Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2011
Volume 56, Number 1
Monday–Friday, March 21–25, 2011; Dallas, Texas
Session J27: Focus Session: Quantum Optics with Superconducting Circuits II |
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Sponsoring Units: GQI Chair: David Schuster, University of Chicago Room: C155 |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 11:15AM - 11:51AM |
J27.00001: Tomography and Correlation Function Measurements of Itinerant Microwave Photons Invited Speaker: At optical frequencies the radiation produced by a source, such as a laser, a black body or a single-photon emitter, is frequently characterized by analysing the temporal correlations of emitted photons using single-photon counters. At microwave frequencies, however, there are no efficient single-photon counters yet. Instead, well-developed linear amplifiers allow for efficient measurement of the amplitude of an electromagnetic field. Here, we demonstrate first- and second-order correlation function measurements of a pulsed microwave-frequency single-photon source integrated on the same chip with a 50/50 beam splitter followed by linear amplifiers and quadrature amplitude detectors [1]. We clearly observe single-photon coherence in first-order and photon antibunching in second-order correlation function measurements of the propagating fields [2]. We also present first measurements in which we reconstruct the Wigner function of itinerant single photon Fock states and their superposition with the vacuum. To perform these measurements we have developed efficient methods to separate the detected single photon signal from the noise added by the amplifier by analyzing the moments of the measured amplitude distribution up to 4th order. The techniques and methods demonstrated in this work may find application in quantum optics and quantum information processing experiments at microwave frequencies.\\[4pt] [1] M.~P.~da~Silva, D.~Bozyigit, A.~Wallraff, and A.~Blais, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043804 (2010)\\[0pt] [2] D.~Bozyigit, C.~Lang, L.~Steffen, J.~M.~Fink, C.~Eichler, M.~Baur, R.~Bianchetti, P.~J.~Leek, S.~Filipp, M.~P.~da~Silva, A.~Blais, and A.~Wallraff, Nat. Phys. in print (2010), also arXiv:1002.3738 [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 11:51AM - 12:03PM |
J27.00002: An integrated circuit for generating distributable and unconditional entanglement at microwave frequencies Hsiang-Sheng Ku, Francois Mallet, William F. Kindel, Konrad W. Lehnert, Kent D. Irwin, Gene C. Hilton, Leila R. Vale, Emanuel Knill, Scott C. Glancy Entanglement, the unique feature of quantum mechanics, is the central resource of quantum information. In the strategy of continuous-variables quantum information processing, unconditional and distributable entanglement can be obtained by combining two squeezed states on a balanced beam splitter. Our group has recently demonstrated the generation of squeezed microwave states using a Josephson Parametric Amplifier [1] and implemented on-chip balanced beam splitters [2]. This talk will present a device that combines all these components on a single chip. The design requirements for such an ``on-chip entangler'' of the electromagnetic field modes will be discussed. \\[4pt] [1] M. A. Castellanos-Beltran et al, Nature Physics, 4, 929 (2008). \\[0pt] [2] Hsiang-Sheng Ku et al, arXiv:1010.3232v1 [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 12:03PM - 12:15PM |
J27.00003: Measuring on-chip distributable and unconditional entanglement at microwave frequencies Francois Mallet, Hsiang-Sheng Ku, Will Kindel, Scott Glancy, Emanuel Knill, Kent D. Irwin, Gene C. Hilton, Leila R. Vale, Konrad W. Lehnert A squeezed mode of the light field exhibits reduced fluctuations, below the vacuum level, along one of its quadratures and conversely amplified fluctuations along the conjugate quadrature. In that sense, it is the electromagnetic analog of the particle states used by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen to derive their famous paradox. Indeed, by combining two such squeezed modes on a balanced beam splitter, entanglement can be generated, in an unconditional and distributable way. Such experiments have been performed for some years at optical frequencies. This talk will present an experimental attempt to generate and characterize entanglement with squeezed light at microwaves frequencies, using superconducting electrical circuits. We will discuss the achieved degree of entanglement from the perspective of implementing quantum teleportation protocols at microwave frequencies. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 12:15PM - 12:27PM |
J27.00004: Observation of photon blockade in circuit QED using second-order correlation function measurements C. Lang, D. Bozyigit, C. Eichler, L. Steffen, J.M. Fink, A.A. Abdumalikov Jr., M. Baur, S. Filipp, A. Wallraff Circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) provides an attractive platform to effectively study photon-photon interactions mediated by their strong and resonant coupling to a superconducting qubit embedded into a transmission line resonator. Driving the coupled system with a coherent microwave frequency tone the anharmonicity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder blocks the transmission of more than a single photon through the resonator at a time. Using on-chip microwave beam splitters, linear amplifiers, and quadrature amplitude detectors we observe fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering in Mollow-triplet-like spectra. We investigate the phenomenon of photon blockade in second-order correlation function measurements which show antibunching and signatures of Rabi oscillations induced by the continuous drive coupling the ground and first excited states of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 12:27PM - 12:39PM |
J27.00005: Generation and reconstruction of two mode squeezed states in the microwave domain Christopher Eichler, Deniz Bozyigit, Christian Lang, Matthias Baur, Lars Steffen, Johannes Fink, Stefan Filipp, Andreas Wallraff Squeezing between two radiation field modes at optical frequencies has already been used to realize various quantum information processing tasks such as teleportation and quantum key distribution. Here we present measurements at microwave frequencies in which we generate and reconstruct a two mode squeezed state in a circuit QED setup. We prepare the desired state with a Josephson parametric amplifier and detect all four quadrature components simultaneously in a two channel heterodyne setup using amplitude detectors. Recording two dimensional phase space histograms for all possible pairs of quadratures allows for the reconstruction of the full covariance matrix and the four dimensional Wigner function of the squeezed state which shows strong correlations between the quadrature noise in the two modes. Combining parametric amplifier devices in networks with beamsplitters and superconducting qubits could allow for future linear optics quantum computation with propagating microwave photons. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 12:39PM - 12:51PM |
J27.00006: Using Superconducting Qubit Circuits to Engineer Exotic Lattice Systems Dimitris Tsomokos, Sahel Ashhab, Franco Nori We propose an architecture based on superconducting qubits and resonators for the implementation of a variety of exotic lattice systems, such as spin and Hubbard models in higher or fractal dimensions and higher-genus topologies. Spin systems are realized naturally using qubits, while superconducting resonators can be used for the realization of Bose-Hubbard models. Fundamental requirements for these designs, such as controllable interactions between arbitrary qubit pairs, have recently been implemented in the laboratory, rendering our proposals feasible with current technology. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 12:51PM - 1:03PM |
J27.00007: Microwave Cavity Lattices for Simulating Condensed Matter Systems Devin Underwood, Arthur Safira, Srikanth Srinivasan, Anthony Hoffman, Jens Koch, Andrew Houck Recently, quantum phase transitions of light have been the focus of much theoretical attention. One possible experimental realization relies upon the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture (cQED); however, in order for this to be successful, coupled arrays of superconducting resonators must first be realized with low disorder. Here we fabricate and characterize an array with low disorder consisting of 12 niobium resonators on a sapphire substrate in a honeycomb pattern with the photonic lattice sites forming a Kagome star. The structure is characterized by measuring transmission through different input-output port pairs and by varying the hopping rate between resonators. A family of resonant peaks corresponding to the various modes of the coupled array is identifiable and agrees well with both a tight-binding Hamiltonian and simulations from a commercial microwave software package. These experiments are an important step in realizing strongly correlated interactions in cQED. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 1:03PM - 1:15PM |
J27.00008: Synthetic gauge fields in Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard ring lattices Andreas Nunnenkamp, Jens Koch, Steven Girvin Recently there has been much interest in many-body physics with photons in circuit-QED arrays. Here we explore the physics of a Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard ring lattice subject to a synthetic gauge field, i.e.~where the hopping terms carry a complex phase factor due to Josephson couplers between the resonators. There are critical phase twists at which the single-particle spectrum is degenerate so that even weak interactions can give rise to strong correlations. We compare to ultracold bosons in rotating ring lattices and study the out-of-equilibrium physics as relevant for current experiments. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 1:15PM - 1:27PM |
J27.00009: Multi-Resonator Circuit QED Part I: The Photon Shell Matteo Mariantoni, H. Wang, Radoslaw C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, Erik Lucero, M. Neeley, A.D. O'Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, T. Yamamoto, Y. Yin, J. Zhao, John M. Martinis, A.N. Cleland The generation and control of quantum states of light constitute fundamental tasks in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The superconducting realization of cavity QED, circuit QED, enables on-chip microwave photonics, where superconducting qubits control and measure individual photon states. A long-standing issue in cavity QED is the coherent transfer of photons between two or more resonators. Here, we use circuit QED to implement a three-resonator architecture on a single chip, where the resonators are interconnected by two superconducting phase qubits. We use this circuit to shuffle one- and two-photon Fock states between the three resonators, and demonstrate qubit-mediated vacuum Rabi swaps between two resonators. This illustrates the potential for using multi-resonator circuits as photon quantum registries and for creating multipartite entanglement between delocalized bosonic modes. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 1:27PM - 1:39PM |
J27.00010: Multi-resonator circuit QED - Part 2: Generation and detection of NOON states Frank Wilhelm, Seth Merkel NOON states, states between two modes of light of the form $|N,0\rangle+e^{i\phi}|0,N\rangle$ allow for super-resolution interformetry. We show how NOON states can be efficiently produced in circuit quntum electrodynamics using superconducting phase qubits and resonators. We propose a protocol where only one interaction between the two modes is required, creating all the necessary entanglement at the start of the procedure. This protocol makes active use of the first three states of the phase qubits. Additionally, we show how to efficiently verify the success of such an experiment, even for large NOON states, using randomly sampled measurements and semidefinite programming technique. This is more efficient that the full tomography implemented to-date, allowing to reliably verify higher NOON-states. Based on New J. Phys. {\bf 12}, 093036 (2010). [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 1:39PM - 1:51PM |
J27.00011: Multi-Resonator Circuit QED Part III: Two-Resonator Entanglement Haohua Wang, Matteo Mariantoni, Radoslaw C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, Erik Lucero, M. Neeley, A.D. O'Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, Y. Yin, J. Zhao, John M. Martinis, A.N. Cleland, T. Yamamoto Quantum entanglement, a defining feature of quantum mechanics, has been demonstrated in a variety of nonlinear spin-like systems. Quantum entanglement in linear systems has proven significantly more challenging, as the intrinsic energy level degeneracy associated with linearity makes quantum control more difficult. Here we demonstrate the quantum entanglement of photon states in two independent linear microwave resonators utilizing two superconducting phase qubits coupled through a band-pass resonator. After entangling two qubits into a Bell state, we demonstrate the controlled sequential photon amplification and transferring procedures, creating N quanta excitations distributed in two resonators. We completely characterize the two-resonator states with bipartite Wigner tomography and prove the existence of entanglement. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 1:51PM - 2:03PM |
J27.00012: Observation of Collective Strong Coupling between a Superconducting Resonator and Bismuth Dopants in Silicon Natania Antler, R. Vijay, Christoph Weis, Eli Levenson-Falk, Thomas Schenkel, Irfan Siddiqi All electrical readout and control of spin systems with superconducting circuitry is an attractive route for implementing hybrid quantum information processing. Isolated spins, in general, have much longer coherence times than present day superconducting qubits, and thus could be utilized as memory elements. Species with a zero-field splitting (ZFS), such as bismuth doped silicon or NV centers in diamond, are particularly attractive as the absence of a strong magnetic bias field facilitates compatibility with low loss superconducting circuitry. We present results on the interaction of a tunable superconducting resonator and an ensemble of Bi spins implanted in an epitaxial layer of 28Si. As the resonator tunes through the ZFS, we observe an avoided crossing indicative of collective strong coupling. We discuss coherence properties as a function of spin density as well as progress on the detection of a small number of spins using a dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometer. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 22, 2011 2:03PM - 2:15PM |
J27.00013: Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states Franco Nori, Sahel Ashhab We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). [Preview Abstract] |
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