Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2022
Volume 67, Number 3
Monday–Friday, March 14–18, 2022; Chicago
Session B08: Network Theory and Application to Complex Systems IIRecordings Available

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Sponsoring Units: GSNP Chair: Filippo Radicchi, Indiana University Room: McCormick Place W179B 
Monday, March 14, 2022 11:30AM  11:42AM 
B08.00001: Exposure predicts learning of complex networks by random walks Andrei A Klishin, Danielle S Bassett Random walks are a common model for exploration and discovery of complex networks. While numerous algorithms have been proposed to map out an unknown network, a complementary question arises: in a known network, which nodes and edges are most likely to be discovered by a random walk in finite time? Here we introduce a new metric of exposure that predicts learning of nodes and edges across several types of networks, including weighted and temporal, and show that edge learning follows a universal trajectory across many orders of magnitude of exposure. While learning of individual nodes and edges is noisy, exposure theory is highly accurate in prediction of aggregate statistics of exploration. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 11:42AM  11:54AM 
B08.00002: Building CyberResilient Road Transport Networks Skanda Vivek The explosive growth in connected vehicle infrastructures and IoTenabled systems opens the potential for transportation disruptions stemming from cyberattacks on road infrastructures. Researchers and threat actors have recently demonstrated that hackers could interfere with critical vehicle safety functions, manipulate driving behaviors, and tamper with traffic control systems. Such attacks could result in cascading traffic disruptions that are hitherto largely unquantified. Here, we quantify the impacts of cyberattacks on road transportation by simulating the largescale traffic disruptions resulting from attacks. We investigate a broad range of representative scenarios of roadinfrastructure related cyberattacks. We develop a novel networkbased algorithm to detect signatures of realtime cyberattacks on road traffic networks using realtime traffic data. Based on our results, we discuss the potential for coordinated rerouting to mitigate cascading traffic jams as a result of cyberattacks on road transportation infrastructures. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 11:54AM  12:06PM 
B08.00003: Optimal Community Detection in Weighted Directed Networks using Voronoi Diagrams Botond Molnár, BeátaIldikó Márton, Szabolcs Horváth, Mária ErcseyRavasz Community detection is a constantly occurring problem in complex networks, which are widely used to model an endless number of systems in biology, neuroscience, social sciences, information technology, etc. The widespread technique is to use a simple unweighted and undirected model to represent these systems, for which there are several good known algorithms to perform an optimal clustering. However, more and more complex and realistic systems use weighted and directed network models. The authors of this study developed a novel algorithm for community detection on weighted and directed networks based on Voronoi diagrams. This new method is also capable of performing partitioning on very dense networks, where communities are not defined by the structure of the network, but rather by the weights of links. In this approach a metric was used to define distance between nodes, which translates the weights to length. Moreover, the selection of the Voronoi cell generator points and the assignment of all other nodes to the Voronoi regions includes the directions of links. An extensive testing of the method was performed on randomly generated benchmark networks and also on reallife interareal cortical network of the macaque monkey obtained by retrogradetracing experiments and many more. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 12:06PM  12:18PM 
B08.00004: Prediction of citation accrual from editorialhighlights Manolis Antonoyiannakis Citations and reputations take years to build, but it is sometimes necessary to look for early signs of promise in a scientist’s work. Editorial highlights, which are editorcurated lists of select papers, may prove valuable as early predictors of citations. In a proofofconcept study [1,2], we observed that highlighting identifies a citation advantage that is stratified according to the degree of vetting for importance during peer review. Here, we comprehensively study the citation accrual associated with various highlighting platforms, such as Research Highlights in Nature and other NPG journals, Editors’ Choice in Science, Optica Spotlight on Optics, ACS Editors’ Choice, Synopses and Viewpoints in Physics, Editors’ Suggestions in APS journals, etc. We quantify the citation advantage for each highlighting platform and discuss robustness and reliability issues. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 12:18PM  12:30PM 
B08.00005: Sequential breakage generates universality lognormal distributions of per capita GDP Charles M Weng, Cathy Zhang, Xinyue(Yolanda) M Zhu, Harold M Hastings, Tai YoungTaft The distribution of per capita income and per capita GDP appears lognormal except for a power law high end (e.g., Montroll & Shlesinger, Proc National Academy of Sciences 1982; Garlaschelli et al., European Physics Journal B 2007; Yakovenko & Rosser, Reviews of Modern Physics 2009; Hong, Han & Kim, Empirical Economics, 2020; Hastings & YoungTaft, Proc International Conference on Complex Systems 2021). We observe that these distributions are near universal after suitable rescaling to account for population and GDP growth. We provide an explanation by translating Sugihara’s (American Naturalist, 1980) argument that sequential breakage of niche components causes lognormal distributions of species abundance from ecology into economics, thus explaining these observed empirical distributions at a variety of scales. For example, per capita GDP in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia (US$, IMF data reported in Wikipedia) each appear to follow a similar distribution, as might be expected from expressing the lognormal distribution as a limit of products of random distributions of economic niche components. This generative model for lognormality also implies universality and may help inform efforts to address inequality and poverty around the world. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 12:30PM  12:42PM 
B08.00006: Selfassembly of geometric structures in exponential random graphs Pawat Akarapipattana, Thiparat Chotibut, Oleg Evnin The exponential random graph model (ERGM) is a family of probabilistic graph models described by Boltzmannlike distributions whose Hamiltonians encode the network statistics. The standard ERGMs based on counting subgraphs of specific shapes exhibit a variety of phases. However, conventional phases are phenomenologically undesirable as they consist of nearlyempty or nearlycomplete graphs, as in the muchstudied Strauss model based on the triangle count. We introduce simple modifications to the standard ERGMs that successfully produce graph ensembles with finite mean degree and macroscopic numbers of triangles or squares, providing a qualitative improvement of the Strauss model. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 12:42PM  12:54PM 
B08.00007: DulmageMendelsohn percolation: Geometry of maximallypacked dimer models and topologicallyprotected zero modes on diluted bipartite lattices Ritesh K Bhola, Md Mursalin Islam, Sounak Biswas, Kedar Damle The classic combinatorial construct of {\em maximum matchings} probes the random geometry of regions with local sublattice imbalance in a sitediluted bipartite lattice. We demonstrate that these regions, which host the monomers of any maximum matching of the lattice, control the localization properties of a zeroenergy quantum particle hopping on this lattice. The structure theory of Dulmage and Mendelsohn provides us with a way of identifying a complete and nonoverlapping set of such regions. This motivates our largescale computational study of the DulmageMendelsohn decomposition of sitediluted bipartite lattices in two and three dimensions. Our computations uncover an interesting universality class of percolation associated with the endtoend connectivity of such monomercarrying regions with local sublattice imbalance, which we dub {\em DulmageMendelsohn percolation}. Our results imply the existence of a monomer percolation transition in the classical statistical mechanics of the associated maximallypacked dimer model and the existence of a phase with arealaw entanglement entropy of arbitrary manybody eigenstates of the corresponding quantum dimer model. They also have striking implications for the nature of collective zeroenergy Majorana fermion excitations of bipartite networks of Majorana modes localized on sites of diluted lattices, for the character of topologicallyprotected zeroenergy wavefunctions of the bipartite random hopping problem on such lattices, and thence for the corresponding quantum percolation problem, and for the nature of lowenergy magnetic excitations in bipartite quantum antiferromagnets diluted by a small density of nonmagnetic impurities 
Monday, March 14, 2022 12:54PM  1:06PM 
B08.00008: A geometric conjecture about phase transitions Ozan B Ericok, Jeremy K Mason A widely accepted view classifies phase transitions based on the type of singularity observed in the relevant thermodynamic potential or its derivatives. While these singularities have been associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena, the Topological Hypothesis claims that changes to the configuration space topology are the underlying reason for these singularities. This work instead investigates whether changes to the configuration space geometry are more directly related to the onset of a phase transition. We specifically conjecture that firstorder phase transitions occur when there is a discontinuity in the configuration space diameter as measured by the mixing time. This conjecture is tested on model systems consisting of hard disks in two dimensions and hard spheres in three dimensions. The diameters of the configuration spaces for increasing numbers of disks/spheres are measured using both the diffusion distance and the mixing time. It is observed that as the number of disks/spheres increases, discontinuities in the diameter of the configuration spaces occur at packing fractions that approach the values reported in the literature for the solidliquid phase transitions. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 1:06PM  1:18PM 
B08.00009: Statistics of complex Wigner time delays as a counter of Smatrix poles: Theory and Experiment Lei Chen, Yan V Fyodorov, Steven M Anlage We study the statistical properties of the complex generalization of Wigner time delay τ_{W} for subunitary wave chaotic scattering systems. We first demonstrate theoretically that the mean value of the Re[τ_{W}] distribution function for a system with uniform absorption strength η is equal to the fraction of scattering matrix poles with imaginary parts exceeding η. The theory is tested experimentally with an ensemble of microwave networks with either one or two scattering channels, and showing broken timereversal invariance and variable uniform attenuation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the developed theory. The tails of the distributions of both real and imaginary time delay are measured and are also found to agree with theory. The results are applicable to any practical realization of a wave chaotic scattering system in the shortwavelength limit, including quantum wires and dots, acoustic and electromagnetic resonators, and quantum graphs. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 1:18PM  1:30PM 
B08.00010: A mechanistic explanation for the emergence of Laplacian growth rates in complex systems Huixin Zhang, Sean P Corneilus The state of a complex system is rarely stationary, often exhibiting large, seemingly erratic fluctuations. Nonetheless, observational studies of diverse systems have uncovered striking regularity in this randomness, finding that the growth rates of many real systems follow a universal Laplace (or "double exponential") distribution, characterized by heavier tails than a normal distribution. Here, we present a mechanistic explanation for this universal phenomenon. We show that the Laplacian growth statistics emerge from the interplay between multistability and noise, which can result in frequent transitions between attraction basins in a nonlinear system. This broadens the tail of the growth rate distribution as the possibility of extreme cases increases. We find that the exact shape of the fluctuation distribution is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity in network topology. Our results unveil the network characteristics that can control the frequency of transitions, potentially offering ways to predict the functioning of ecosystems, and guiding the design of technological systems tolerant to perturbations. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 1:30PM  1:42PM 
B08.00011: Threestate Majorityvote Model on Smallworld Networks Andre L M. Vilela, Bernardo J Zubillaga, Minggang Wang, Ruijin Du, Gaogao Dong, H E Stanley In this work, we study the opinion dynamics of the threestate majorityvote model on smallworld networks of social interactions. In the majorityvote dynamics, an individual adopts the opinion of the majority of its neighbors with probability 1  q, and a different opinion with chance q, where q stands for the noise parameter. The noise q acts as a social temperature, inducing dissent among individual opinions. With probability p, we rewire the connections of the twodimensional square lattice network, allowing longrange interactions in the society, thus yielding the smallworld property present in many different realworld systems. We investigate the degree distribution, average clustering coefficient and shortest path length to characterize the topology of the rewired networks of social interactions. By employing Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the secondorder phase transition of the threestate majorityvote dynamics, and obtain the critical noise, as well as the standard critical exponents β/ν, γ/ν, and 1/ν for several values of the rewiring probability p. We conclude that the rewiring of the lattice enhances the social order in the system and drives the model to different universality classes from that of the threestate majorityvote model in square lattices. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 1:42PM  1:54PM 
B08.00012: Statistical Mechanics of Residential Segregation Boris Barron, Yunus A Kinkhabwala, Chris Hess, Matthew Hall, Itai Cohen, Tomas A Arias Few problems are more complex than those concerned with human systems. Humans make decisions based on historical trends and whims, may be entirely idiosyncratic, and cannot be trusted to provide honest justification for their decisions. Residential segregation is an excellent illustration of such a problem that is of historical importance and continual equity concern, yet one which can be addressed due to the myriad of publicly available data. Here we demonstrate how traditional demographic approaches, which aim to measure the amount of segregation, are encompassed in statistical mechanics. Furthermore, inspired by densityfunctional theory, we quantify coarsegrained interactions among various racial/ethnic groups from neighborhood compositions taken at a particular instant in time. These interactions can be used to both generalize traditional demographic approaches, allowing the capture of segregation behavior, while also generating novel neighborhoodlevel forecasts of racial/ethnic compositions. 
Monday, March 14, 2022 1:54PM  2:06PM 
B08.00013: Twodimensional wave scattering from a cylindrical obstacle in an incompressible prestressed nonlinear elastic media Claudio Falcon, Miguel Letelier We develop a series expansion approach to the scattering coefficients of transverse elastic waves from a cylindrical obstacle as they propagate through an incompressible prestressed nonlinear elastic material. Popular neoHookean and Mooney–Rivlin strain energy functions are considered for the elastic material, and rigid or hollow cylinders are considered as obstaclers. From the static configuration, a smallonlarge approach is constructed via a series expansion of the wave equation inhomogeneous coefficients which allows to compute both the scattered wave and the induced pressure field, and their dependence on the applied prestress. In the far field limit, the prestress effect on the scattering coeffiecients is calculated via the scattered wave decomposition in partial waves. The formalism can be expanded to include threedimensional media with different obstacle symmetries. 
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