Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2022
Volume 67, Number 3
Monday–Friday, March 14–18, 2022; Chicago
Session F35: Quantum Network Photon Sources and TransducersFocus Recordings Available

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Sponsoring Units: DQI Chair: Daniel Higginbottom, Simon Fraser University Room: McCormick Place W193B 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 8:00AM  8:36AM 
F35.00001: Quantum Photonics with the TinVacancy Center in Diamond Invited Speaker: Alison E Rugar Quantum networks critically require longlived, optically interfaced quantum memories coherently coupled with highquality optical interfaces. Diamond color centers based on groupIV impurities have emerged as strong candidates in recent years because of their promising spin and optical properties and their compatibility with photonic integration. Tinvacancy (SnV) centers have garnered particular interest for their potential as spin qubits that can operate at temperatures above 1 K. In this talk, we will discuss our recent progress with SnV centers. We will summarize our work, from basic optical characterization of the SnV center [1] to incorporation of SnV centers in photonic devices such as waveguides [2] and photonic crystal cavities to enhance the emission of SnV centers [3]. Our work paves the way for the creation of scalable building blocks of a quantum network operating at liquid helium temperatures. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 8:36AM  8:48AM 
F35.00002: Heralding single photons from an SPDC source using photon number resolving superconducting nanowire detectors Samantha Davis High rate and pure single photon sources are essential for experimental realizations of quantum communication tasks such as quantum key distribution and quantum teleportation. A practical way of producing these single photons has been through photon pair generation and heralding using optical nonlinear processes such as spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). Due to thermal photon number statistics, the single photon pair probability of SPDC is limited to 1/4 per mode, resulting in multiphoton pair noise that dominates at high mean photon numbers, thus limiting experimental rates. One way to avoid this is to use photon number resolving detectors to filter out multiphoton noise. Here we demonstrate an improvement in the purity of a single photon source by heralding on single and multiphoton events with photon number resolving NbN superconducting nanowires which have been also shown to have high efficiency, low dark counts, and low jitter. We present a detailed theoretical model based on the Gaussian formalism by constructing the symplectic matrix of the PNR detector from a network of beamsplitters. We use the model to predict the expected heralded single photon rates for given losses and imperfections in the experiment. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 8:48AM  9:00AM 
F35.00003: Deterministic generation of entangled photonic cluster states from quantum dot molecules Arian Vezvaee, Paul Hilaire, Matthew F Doty, Sophia Economou Successful generation of photonic cluster states is the key step in the realization of quantum networks and measurementbased quantum computation. In this work, we propose the deterministic generation of these photonic cluster states from quantum dot molecules: A pair of vertically stacked quantum dots. Our proposal, based on the hole spin qubits, takes advantage of the unique control scheme of this platform and resolves many of the difficulties of available protocols. Our new proposal paves the way for an experimentally feasible realization of highly entangled multiqubit photonic states. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 9:00AM  9:12AM 
F35.00004: Entangled photon factory: How to generate quantum resource states from a minimal number of quantum emitters Bikun Li, Edwin Barnes, Sophia Economou Multiphoton graph states are a fundamental resource in quantum communication networks, distributed quantum computing, and sensing. These states can in principle be created deterministically from quantum emitters such as optically active quantum dots or defects, atomic systems, or superconducting qubits. However, finding efficient schemes to produce such states has been a longstanding challenge. We will present a general algorithm for determining how to generate arbitrary photonic graph states using minimal resources. Starting from a target graph state, this algorithm determines the minimal number of emitters needed to produce it and reverseengineers explicit operation sequences on the emitters that yield the state. This is done by leveraging the stabilizer formalism, entanglement entropy, and timereversed operations. The algorithm itself and the resulting emission circuit both scale polynomially in the size of the photonic graph state, allowing one to obtain efficient schemes to generate graph states containing hundreds or thousands of photons. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 9:12AM  9:24AM 
F35.00005: Systematic study of correlation between spectral diffusion, strain, and depth from surface in nitrogenvacancy centers in diamond Brendan A McCullian, Hil Fung Harry Cheung, Huiyao Chen, Gregory D Fuchs Single nitrogenvacancy (NV) centers in diamond are useful as a spinphoton interface for quantum networking, owing to their long spin lifetimes and sharp optical transitions at low temperature. Quantum networking schemes aimed at entangling two or more NV centers suffer from two challenges: first, there is a defecttodefect variation of optical transition frequency, and second, there is spectral diffusion of individual NV centers transition frequency caused by fluctuations in the local electromagnetic trap environment. In this presentation I will describe our systematic study of spectral diffusion in NV centers within bulk diamond. For each NV center we quantify the spectral diffusion and the static strain, describing each in terms of the components of a given JahnTeller symmetry. We investigate how the different components of spectral diffusion correlate with one another, with static strain, and with depth from the diamond surface. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 9:24AM  9:36AM 
F35.00006: Strong light modulation using acoustic phonons and quantum dots Poolad Imany, Zixuan Wang, Ryan A DeCrescent, Robert Boutelle, Samuel Berweger, Corey McDonald, Travis Autry, Pavel Kabos, Richard Mirin, Kevin Silverman Fast and efficient modulation of light is crucial for highspeed communications as well as building a longdistance network of quantum processors. So far, electrooptic modulators have been at the forefront of these technologies due to their scalability and ability to perform at above 100s of GHz speed. Recently, optomechanical approaches have gained attention owing to their efficient microwavetooptical conversion, importance for lowenergy modulation and quantum transduction. These approaches use mechanical vibrations (phonons) as an intermediate platform that couples efficiently to both electrical and optical photons. Acoustic phonons on the surface of GaAs can couple to both, electrical circuits and light, due to the material’s piezoelectric response and ability to host singlephoton emitters in form of quantum dots, respectively. We show lowpower phase modulation of resonant light scattered from these quantum dots, using cavityenhanced surface acoustic waves, with V_{π} as low as 50 mV. These demonstrations pave the way for building an optical network for superconducting qubits and distributed quantum computation. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 9:36AM  9:48AM 
F35.00007: Telecom quantum network node with neutral atoms interfaced with photonic crystals Shankar G Menon, Noah Glachman, Kevin Singh, Yuzhou Chai, Alan M Dibos, Johannes Borregaard, Hannes Bernien Three central requirements for practical quantum network nodes are scalability, qubits capable of storing and processing quantum information with highfidelity, and a telecom interface. While impressive demonstrations have been performed on each of these criteria individually, an architecture that combines all three has remained elusive. With recent advances in optical tweezer technology and nanophotonic interfaces, approaches based on individually trapped atomic qubits have shown promising results towards highfidelity control and scalability of this platform. In particular, neutral atoms coupled to nanophotonic cavities operating at telecom wavelengths can be used to construct viable quantum network nodes that are wellsuited for longdistance entanglement generation. In this talk I will discuss our protocol for generating highfidelity atomtelecom photon entanglement under realistic conditions of cavity coupling, atomic temperatures and polarization purities. I will also present our recent experimental progress towards setting up the network node including a scalable integration of highquality factor cavities and a new compact chamber for atom nanophotonic experiments. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 9:48AM  10:00AM 
F35.00008: Entanglement Thresholds of Quantum Networks containing DoublyParametric MicrowaveOptical Transducers Akira Kyle, Curtis Rau, Alex Kwiatkowski, Ezad Shojaee, John Teufel, Konrad Lehnert, Tasshi Dennis Networking superconducting quantum processors over optical links will require transducers capable of entangling microwave and optical modes. However, decoherence from thermal noise, losses, and limited cooperativities pose significant challenges for designing networks which incorporate microwaveoptical transducers. Thus, understanding the tolerable decoherence that the transducer can introduce into a network is essential to knowing when it can or cannot be used for quantum communication tasks. We find explicit expressions for when the quantum channel of a doublyparametric transducer is separable, when it is PPTpreserving, and when it can create distillable opticalmicrowave entanglement. We then examine network topologies using two transducers and characterize their thresholds for entangling remote microwave modes over an optical link. The resources that are allowed, such as measurements and entangled states, directly affects the tolerable transducer performance. Conversely, the achievable transducer performance dictates the resources and network topology required to establish entanglement. Thus, having two transducers individually capable of quantum operation is not sufficient for demonstrating remote microwave entanglement due to the resource constraints of the network. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 10:00AM  10:12AM 
F35.00009: Quantum Capacities of Transducers ChiaoHsuan Wang, Fangxin Li, Liang Jiang Highperformance quantum transducers, devices that can faithfully convert quantum information between disparate frequency domains, are essential elements in quantum science and technology. To assess their ability to coherently transfer quantum information, quantum transducers are typically characterized by different figure of merits including conversion efficiency, bandwidth, and added noise. Here we utilize the concept of quantum capacity, the highest achievable qubit communication rate through a quantum channel, to quantify the performance of a transducer. By evaluating the fullband quantum capacity across the conversion bandwidth, we propose a single metric of a transducer that can unify various criteria  high efficiency, large bandwidth, and low noise. Moreover, we investigate the optimal designs of general quantum transduction systems by using the quantum capacity of bosonic pureloss channels as a benchmark. For general conversion that involves N intermediate modes, we find that the highest fullband quantum capacity is achieved when a transducer has a maximally flat conversion frequency response, which is a direct analog to a (N+2)thorder Butterworth electrical filter. Our method may be further extended to include intrinsic losses and thermal noises. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 10:12AM  10:24AM 
F35.00010: Generating microwave entanglement for quantum network Changchun Zhong, Yat Wong, Liang Jiang Connecting distant quantum processor is a desirable goal in quantum communication community, termed quantum network. A promising candidate is the platform of superconducting processors connected by optical photons. In this project, by driving quantum transducers in the parametric down conversion mode, we investigate the generation of distant entangled microwave photons by heralding optical mode detection. The entanglement is studied in both discrete and continuous variables based on hybrid systems, e.g., piezooptomechanics, electrooptics. We show that the entanglement generated can help establishe a quantum channel with positive capacity which can be used to transmit quantum information, and thus is a promising way to connect distant quantum processors in the near term. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 10:24AM  10:36AM 
F35.00011: Polarization Drift Compensation in Fiber using Feedback from Correlated Measurements of Entangled Photons Evan Dowling Use of polarization entangled photons in fiber have been utilized for tests of Bell inequalities, teleportation, and quantum key distribution across kilometer scale distances [1,2]. All observations and applications of polarization entanglement require carefully coordinated polarizationresolved measurements between spatially separated observers. The uncontrolled thermal and mechanical variations in the fiber channels cause an unpredictable and timevarying transformation of the polarization state, which makes it hard to perform a stationary measurement of entanglement. Because a maximally entangled photon is statistically unpolarized, methods of polarization tracking based on singlechannel measurements cannot be applied to stabilize the measurements. Instead, we employ feedback from coincidence measurements on a entangled state, between spatially separate observers to experimentally stabilize the observation of entanglement. We implement several polarization drift compensation algorithms, and compare the convergence rate and tracking performance. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 10:36AM  10:48AM 
F35.00012: Towards an optical interface between NV centers and Rareearth ion solidstate memories MarieChristine Roehsner, Matthew J Weaver, Arian Stolk, Nir Alfasi, Mariya Sholkina, Tanmoy Chakraborty, Gustavo Castro do Amaral, Elsie P Loukiantchenko, Wolfgang Tittel, Ronald Hanson Quantum networks, connecting quantum devices over large distances, promise to provide powerful tools ranging from secure communication to fundamentally new kinds of computation. Analogous to the current Internet, the individual components of a (future) quantum network may be realized using of different physical systems, requiring specialized interfaces between these components. In this talk we will present our work towards an optical interface between photons emitted from a Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center, well suited as a local quantum processing network node, with light compatible with Tmbased rareearth ion quantum memories, well suitable for longrange quantum repeaters. To allow for quantum interference between photons from these disparate devices we employ a low noise twostep quantum frequency conversion process to convert light from 795nm, the storage wavelength of the memories, to 637nm, the emission wavelength of NV centers. 
Tuesday, March 15, 2022 10:48AM  11:00AM 
F35.00013: OpenAir Microwave Entanglement Distribution for Quantum Teleportation Tasio GonzalezRaya, Mateo Casariego, Vahid Salari, Yasser Omar, Kirill G Fedorov, Frank Deppe, Mikel Sanz Experiments about entanglement distribution, key ingredient in quantum communication, have focused on optical regime. However, microwaves show advantages regarding low absorption rates and low energy consumption, and it is the working frequency in superconducting circuits. Here, we propose a feasibility analysis of an openair entanglement distribution scheme in the microwave regime with twomode squeezed states, which are accurately preparable entangled states in continuousvariable settings. Firstly, we adapt to the microwave technology both entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, two techniques to reduce environmental entanglement degradation. Secondly, we compute the fidelity of a quantum teleportation protocol employing these states as resources, observing that entanglement is completely degraded after a distance around 300 m. While entanglement distillation can increase quantum correlations in the shortdistance lowsqueezing regime, entanglement swapping can extend their reach. Finally, we explore applications in satellite communication, where the thermal noise substantially reduces. This work can also find relevant applications in distributed quantum computing and quantum internet. 
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