dispersion for its luminosity. We observed NGC1270 in the nearinfrared with the 10 meter Keck I telescope using the integral field unit OSIRIS with adaptive optics. This project focused on measuring the stellar kinematics as a function of spatial location within the galaxy. The galaxy is rapidly rotating with velocities of \textpm 220 km/s and the galaxy has high stellar velocity dispersions ranging from 300480 km/s. The rise in the velocity dispersion profile at the nucleus suggests this galaxy may host a very large supermassive black hole. Future work will include using these stellar kinematics to dynamically measure the black hole mass. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00024: Propagation time of solar wind flow pressure spikes from bow shock to ground magnetometers Brizy Schock, Diogo De Souza, Kevin Pham, Ramon Lopez The Sun is constantly emitting plasma, known as the solar wind. One of the solar wind's parameters is its flow pressure. The solar wind flow pressure exerts a force onto the Earth's magnetosphere, causing it to compress when the flow pressure is stronger. In our study we looked for instances in which the flow pressure is steady and is followed by a sudden increase by a factor of 3 or more in the span of 1 to 2 minutes. After collecting these events we examine measurements made by ground magnetometers at local noon to identify a signature that corresponds to the sudden increase in solar wind flow pressure. We determined how long it for the event to be detected in space and then to reach the ground magnetometers. We will present a histogram of the times delays and discuss possible reasons for discrepancies. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00025: Response Time of the Ionosphere to Sign Changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field YComponent Christopher Sherrill, Mikayla Streetman, Kevin Pham, Ramon Lopez The solar wind is the continuous flow of plasma outward from the sun. The interplanetary magnetic field is the sun's magnetic field that is frozen into and is carried outward by the solar wind. We are interested in events where the interplanetary magnetic field ycomponent changes from the westward to the eastward or eastward to the westward in less than 5 minutes and is relative steady before and after the change. After an event has been identified, we examine the event using data from AMPERE and calculate the time it takes for the ionospheric fieldaligned current system to change accordingly. AMPERE data is derived from magnetic perturbations collected by the Iridium satellite constellation and used to create a map of the ionospheric fieldaligned current density. We will present a comparison of the time it takes to switch from west to east and east to west as well as if the time depends on other factors such as solar wind velocity or density. We suspect both transitions will have a similar response given that they have the same ionospheric configuration but in different directions. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00026: Reconfiguration Time of Sudden Transitions of the Z Direction of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Derric Edwards, David Soward, Kevin Pham, Ramon Lopez The Sun constantly emits the solar wind which carries the Sun's magnetic field; this is called the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We are looking for when the Z direction of the IMF transitions from positive to negative. Ideally, the solar wind parameters before and after should remain steady in order for us to isolate the transition event. When the IMF makes a transition to the negative direction, this has an effect on the structure of the Earth's magnetosphere. One of these effects is that the tail begins to stretch, which causes a buildup of the current system. Since it takes the system some finite amount of time to make a transition, we will determine how long it takes for the tail to begin stretching after a transition occurs. We will use magnetic field data from the geosynchronous GOES satellite, when it is on the Earth's night side, to find when tail stretching begins. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00027: Searching for an Optimal ODE Model to Describe and Differentiate Cancers Dylan Barth, Carson HueyYou, Hana Jaafari, Hope Murphy, Mike Ellis, Hana Dobrovonly The state of mathematical models that describe tumor growth is at best chaotic; an abundance of models and a subpar collection of data to support them have led to a conundrum when it comes to choosing a model. Our research aims to attribute one of seven extant models to different strains of cancer and to describe the factors that go into choosing one model over another. After gathering data from biological papers, we fit seven well known models that claim to describe tumor growth to the datasets. We then used a categorical chisquared test to determine which model best described different strains of cancer. This work will help guide modellers in developing accurate mathematical models for different strains of cancer. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00028: Discontinuous Galerkin modeling of magnetized turbulence Tess Bernard, Fran\c{c}ois Waelbroeck, Craig Michoski Turbulence plays an important role in determining the transport and heating of space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. Modeling this turbulence is particularly challenging because of the ability of the plasma to support waves with disparate spacetime scales as well as to generate both short and long wavelength through nonlinear processes. Using a discontinuous Galerkin code called ArcOn, turbulence in the Texas Helimak is modeled. The Helimak experiment at the University of Texas aims to model the conditions in the scrapeoff layer (SOL) of fusion devices. Effective modeling of this region is very important because much of the thermal power in fusion devices flows through it to divertor plates that must survive the resulting erosion and redeposition. It has been shown that electric biasing in this region can be used to reduce and control turbulence. The Arcon code is used to simulate such potential biasing, with the goal of improving the theoretical understanding of this phenomena in the Helimak and its role in other fusion devices. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00029: Modeling spread of oncolytic viruses Anh Nguyen, Hana Dobrovolny Cancer has inflicted devastating social and financial costs to the global population for many years. In order to reduce its detrimental impacts, there have been various methods and treatments. One of which is oncolytic virotherapy. In fact, researchers use the ability of certain viruses to eradicate tumor cells as a cancer treatment.This method is well known and was dated back more than a century. In this project, we focus on an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model in virotherapy, which assess the effects of virus on both normal and cancer cells. We use the model to find the optimal parameters so that we can minimize the number of cancer cells and also maximize the number of normal cells. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00030: Studying the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on ratedependent behavior of human cardiac cells. Binaya Tuladhar, Hana Dobrovolny Sudden cardiac death from ventricular fibrillation is a major cause of death worldwide. Several different classes of antiarrhythmic drugs are currently available, each of which alters a different membrane ion conductance. While there are many studies examining the biomolecular effects of antiarrhythmic drugs and their clinical effect, their effect on cardiac dynamics at the cellular and tissue levels is not well understood. We use a mathematical model of a human ventricular cell to study the ratedependent drugeffects of class I, III and IV antiarrythmics to determine the druginduced changes in action potential duration as a function of the cycle length. We study the bifurcation diagrams for cells in the presence of various concentrations of sodium blockers, potassium blockers and calcium blockers to study the appearance of alternans and the hysteresis. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00031: Tumor growth model choice in the presence of limited data. Carson HueyYou, Dylan Barth, Hana Jaafari, Hope Murphy, Mike Ellis, Hana Dobrovolny Cancer is defined as a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth or tumors with the potential to spread throughout the body. The tumors in reality are made up of a necrotic core of dead cells, and an outer layer of tumor cells, but these details are often ignored when modeling tumor growth with ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. Several different ODE models are currently used to model tumor growth, although there is no guidance on model choice for particular systems. I investigated seven candidate tumor growth models by fitting the models to over 200 different cancer growth data sets to find the ‘bestfit’ for specific tumors. In this paper, we investigate whether the duration of the data set determines choice of growth model. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00032: Cosmology in One Dimension: a Two Component System Yui Shiozawa, Bruce Miller In the observable universe galaxies are grouped in clusters, clusters in superclusters, and all are separated by large voids and supervoids. As the majority of the matter content of the universe is dark matter, it is difficult to understand the hierarchical nature of largescale structure from observations alone. We simulated the evolution of two types of matter, one representing dark matter and the other luminous matter, in a single, onedimensional, model universe. Our scaledependent multifractal analysis compares the distribution of the dissipative component, representing luminous matter, with the nondissipative dark matter and reveals important differences. In addition, we employ a minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis of both matter distributions to investigate the dynamics and hierarchical properties of clustering. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00033: Basic reproduction number for inhost viral infections Irma Thalia RODRIGUEZ, Hana Dobrovolny In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) is used to measure the spread potential of a disease. It is defined as the number of secondary infections produced by a first infection in a homogeneous susceptible population. To calculate $R_0$ for within host models, modelers use the methods commonly used for epidemiological models. However, the infection dynamics of epidemiology models differ from the simple inhost viral model in that epidemiological models assume direct contact between infected and susceptible individuals while inhost infectious use the virus as an intermediary agent. We examine the meaning of the basic reproduction number in the context of a simple inhost viral infection model. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00034: Chaos in a Spatially Periodic 3Body (1$+$1)Dimensional SelfGravitating System Pankaj Kumar, Bruce Miller We investigate regular and chaotic motion of a classical 3body, onedimensional, selfgravitating system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that the dynamics of the 3body system may be modeled by that of a spatially periodic system of a single particle on a rhombic plane. The analytic form of the Hamiltonian has been derived in rhombic coordinates. Phasespace evolution is followed in simulation through an eventdriven algorithm which utilizes exact solutions for the timeevolution of positions and velocities. We calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent and the KolmogorovSinai entropy of the system for different initial conditions of the system. Poincare surfaces have also been presented for several energies. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. Finally, the results are compared with those already known for classical and relativistic versions of the 3body gravitating system with free boundary conditions. Our treatment of the system is the first one of its kind and opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00035: "From ModKERNEL in 1 DIMENSIONAL QUANTUM SYSTEMS To MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCTORS" WH Maksoed,SSi Firstly, adopt the superfluid He3 to establishes the Theoretical CondensedMatter Physics/TCMP further to the Lates HE.GeneralTNI[rtd] Leonard Benjamin MOERDANI & Hare Majesteit Mvr Irene RIA PRIHATINI,MBA commnets:"itu Syis.." of godly line of Seth accepted to resembles conductometries as a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction, accompanied by 'superionic phenomena'. "What a Beak.." shouts for Quebec of 1534 Jacques Cartier between July 24, 1943 of HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja Duren Tiga, South JAKARTA to the Aug 10 purportedly accords, there were provided the conductivity in spectral representations of Xenophon Zotos & P. Pelovsky:" Transport in One dimensional Quantum systems", May 5, 2003 comprises a modifiedKernel [ 1  exp(beta.omega)]/omega] whereas "issues on the transport in mesoscopic system"(nanowires, nanotubes etc ) existed by Prodi of Physics ITB ever sougt W. Pogosov,et.al:"Variational method to study vortex matter in MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCTORS". Refers to LV Zhigilei & A.N.Volkov manuscript:"Computational study of Nanomaterials:from largeScale atomistic simulations to mesoscopic modeling" concludes whereas nanocomposite magnets also comprised in mesoscopic systems, to be interrelate to multifractal analyses [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00036: Progress in graphene experiments: Suspended graphene and spin injection Bin Yang, Jae Hyoung Son, Sung Oh Woo, W. Teizer Graphene has been found to be a very promising material due to its unusual electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Electrons in graphene can be described by the massless Dirac equation and their mobility can be as high as several thousand $cm^{2}V^{1}s^{1}$. Besides its electronic transport properties, graphene is also a promising material for spintronics, due to its low spinorbit interaction. A clear spin accumulation at the interface between a ferromagnet and graphene was observed during spin injection. Recently, it has been found that a spin current can be induced by heat flow from a ferromagnet into a semiconductor, in analogy to an electric flow. Here, we are reporting on initial work on an experiment intended to inject a pure spin current from a ferromagnet into graphene, driven by a heat current, a novel approach for graphene. In addition, we have produced suspended graphene bridges that can be electronically investigated. The release of the graphene has been achieved by patterning suitable electrodes, which serve as contacts and concomitantly protect the two ends of a rectangular graphene flake from a subsequent undercut etch, partially performed under supercritical conditions. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00037: New Open Questions Florentin Smarandache The Black Hole's center, which is a point of infinite density and zero volume, is considered a real physical entity, although it seems a mathematical artifact. So, Fact or Mathematical Artifact? Since no experiment has ever shown a density being infinite for a physical object in the universe, our question is what would be \textbf{the maximum discovered density }in the universe? Would it be possible to create any given density? What is the \textbf{strongest gravitational field} in the universe? What would be the maximum gravitational field to be produced in the laboratory? Similarly, what is the \textbf{strongest electric} field in the universe? What would be the \textbf{maximum electric field} to be produced in the laboratory? Similarly, what is the \textbf{strongest magnetic field} in the universe? What would be the \textbf{maximum magnetic field} to be produced in the laboratory? [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00038: Brain Displacement Noah Whitaker, Paul Walter During an impact, the brain experiences displacement in relation to the skull. Using MRIs, Feng et al. (2010) reported on the translational and angular displacements of the brain relative to the skull of three human subjects undergoing mild impulses. Our initial efforts to model the brainskull system treat the brain as a rigid body with four springs attaching it to the skull at 45\textdegree angles as described by Zou (2007). We construct the initial value problem using the MRI data as initial data. We then model the system by evolving three secondorder (six firstorder) nonhomogenous differential equations using the RungeKutta method. Conducting chisquared analyses comparing model predictions with the MRI data constrains our model's parameters, i.e., spring constants and damping coefficients. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00039: Computing the Period of a Pendulum Eric Oden, Kendall Richards Using Gaussian hypergeometric functions, there is a particularly simple computable approximation for the period of a pendulum as a function of its maximum angular displacement $\theta $. In contrast to other approximations, the associated relative error of this approach is less than 0.0000165 for all $\theta \quad \in $ [$\pi $/2, $\pi $/2]. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00040: DyeSensitized Photovoltaic Cells with Enhanced ExcitonHole Separation and Barrier Characteristics Glenn Grissom, Miguel Leal, Mohammed Uddin, Ahmed Touhami Over the last 30 years dyesensitized solar cells have received considerable interest due to their lowcost, environmental sustainability, and numerous practical applications. Carbon nanotube based dyesensitized solar cells have become a main focus of research. Flexible Carbon nanotubeyarn based photo voltaic cells are advancement over metal wire based cells or nonflexible substrates, such as Fluorine doped Tin Oxide glass as a foundation for dyesensitized solar cells. Carbonnanotubes have a great advantage in photo voltaic cells due to their low electrical resistance, excellent electrocatalytic activity, and high mechanical integrity. Here, we introduce the use of poly(3hexylthiophene2,5diyl) and [6.6] Diphenyl C$_{62}$ bis(butyric acid methyl ester) combination as a quantum dot sensitizer in conjunction with the dye N719 to increase electron generation, decrease electronhole pair recombination, and enhance barrier characteristics. Our prototype 3Dimensional Photovoltaic Cells show an increase in photon to energy conversion efficiency together with prolonged environmental sustainability. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00041: Shapedependent nanoenergetic gas generators based on bismuth trioxide nanoparticles Srbuhi Yolchinyan, Mkhitar Hobosyan, Karen Martirosyan There is a growing demand on novel energetic materials called Nanoenergetic GasGenerators (NGG), which are alternatives to traditional energetic materials including pyrotechnics, propellants, primers and solid fuels. NGGs utilize metal powders as a fuel and nonmetal or metal oxides that generate an exothermic mixture, releasing large amounts of gas phase, energy at extremely high temperatures. The intimate contact between fuel and oxidizer significantly enhances the pressure discharge efficiency of nanoenergetic materials. If both fuel and oxidizer nanoparticles are spherical, the contact area between them is less than if either fuel or oxidizer particles are rodlike or platelike. In this work, we utilize microfluidic fabrication approach of producing Bi$_{\mathrm{2}}$O$_{\mathrm{3}}$ oxidizer nanoparticles with various shapes (spheres, rods and flakes) and use selfassembly technique to combine them with spherical Al nanoparticles. The selfassembled NGGs were tested for pressure discharge values to estimate the dependence of depressurization rate on the shape of oxidizer particles. As initial measurements show, the selfassembly of Al and rodlike Bi$_{\mathrm{2}}$O$_{\mathrm{3\thinspace }}$is significantly improving the NGG pressure discharge abilities. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00042: Magnetic properties of cobalt particles produced by thermite reaction. Gamage Dannangoda, Mkhitar Hobosyan, Long Chang, Dmitri Litvinov, Karen Martirosyan Thermite reaction composed of active metal (Al, Mg) and metal oxides (e.g. Fe3O4, MnO2, CuO, Co3O4) that can be used to receive various metal particles such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Co etc. By igniting the solid reactant mixture, exothermic reaction wave propagates through the mixture by converting it to desired product. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of cobalt spherical magnetic micro particles produced by cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and aluminum (Al) reaction. Thermodynamic calculations were performed by using thermochemical Codes HSC7 and Thermo. Average particle size of 50 nm Co3O4 and 40 nm Al were mixed together according to the stoichiometry in isopropanol solution utilizing selfassembly technique by adding poly4vinylpyridine (P4VP). After drying the sample at 60 C for 12 hours, mixture was prepared for ignition. Mixture was ignited into highpressure cylindrical reactor and pressure release was recorded. XRD, SEM and magnetic properties were determined for the final product. Saturation magnetization about 150 emu/g, was measured using hysteresis measurement, which suggests that final product, is mostly composed of highly magnetic cobalt particles. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00043: \textbf{Thermally insulating antimicrobial latex coating} Ivan Davila, Vasil Kukushliev, Chamath Dannangoda, Mkhitar Hobosyan, V. Yefremov V. Yefremov, Karen Martirosyan We propose a new method of creating thermally insulating titanium dioxidehollow glass microspherelatex coating (paint), which also possess antimicrobial properties. With the cost of energy rising and resources becoming scarce a better thermal insulator is required that will reduce the overall cost of heating or cooling, while being able to prevent the growth of bacteria and mold. The glass microspheres, when added to latex coatings, serve as an extreme insulator. The saturation of the sterile acrylic with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and microspheres lowered the viscosity significantly from 13.46 kg/sm to 0.86 kg/sm. The mixture experienced increased thermal insulation and antimicrobial properties compared to the industrially available acrylic coatings. The coating thermal conductivity coefficient is very low about 0.01 W/K m in the ranges of 50 K to 300K. With the addition of the TiO2 there is an antimicrobial component added. The TiO2 antimicrobial properties are activated with the UV from natural light. [Preview Abstract] 

H1.00044: Graduation Rates for Male {\&} Female Engineering Students in Texas TwoYear Colleges Jordan Castillo, James Hooten Simple linear analysis was used to discover trends within the graduation rates of both male and female engineering students from fifteen twoyear colleges within the state of Texas. The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) was utilized as the source for graduation data. Colleges reporting fewer than 10 consecutive years of data were excluded. Comparisons of the number of females obtaining engineering degrees versus the number of males obtaining engineering degrees show no indication that the gender gap is closing. [Preview Abstract] 
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