Bulletin of the American Physical Society
2005 APS March Meeting
Monday–Friday, March 21–25, 2005; Los Angeles, CA
Session U3: Unconventional Electronic and Optical Uses of Negative Refractive and Negative Index Materials |
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Sponsoring Units: DCMP DAMOP Chair: Costas Soukoulis, Iowa State University Room: LACC 515B |
Thursday, March 24, 2005 8:00AM - 8:36AM |
U3.00001: Negative Refraction, Left-Handed Materials and Heterostructures in Guided Wave Electronics Using Metamaterials and Nanostructures Invited Speaker: A number of remarkable discoveries which are connected to each other have been made in the general subject area of negative refraction in guided wave structures. This triad of discoveries is (1) the unusual electromagnetic field distributions and dispersion diagrams of guided waves [1] in monolithically compatible structures containing left-handed intrinsic materials, which show electric field lines and magnetic circulation patterns never before seen; (2) heterostructure arrangements of uniaxial bicrystals [2] have been discovered to produce electromagnetic fields with asymmetric distributions in guided wave structures; (3) a frequency band exists where propagation using SRR metamaterials [3] is essential lossless. Finding (1) opens up the possibility of creating new electronic devices because of the reconfiguration of the field distributions. Finding (2), based upon the property of broken crystal symmetry of the SO(2) rotation group, offers the possibility of all electronic nonreciprocal devices, something not possible in the last fifty years because of the microwave community's reliance upon the ceramic spin precession physical operation of ferromagnetic materials. Finding (3), using the concepts of effective parameters like rescaled plasma frequencies with direct carrier density dependence removed or severely mitigated, using the associated magnetic and electric linewidths, can have miniscule loss with dispersion in a finite frequency band for the potentially highly dispersive and lossy split ring-rod assemblies employed as unit cells. The theoretical modeling is done analytically and numerically to obtain all of these results, with simulations completed in the microwave and millimeter wavelength regimes, from 5 to 105 GHz using an ab initio anisotropic Green's function solver. [1] C. M. Krowne, ``Physics of Propagation in Left-Handed Guided Wave Structures at Microwave and Millimeter Wave Frequencies,'' Phys. Rev. Letts 92, 053901, Feb. 3, 2004. [2] C. M. Krowne, ``Negative Refractive Bicrystal with Broken Symmetry Produces Asymmetric Electromagnetic Fields in Guided-Wave Heterostructures,'' Phys. Rev. Letts. 93, 053902, 29 July 2004. [3] C. M. Krowne, ``Guided Wave Propagation in Left-Handed Microstrip Structure Using Dispersive SRR Metamaterial,'' submitted PRL Aug. 2004. [Preview Abstract] |
Thursday, March 24, 2005 8:36AM - 9:12AM |
U3.00002: Nonlinear effects in left-handed metamaterials and related structures Invited Speaker: We describe a number of nonlinear effects associated with the concept of left-handed metamaterials--composite materials with simultaneously negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. First, we study transmission of electromagnetic waves through a slab of left-handed metamaterial with a hysteresis-like nonlinear response and describe two types of nonlinear effects: (i) nonlinearity-induced suppression of the wave transmission when an initially transparent left-handed material becomes opaque with the growth of the input wave amplitude, and (ii) nonlinearity-induced transparency of the slab when an initially opaque composite material becomes left-handed (and, therefore, transparent) when the input wave amplitude is increased. We demonstrate, with the help of the finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations, that the nonlinearity-induced wave transmission through an opaque slab is accompanied by the development of modulational instability and the generation of spatiotemporal solitons. Next, we analyze the structure of guided waves supported by a left-handed slab, and the wave transmission through periodic structures made of transparent negative-index (or left-handed) and conventional layers. In addition, we demonstrate novel unique properties of the electromagnetic crystals that include the layers of left-handed metamaterial. In particular, in a sharp contrast with all known results in the theory of wave propagation in periodic media, we demonstrate that a one-dimensional periodic structure with left-handed layers can possess, under certain conditions, a full two-and even three-dimensional spectral gap for the TE- or TM-polarized waves. In this case, the Green function characterizing radiation of a point source becomes exponentially localized in all directions because the electromagnetic radiation cannot propagate through the one-dimensional structure at any angle in the plane. [Preview Abstract] |
Thursday, March 24, 2005 9:12AM - 9:48AM |
U3.00003: Optical Bulk and Surface Waves with Negative Refraction Invited Speaker: At optical frequencies the introducing of $\mu (\omega )$ has no physical sense [1]. Using a general approach with a dielectric permittivity $\tilde {\varepsilon }(\omega ,\vec {k})$, we discuss [2] unusual optical nonlinear effects in LHMs and the possibility of seeing negative refraction for optical waves in continuous nonmagnetic media: bulk and surface waves in vicinity of exciton and optical phonon resonances where additional polariton waves [3] have a negative group velocity. The dispersion of surface waves can be engineered by tailoring a surface transition layer [4] to obtain surface waves with negative group velocity. We discuss also a negative refraction in anisotropic transparent media. 1. L.D.Landau, E.L. Lifshits, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, Pergamon Press,1984. 2. V.M. Agranovich, Y.R. Shen, R.H.Baughman, A.A. Zakhidov, Phys. Rev. B 69 (2004) 165112; Journal of Lumin., December (2004). 3. V.M. Agranovich, V.L. Ginzburg, Crystal Optics with Spatial Dispersion, and Excitons, Springer, 1984. 4. V.M. Agranovich, T.A. Leskova, Progress in Surface Science, 29 (1988) 169. [Preview Abstract] |
Thursday, March 24, 2005 9:48AM - 10:24AM |
U3.00004: Bicrystals Allow Negative and Total Refraction of Electronic and Optical Waves Invited Speaker: Recently the so-called left-handed medium (LHM)[1,2] has attracted a great deal of interest primarily for these two reasons: one is that a LHM, when interfaced with a matched right-handed medium (RHM), is able to show an interesting phenomenon -- total and negative refraction of light[2], which is generally believed not possible if only the RHMs are involved; and the other one is the that such total and negative refraction may lead to a very exciting application -- superlensing[3]. Negative refraction or bending has indeed been experimentally demonstrated in a number of ways, but it is typically limited in the spectral region of the microwave and with significant loss[4]. Furthermore, it has now been realized that superlensing can at best be realized under certain extreme conditions. Thus, realistically, what a LHM can offer is a subwavelength resolution[4], which is nevertheless readily achievable using a RHM (e.g., a so-called solid-immersion lens)[5]. One would like to ask: can the phenomenon of total and negative refraction be achieved without using a LHM? Besides the subwavelength resolution, are there any other novel applications for this phenomenon? We will firstly compare different approaches that have been used or proposed for achieving total and negative refraction in terms of their underlying physical mechanisms, then, focus on its realization in a bi-crystal structure[6]. In the bi-crystal approach, none of the components of the permittivity (\textbf{$\varepsilon $}) and permeability\textbf{ ($\mu $}) tensors is required to be negative. The effect relies purely on the dielectric anisotropy in anisotropic RHMs. This approach has offered an experimental demonstration of negative refraction yet with negligible (extrinsic) loss, and it is in principle applicable for any frequency of electromagnetic waves and even for ballistic electrons in semiconductors. A few interesting applications will be discussed for both electrons and light. [1].V. M. Agranovich and V. L. Ginzburg, \textit{Spatial dispersion in crystal optics and the theory of excitons}(1966);V. M. Agranovich, et al., PRB\textbf{69},165112(2004). [2]V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp.\textbf{10},509(1968). [3]J. B. Pendry, PRL\textbf{85},3966(2000). [4]J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, Physics Today\textbf{57},37(2004). [5]I. Ichimura, et al., Appl. Opt.\textbf{36},4339(1997). [6]Y. Zhang, et al., PRL\textbf{91},157404(2003). [Preview Abstract] |
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