Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2022
Volume 67, Number 3
Monday–Friday, March 14–18, 2022; Chicago
Session T34: Quantum Photonics and Nonlinear Optics IIRecordings Available

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Sponsoring Units: DAMOP Chair: Kevin Singh, University of Chicago Room: McCormick Place W193A 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 11:30AM  11:42AM 
T34.00001: Charge state dynamics of ensemble silicon vacancies in bulk diamond Sachin Sharma, Gabriel I LópezMorales, Harishankar Jayakumar, Artur Lozovoi The manipulation of the charge states of solidstate defects is of importance in applications to quantum technology and precision sensing. Relevant examples include the silicon vacancy (SiV) and nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, both of which display nontrivial, partlyunderstood charge state interconversion pathways. Here we investigate the charge state dynamics of ensemble SiVs in a bulk type 1b diamond using multicolor confocal microscopy. We create photoionized carriers via optical illumination, and track their diffusion by monitoring the charge state of the surrounding defects, changing upon carrier capture. Leveraging electric fields to bias carrier diffusion^{1}, we show that the preferential dark state of silicon vacancies is SiV^{2}, which can convert to a bright SiV^{} state upon capturing a free hole. These results are relevant to ongoing efforts aimed at exploiting the properties of SiV centers in diamond as spin qubits or nanoscale probes. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 11:42AM  11:54AM 
T34.00002: Quantum Description of Cavity Raman Elucidates "Anomalous" antiStokes SERS William Harris, Vartkess A Apkarian Gold nanospheres, (~90 nm in diameter), plasmonically confine and enhance incident radiation sufficient to approach the limit of singlemolecule Raman detection. In this regime, we record the powerdependent antiStokestoStokes (AStoS) ratio of a BPE molecule and find that there is no satisfactory map to the canonical quantum model with vibrational pumping + laserinduced heating. Nonthermal antiStokes exceed three orders of magnitude enhancement over conservative estimates of the pumping effect. With impetus from this anomalous AS behavior, we revisit optomechanical models of Raman both with explicit numerical simulation as well as a perturbation algorithm to generate analytical expressions for higherorder scattering terms. These tools let us characterize novel pathways that harness the heterodyning effect of the cavity luminescence spectrum. We show that these channels may far exceed the feeble pumping component, thus elucidating the anomaly. Notably, the novel pathways are second order in the pump but only first order in the Raman crosssection, a unique attribute that is reflected in the data. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 11:54AM  12:06PM 
T34.00003: Towards a quantum memory based on an excitedstate absorption in Tm:YAP Nir Alfasi, Sara Marzban, Joshua A Slater, Aaron D Marsh, Philip J. T Woodburn, Hridya Meppully Sasidharan, Mohsen Falamarzi Askarani, Rufus L Cone, Charles W Thiel, Wolfgang Tittel Quantum memories compatible with telecommunicationwavelength photons are a key element towards building a largescale quantum network, since they allow remote quantum information exchange through existing lowloss fibre infrastructure. Rareearth ion (REI) doped crystals exhibit broad inhomogenous lines (∼GHz), allowing for large spectral multiplexing, while preserving very good coherence properties such as long coherence times (∼mss) leading to long storage times. Given the appeal of a quantum memory at telecom wavelength, and the difficulty in reaching high efficiencies with erbiumdoped crystals, we performed spectroscopic investigations of ^{3}F_{4}↔^{3}H_{4} excitedstate transition at around 1450 nm wavelength in various Tmdoped crystals. In this talk we will present recent results for Thuliumdoped yttrium aluminium perovskite (Tm:YAP). We will discuss an optical hole burning scheme that allows us to assess the coherence of this transition and show that an atomic frequency comb (AFC) based quantum memory can be achieved in this platform. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 12:06PM  12:18PM 
T34.00004: The Effect of Emitters on Quantum State Transfer in Coupled Cavity Arrays Trevor A Clarke, Jack Mucciaccio, Amelia Broman, Eli N Baum, Alexander Yue, Yuxi Zhang, Jesse Patton, Victoria A Norman, Marina Radulaski, Natanael C Costa, Richard T Scalettar I will report an investigation into perfect quantum state transfer (QST) across coupledcavity emitter arrays to provide a comprehensive understanding of the effects of system geometry and physical attributes on quantum state transfer as a function of time. By performing simulations with disordered emitter geometries and couplings to the cavity array, our group was able to determine the ways in which QST is degraded. This is unique as much of the existing literature on perfect QST and the effects of disorder focuses on cavityonly systems. We will show fidelity plots which illustrate the probability of transit from one side of the lattice to another for specific geometries, and also 'phase diagrams' which give the optimal QST fidelity as a function of the placement of a single emitter and its coupling to the cavity. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 12:18PM  12:30PM 
T34.00005: Polariton creation in photonic quantum simulators Victoria A Norman, Jesse Patton, Richard T Scalettar, Marina Radulaski A scalable, tunable quantum simulator based on coupled cavity arrays in the strong cavity QED regime could provide a sandbox for modelling complex, strongly correlated materials. Of the many proposed platforms for such a quantum simulator, we focus on solid state emitters in nanophotonic cavities for the scalability of these systems. However, while these systems can be easily scaled, the effects of the emitters’ spectral inhomogeneous broadening on the lightmatter hybridization have not yet been fully explored, nor have the effects of multiemittercavity interaction which are of current interest for achieving strong cavity QED coupling in color center systems. In order to understand these effects we first exactly solve small open quantum systems based on the TavisCummingsHubbard model using a quantum master equation. Then we develop an effective Hamiltonian method to simulate large open quantum systems which includes two new metrics, polaritonic and nodal participation ratios. These findings can be used for photonic engineering of versatile quantum simulators. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 12:30PM  12:42PM 
T34.00006: Engineering symmetryselective couplings of a superconducting artificial molecule to microwave waveguides Aamir Mohammed Ali, Claudia Castillo Moreno, Simon Sundelin, Janka Biznarova, Marco Scigliuzzo, Kowshik Erappaji Patel, Amr Osman, Daniel Perez Lozano, Simone Gasparinetti Tailoring the decay rate of structured quantum emitters into their environment opens possibilities for quantumstate stabilization, amplification, and nonlinear quantum optics. Here we demonstrate a novel coupling scheme between an artificial molecule comprising two identical, strongly coupled transmon qubits, and two microwave waveguides. In our scheme, the coupling is engineered so that transitions between states of the same (opposite) parity are predominantly coupled to one (the other) waveguide. In a firstgeneration device, we achieve a selectivity of 2 orders of magnitude for the coupling rates. In addition, we implement a twophoton Raman process activated by simultaneously driving both waveguides and show that it can be used to coherently couple states of different parity in the singleexcitation manifold of the molecule. Using that process, we implement frequency conversion across the waveguides, mediated by the molecule, with efficiency in excess of 90%. Finally, we show that this coupling arrangement makes it possible to straightforwardly generate spatiallyseparated Bell states propagating across the waveguides. We envisage further applications to quantum thermodynamics, microwave photodetection, and photonphoton gates. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 12:42PM  12:54PM 
T34.00007: Tuning coupled cavity arrays Hamiltonians with MonteCarlo methods Eli N Baum, Jack Mucciaccio, Amelia Broman, Trevor A Clarke, Alexander Yue, Yuxi Zhang, Jesse Patton, Victoria A Norman, Marina Radulaski, Natanael C Costa, Richard T Scalettar We used MonteCarlo techniques to tune coupled cavity array hopping parameters for perfect quantum state transfer (QST). For coupled cavity arrays with single excitations, we were able to find multiple cavityemitter topologies which exhibited perfect QST. This is unique, as most existing work is cavity only. We developed two methods to tune the array hopping parameters. One set the Hamiltonian eigenvalues to a list of known eigenvalues, while the second set the time evolution operator to a predetermined matrix. The second method is of considerable interest, as it is easily generalized to multiple excitations. We will also show that using these methods, it is possible to "program" a coupled cavity array for a quite general time dependent behavior. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 12:54PM  1:06PM 
T34.00008: Poynting vector singularities in scattering from cylinders with curlfree gauge fields Nitish Chandra, Natalia M Litchinitser We study Mie scattering from a cylinder comprised of engineered refractive index mimicking a free vortex leading to a magnetoelectric coupling for stationary material. We find Poynting vector singularities in the near field distribution and predict an additional phase change in the farfield for magnetoelectriccylinder compared to conventional Mie scattering. We show that the magnitude of the artificial curlfree gauge fields can be used to control the angular position of the phase change in the farfield and the position of the Poynting vector singularities. Furthermore, we investigate the spacetime reversal symmetry of material containing artificial curlfree gauge fields and dispersion relation for such spatially dispersive medium. The high kvector region around the singularity can be exploited for nearfield superresolution imaging and the farfield phase for scattered field holography. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 1:06PM  1:18PM 
T34.00009: Excitonpolaronpolariton condensation Miguel A BastarracheaMagnani, Aleksi Julku, Arturo CamachoGuardian, Georg Bruun Excitonpolaritons created in microcavity semiconductors are highly tunable quantum states that, thanks to their hybrid character, allow the transfer of features between light and matter. Polariton interactions make it possible to create quantum fluids, exhibiting macroscopic quantum states like condensation and superfluidity. Because of this, they constitute a fruitful field to exchange ideas with atomic physics and to unveil novel nolinear optical effects. Recent experiments have demonstrated that, by doping the semiconductor with itinerant electrons, the excitonpolaritons get dressed in electronic excitations to create polarons, opening a new venue to explore BoseFermi mixtures. Here, we describe the condensation of excitonpolaritons in the presence of a twodimensional electron gas by employing a nonperturbative manybody theory to treat excitonelectron correlations combined with a nonequilibrium theory for the condensate. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 1:18PM  1:30PM 
T34.00010: Multiaxis Coherent Control of the Tin Vacancy Center Spin in Diamond Romain Debroux, Cathryn Michaels, Carola Purser, Noel Wan, Matthew Trusheim, Jesus Arjona Martinez, Ryan A Parker, Alexander Stramma, Kevin Chen, Lorenzo De Santis, Evgeny Alexeev, Andrea C Ferrari, Dorian A Gangloff, Dirk Englund, Mete Atature GroupIV color centers in diamond are a promising building block candidate for future quantum networks. The negatively charged tinvacancy center (SnV) offers the benefits of strong protection against phonon dephasing and robust cyclicity of its optical transitions arising from its strong spinorbit interaction. In the work covered in this talk, we deploy an alloptical stimulated Raman drive between the ground and excited states to realize multiaxis coherent control of the SnV spin qubit. We utilize coherent population trapping and optically driven electronic spin resonance to confirm coherent access to the qubit at 1.7 K, and obtain spin Rabi oscillations at a rate of Omega/2pi = 19.0(1) MHz. Alloptical Ramsey interferometry reveals a spin dephasing time of T2* = 1.3(3) us and a CPMG4 dynamical decoupling extends the spin coherence time to T_2 = 0.30(8) ms. These results, paired with previously reported transformlimited photons and integration into photonic nanostructures, establish the SnV as a competitive candidate for quantum network applications. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 1:30PM  1:42PM 
T34.00011: Frequency multiplexed entangled photon pairs and detectors for quantum repeaters Tanmoy Chakraborty, Hedser van Brug, Oriol PietxCasas, PengCheng Wang, Gustavo C Amaral, Anna Tchebotareva, Wolfgang Tittel Largescale entanglementbased quantum networks rely on efficient quantum repeaters that can distribute entanglement in a multimode and heralded fashion over multiple network nodes. Next to optical quantum memories, most quantum repeater architectures also require suitably multiplexed sources of entangled photon pairs as well as detectors that can distinguish between the different modes—including temporal, spatial and spectral modes— used to encode quantum information. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 1:42PM  1:54PM 
T34.00012: Unconventional saturation effects at intermediate drive in a lossy cavity coupled to few emitters Therese Karmstrand, Benjamin Rousseaux, Timur Shegai, Anton Frisk Kockum, Göran Johansson The loss rates in highly dissipative cavityemitter systems render the realization of many desirable nonlinear effects, such as saturation and photon blockade, problematic. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 1:54PM  2:06PM 
T34.00013: Strong reverse saturable absorption and negative nonlinear refractive index in NiFe_{2}O_{4 }nanoparticles. NARESH AGGARWAL, Pratik Shinde, C. S Rout, K. V. Adarsh Transition metal oxides (AB_{2}O_{4}) are an important class of materials due to their wide potential applications, such as energy storage, sensors, highdensity magnetic recordings. We study the thirdorder nonlinear optical response of NiFe_{2}O_{4} (NFO) by using the open and close aperture Zscan technique to get a comprehensive study of nonlinear absorption and refraction. NFO has an indirect bandgap around 1.48eV and two direct bandgaps around 2.49eV and 3.12eV respectively. We excite the sample with a nanosecond laser at a wavelength of 532nm, and a pulse width of 7ns. We observe reverse saturable absorption as a nonlinear optical response of NFO. From the study of nanosecond excitation in NFO, we get a strong nonlinear optical response, a nonlinear absorption coefficient of around 1.3×10^{2} cm GW^{1}, and a nonlinear refractive index of 3.36 × 10^{4}cm^{2 }GW^{1} at intensity 0.31GWcm^{2}The observation of the negative nonlinear refractive index reveals the occurrence of self defocusing effect. From the strong nonlinear optical response, it is clear that NiFe_{2}O_{4} can be used for optical limiting applications. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 2:06PM  2:18PM 
T34.00014: Strong squeezing and bunching effect by a dipolariton cavity interacting with nonclassical light hichem Eleuch, Houssem Jabri Dipolaritons are quasiparticles created in microcavities containing two coupled quantum wells driven by a laser. In this work, we investigate the photon correlations and noise properties of the emergent light from a dipolariton system interacting with squeezed light produced by a nonlinear crystal. The present analysis shows that the considered scheme generates a strong and resistant squeezing outside the cavity in the presence of direct and indirect excitonic baths with nonvanishing temperatures. The weak coupling regime is favorable to a perfect squeezing and, in addition, exhibits a linear variation of the nonclassical effect as a function of the squeezed pumping amplitude. Furthermore, the study of the secondorder correlation predicts a bunched transmitted light from the dipolariton cavity. For an offresonant interaction, the autocorrelation function exhibits higher oscillation amplitudes than the resonant case. The secondorder correlations analysis also predicts a bunched transmitted light from the dipolariton cavity. The autocorrelation function for an offresonant interaction has larger oscillation amplitudes than the resonant case. 
Thursday, March 17, 2022 2:18PM  2:30PM 
T34.00015: Superradiance in dynamically modulated TavisCumming model with spectral disorder Alex D White, Rahul Trivedi, Kalyan Narayanan, Jelena Vuckovic Superradiance is a cooperative phenomenon in quantum optical systems wherein the emission of photons from a quantum emitter is enhanced due to other quantum emitters coupling to the same electromagnetic mode. However, disorder in the resonant frequencies of the quantum emitters can perturb this effect. In this work, we study the interplay between superradiance, spectral disorder and dynamical modulation in a TavisCumming model wherein all the emitters couple to a single resonant electromagnetic mode. As a consequence of the alltoall coupling between the emitters, the presence of spectral disorder never prohibits the formation of a superradiant state over an extensive number of emitters. Furthermore, in such disordered systems, we show that a quantum control protocol modulating the resonant frequency of the optical mode leads to a multiplicative enhancement in the superradiance even in the limit of large number of emitters. Our results are relevant to experimental demonstration and application of superradiant effects in solidstate quantum optical systems such as color centers or rareearth ions. 
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