Bulletin of the American Physical Society
62nd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics
Volume 65, Number 11
Monday–Friday, November 9–13, 2020; Remote; Time Zone: Central Standard Time, USA
Session NP12: Poster Session: Fundamental Plasmas: Computation (9:30am  12:30pm)On Demand

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NP12.00001: Simulating threewave interactions on quantum computers Yuan Shi Quantum computing may lead to gamechanging capabilities for plasma physics. However, plasmas are usually considered classical, and exactly how quantum systems can be used to solve plasma problems remains an open question. Moreover, many problems in plasma physics are nonlinear, whereas quantum computers are designed to carry out unitary evolution in Hilbert space, which is fundamentally linear. In this invited talk, we overcome these difficulties and present the first results using real quantum hardware to simulate nonlinear threewave problems. First, a generally applicable algorithm is derived, which decomposes the Hilbert space into a direct sum of finitedimensional subspaces. Within each subspace, the nonlinear threewave problem is mapped to a tridiagonal Hamiltonian problem, which achieves effective threewave interactions even when the hardware has no native cubic coupling. Second, the algorithm is implemented on quantum hardware using both digital and analog approaches. In the digital approach, the computation is carried out using a sequence of native gates. Using two qubits on stateoftheart quantum cloud services, \textasciitilde 20 native gates are needed to approximate a single simulation step, which can then be repeated \textasciitilde 10 times before results are corrupted by decoherence. Alternatively, in the analog approach, the Hamiltonian evolution is realized by driving the quantum hardware with an optimized control pulse. Highfidelity results are obtained for \textasciitilde 100 threewave gate repetitions using the lowest three levels of a transmon qudit. Without expensive optimization, reliable control pulses may also be synthesized cheaply using interpolation when parameters of the Hamiltonian vary. Our results highlight the advantage of using customized gates on noisy intermediatescale quantum computers. The generalized multiwave gates are potentially useful building blocks for computing a large class of problems in plasma physics. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00002: On applications of quantum computing to plasma simulations I. Y. Dodin, E. A. Startsev Quantum computing is gaining increased attention as a potential way to speed up simulations of physical systems, and it is also of interest to apply it to simulations of classical plasmas. However, quantum information science is traditionally aimed at modeling linear Hamiltonian systems of a particular form that is found in quantum mechanics, so extending the existing results to plasma applications remains a challenge. Here, we report a preliminary exploration of the longterm opportunities and likely obstacles in this area (arXiv:2005.14369). First, we show that many plasmawave problems are naturally representable in a quantumlike form and thus are naturally fit for quantum computers. Second, we consider more general plasma problems that include nonHermitian dynamics (instabilities, irreversible dissipation) and nonlinearities. We show that by extending the configuration space, such systems can also be represented in a quantumlike form and thus can be simulated with quantum computers too, albeit that requires more computational resources compared to the first case. Third, we outline potential applications of hybrid quantumclassical computers, which include analysis of global eigenmodes and also an alternative approach to nonlinear simulations. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00003: A Quantum Algorithm for a Class of Nonlinear Differential Equations Herman Oie Kolden, JinPeng Liu, Nuno Loureiro, Andrew Childs, Konstantina Trivisa, Hari Krovi, Paola Cappellaro With modern plasma simulations requiring large computational resources, there has been a recent interest in exploring whether computational plasma physics can benefit from the specialized efficiency of quantum computers. However, the nonlinearity commonly found in plasma dynamics is an obstacle for the linear nature of quantum mechanics. Recent proposals have suggested embedding the nonlinear system in a larger and linear one, with a computational cost scaling linearly with the dimension of the original equation. Our method is based on Carleman linearization, and it scales only polylogarithmically with the dimension. Using existing quantum algorithms for linear equations, we solve a truncation of an infinitedimensional system and output a state vector encoding the solution. We prove that the method achieves arbitrary accuracy for ODEs whose nonlinearity is sufficiently weak in a specific sense, and we find numerical evidence that the method also works for the discretization of certain dissipative nonlinear PDEs. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00004: Simulating Pitch Angle Scattering Using an Explicitly Solvable Energy Conserving Algorithm Yichen Fu, Xin Zhang, Hong Qin The Langevin equation, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) equivalent to the FokkerPlank equation in describing the collisional plasma, is frequently used in particlebased simulations. For the pitch angle scattering defined by the Lorentz operator, the energy of particles is exactly conserved, whereas most SDE algorithms have large longterm energy errors that degrade the convergence of the SDE algorithms. For example, we show that the standard EulerMaruyama method, whose strong order of convergent is 1/2, does not converge for the pitch angle scattering due to the lack of global Lipschitz condition in the range of solutions. To overcome this difficulty, we design a novel explicitly solvable structurepreserving algorithm for the Langevin equation describing pitch angle scattering in a background electromagnetic field [arXiv:2006.10877]. The proposed algorithm utilizes the Cayley transform to calculate the velocity rotation, which preserves exactly the norm of velocity. Using Ito calculus, we prove that the strong order of convergent of the proposed algorithm is 1/2. The longtime accuracy of the algorithm has also been benchmarked and verified numerically. The algorithm is being applied to study the physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00005: VolumePreserving Integrators for Guiding Center Dynamics Eric Palmerduca, Hong Qin Recently, 6D structurepreserving geometric particleincell (PIC) algorithms for the VlasovMaxwell system have been successfully developed and applied. The advantages of structurepreserving geometric PIC algorithms over the conventional PIC algorithms in terms of longterm accuracy and fidelity have been amply demonstrated in recent simulations. A stable variational structurepreserving algorithm for guiding center (GC) dynamics is a muchneeded component in the development of structurepreserving geometric PIC algorithms for the gyrokinetic system. However, constructing stable symplectic algorithms for GC dynamics with an arbitrary magnetic field has proved difficult due to the degeneracy of the system's Lagrangian. Here we relax the constraint of symplecticity, and instead search for stable integrators which conserve phase space volume in a gyrokinetic system. Such a volumepreserving algorithm may still globally bound the energy error despite not being symplectic, and thus satisfy the needs of a structurepreserving geometric PIC code. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00006: Full Wave Simulations of Shear Alfven Wave propagation in the LAPD using PetraM Kunal Sanwalka, Jeffrey Robertson, Stephen Vincena, Syun'ichi Shiraiwa, Nicola Bertelli, John Wright, Troy Carter Shear Alfven waves (SAWs) are simulated in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) using the full wave, finite element method solver PetraM [1]. PetraM allows us to study wave propagation using realistic experimental conditions including CADbased antenna and vacuum vessel geometry, along with experimentally relevant density and magnetic field profiles under the cold twofluid plasma approximation. PetraM simulations have been verified against analytic models and other simulation approaches, showing good agreement. Validation of PetraM results have been carried out through comparisons with experimental measurements of Alfven wave characteristics in LAPD. PetraM is being applied to understand the propagation of SAWs into axial gradients of the Alfven speed [2], and generation and propagation of SAWs in multiion species plasmas [3]. 1.Shiraiwa, S. et. al. “RF wave simulation for cold edge plasmas using the MFEM library,” EPJ Web Conf. 157, 03048 (2017) 2.Bose, S. et al. “Measured Reduction in Alfven Wave Energy Propagating through Longitudinal Gradients Scaled to Match Solar Coronal Holes,” The Astrophysical Journal 882, 183 (2019) 3.J. Robertson et. al. “Propagation of shear Alfven waves in a twoion plasma and application as a diagnostic for the ion density ratio,” accepted in JPP [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00007: Noise and error analysis and optimization in particlebased kinetic plasma simulations Evstati Evstatiev, John Finn, Bradley Shadwick, Nick Hengartner In high fidelity kinetic particle simulations numerical noise and error are of primary concern. We address minimizing that error in 1D electrostatic models. We use kernel density estimation for continuous x, with separate kernel shape and width W. The covariance matrix of the noise is computed. We note the presence of constant negative entries related to fixing the number of particles. We study the effect of these correlations on the electric field E(x) computed by Gauss’s law and find an analogy to the OrnsteinUhlenbeck bridge, leading to a covariance matrix that is reduced relative to a Brownian process. For nonconstant density we analyze the total error in terms of biasvariance optimization (BVO). We repeat the analysis on a grid, where the charge deposition rule is determined by a particle shape. An important property is the exact preservation of charge on the grid to ensure the equality of E(x) at the ends. We find that a particle shape satisfying a sum rule (SR) leads to charge conservation. If the particle shape is the convolution of a kernel with a second kernel (or finite element) satisfying SR, the particle shape obeys SR. This also holds for kernels of width not a multiple of the grid spacing. We do BVO numerically as a function of W, finding agreement with theory. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00008: Plasma simulations with a domainhybridized model I. A. M. Datta, U. Shumlak Highfidelity simulations of plasma dynamics can involve various mathematical formulations, including the single fluid magnetohydrodynamic model, the multispecies (electrons, ions, and neutrals) 5$N$Moment fluid model, and the continuum kinetic model. While it is common for simulations to use a single formulation to study the plasma dynamics, local plasma properties such as the degree of magnetization, charge separation, and collisionality can make certain formulations more appropriate than others in different regions of a simulation domain. Examples include fluid simulations involving sheaths where kinetic effects become important. The goal of this work is to combine these models in a single domaindecomposed hybrid model where multiple formulations are used in a single simulation. The work focuses on development of the interface boundary conditions between formulations and determination of the parameter regimes most appropriate for each to maintain sufficient physical fidelity over the whole domain while minimizing computational expense. The WARPXM framework developed at the University of Washington which implements these formulations using a discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization on unstructured meshes is being used to develop the domaindecomposed hybrid model. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00009: A general metriplectic framework: application to dissipative extended MHD Baptiste Coquinot, Philip J. Morrison We discuss the metriplectic framework, a generalization of the Hamiltonian framework that includes dissipation [1]. Results and methods of this framework and applications to plasma physics will be given. General equations for conservative yet dissipative (entropy producing) extended magnetohydrodynamics (XMHD) are derived from twofluid theory. Keeping all terms generates unusual crosseffects, such as thermophoresis and a current viscosity that mixes with the usual velocity viscosity. Starting from the known Poisson bracket for the ideal version of this model, we determine its metriplectic counterpart that describes the dissipation. This is done using a new and general thermodynamic point of view for deriving dissipative brackets, a means of derivation that is natural for understanding and creating dissipative brackets. This new method is an important step for the metriplectic framework since it systematically generates the brackets of a large class of physical systems. Finally the formalism is used to study dissipation in the Lagrangian variable picture where, in the context of extended magnetohydrodynamics, nonlocal dissipative brackets naturally emerge.\\ [1][1] B. Coquinot & P. J. Morrison, J. Plasma Phys. {\bf 86}, 835860302 (2020). [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00010: Abstract Withdrawn


NP12.00011: Plasma modeling techniques from Mirnov coils measurements. Review. Andrés Orduña Martínez, Martín de Jesús Nieto Pérez A review on current techniques for plasma modeling in magnetic confinement devices given Mirnov coils measurements is presented. Parameters such as main plasma current position estimation, confinement quality, boundary transport, plasma growth rate among others can be estimated by means of Mirnov coil measurements. A description of the current techniques is presented as well as their applications and main features. On the other hand, prospective data driven techniques for estimation and even prediction of some of these parameters is discussed. This work is part of a master thesis project which aim is to evaluate current fluctuations in a magnetic confinement device using a Mirnov coil array. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00012: Twofluid simulations of driftAlfven instability associated with turbulence in high beta plasmas using the BOUT$++$ code for the newly upgraded Large Plasma Device Byonghoon Seo, Troy Carter We present results from numerical simulations using the BOUT$++$ code, which is a 3D, fluid simulation developed for studying plasma instabilities and turbulence[1]. The simulations were executed in the condition of the Large Plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA involving electromagnetic contribution and high beta regimes where beta \textgreater 0.1, a ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. The high beta regimes are relevant to the newly upgraded LAPD with a new LaB6 cathode in addition to the existing LaB6 cathode so as to have accessibility to a wider range of plasma betas in a laboratory plasma. This work would not only extend the previous work that was performed in the low beta, electrostatic condition[2] but also explore how drift waves couple to Alfven waves in the high beta, electromagnetic condition and provide a new window that could potentially be observed in the newly upgraded LAPD. In addition, results obtained in the regime where a crossfield shear flow is driven by externally biasing will be discussed in the regimes. [1] M.V. Umansky, et. al., Computer Physics Communication, 180, 887903 (2009) [2] P. Popovich, et. al., Physics of Plasmas, 17, 122312, (2010) Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is funded by the US DoE and NSF [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00013: Progress on the Vorpal Exascale Transition Benjamin Cowan, Sergey Averkin, Jarrod Leddy, Jared Popelar, Scott Sides, Ilya Zilberter, John Cary The highly performant, flexible plasma simulation code VSim was designed nearly 20 years ago (originally as Vorpal), with its first applications roughly four years later. Using object oriented methods, VSim was designed to allow runtime selection from multiple field solvers, particle dynamics, and reactions. It has been successful in modeling for many areas of physics, including fusion plasmas, particle accelerators, microwave devices, and RF and dielectric structures. Now it is critical to move to exascale systems, with their compute accelerator architectures, massive threading, and advanced instruction sets. Here we discuss how we are moving this complex, multiphysics computational application to the new computing paradigm, and how it is done in a way that kept the application producing physics during the move. Recently, we added particle push and current deposition implementations in our new framework, completing the PIC loop. We present performance results for these new features, as well as field updates and reactions. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00014: Adaptive Timestepping Schemes for Plasma Systems Andrew Ho, Uri Shumlak Many techniques for modeling complex plasma systems are difficult to properly characterize mathematically. This has implications for modeling these systems numerically as choosing a suitable timestep is important for balancing computational costs and stability/accuracy of the numerical model. This research investigates methods for characterizing the stability of the ideal twofluid plasma model, and highlights a few challenges associated with mixed hyperbolicreaction systems of PDE's. Control systems which can balance the stability requirements and accuracy of the method are presented. These techniques are then applied to investigate the behavior of a mixed potential formulation of Maxwell's equations coupled with the two fluid plasma model. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00015: VolumeofFluid Representation of Multifluid Compressible Hydrodynamics in the FLASH Code Adam Reyes, Petros Tzeferacos, John Grove, Edward Hansen, David Michta, Klaus Weide, Don Lamb We present an implementation of the VolumeofFluid (VOF) method to model multiple immiscible compressible fluid species within FLASH. FLASH is a highly capable, parallel, adaptive mesh refinement, finitevolume Eulerian hydrodynamics and MHD code with extended physics capabilities. FLASH assumes a Dalton mix of the species within each computational cell, and advects the corresponding mass fractions with the flow, resulting in the mixing of species across contact discontinuities. In VOF species are assumed to occupy distinct volumes whose interfaces may cut the computational cells and are assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium with a single velocity field shared by all species. Special care needs to be taken to allow for the compressibility of the different species, but allows for the modelling of shocks and discontinuities in the flow, maintaining sharp interfaces between species even at contact discontinuities. We highlight the capabilities of this VOF implementation in FLASH for simple gamma law equations of state (EOS); the formulation is readily extended to tabulated EOS for simulations of high energy density physics and laser driven experiments. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00016: A SemiLagrangian 1D2P Algorithm for FastElectron Transport in the Relativistic VlasovFokkerPlanck Equation Don Daniel, Luis Chacon, William Taitano In tokamaks, electrons may traverse orbits at much faster time scales than collisional ones. Accurate modeling of orbit dynamics beyond collisional timescales is essential to model runaway dynamics in tokamaks. Common strategies to deal with this scale separation that are based on bounce averaging, are not generalizable to arbitrary magnetic field configurations. In addition, they also fail when collisional and drift scales are comparable. In this study, we use a semiLagrangian scheme to bridge these disparities in scales. The approach reformulates the Vlasov equation as an integrodifferential operator using Green's functions, and then selectively approximates the integrals and uses operator splitting to make the method tractable. The proposed 1D2P treatment is scalable, firstorder accurate in time, and preserves asymptotic properties associated with the stiff equations. We will demonstrate the algorithm's ability to recover neoclassical effects in the presence of toroidal geometries. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00017: A Simple Example of Finding Nonlocal Information using the GTransform J. M. Heninger, P. J. Morrison Given a time series of the distribution function at a single location, can you determine the distribution function at other location? We present a simple example, the one dimensional Vlasov equation with quasineutrality and a Lorentzian equilibrium. First GTransform the equations of motion, then use the method of characteristics to transfer the information from the position where the time series is given to other locations, then G Transform back to the original coordinates. For this simple example, we have analytically solved for the distribution function at all positions. For more complicated situations, the procedure can be done numerically. When the equations of motion are approximate, we estimate the distance that the information can be transferred. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00018: A New Algorithm for Plasma Simulations that Exactly Conserves EnergyMomentum and Charge Alexander S. Glasser, Hong Qin Because the spacetimes of algorithms are necessarily discrete, and the Noether symmetries they model necessarily continuous, energymomentum conservation laws are generally broken in any first principles plasma simulation. In this work, we take up this central challenge of computational physics and develop an algorithm that exactly preserves Poincare and $U(1)$ symmetry. Relinquishing Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, our approach employs a new dynamical formalism for classical lattice gauge theory, in which we solve YangMillstype equations for gauge groups of reductive Cartan geometries. We investigate the applicability of this algorithm to a range of physical systems, including high energy density plasmas and astrophysical plasmas evolving under gravity in curved spacetime. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00019: Analysis of Hall Effect Thruster Environmental Interactions using Extended Convergent Cross Mapping Cesar Huerta, Daniel Eckhardt, Robert Martin, Justin Koo Although Halleffect thrusters are a widely used form of space propulsion, many details of their operational behavior are not well understood. Studying the relationship between timevarying measurements at different locations in and around the HET can reveal the causal links between the discharge and cage currents and how the ground facility may be coupled to thruster operation, for example. Determining causality in a nonlinear dynamical system can be accomplished with Convergent Cross Mapping, which uses reconstructions of a signal by way of shadow manifolds of another signal to determine causality \footnote{Sugihara et al. Science 2012}. Extended convergent cross mapping resolves the direction of causality by sweeping across a range of time delays, seeking a characteristic delay between the signals. Hence, if $X$ causes $Y$, $Y$ cross maps $X$ with a negative delay since information of $Y(t)$ is encoded in $X$'s past. In this work, eCCM is applied to HET simulations and experimental measurements. For the simulations, eCCM is applied at different input voltages to show the effects of operational parameters on information dynamics. eCCM results of measurements in nominal and breathing are used to construct a causality network map to visualize information flow in the system. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00020: Progress on an energyconserving, asymptoticpreserving orbit integrator for implicit PIC simulations of arbitrarily magnetized plasmas Lee Ricketson, Luis Chacón, Guangye Chen We build on previous work [1], which developed an implicit, asymptotic preserving (AP) timeintegrator for charged particle motion that (a) correctly recovers guiding center motion when stepping over the gyroperiod, (b) converges to fullorbit motion in the small timestep limit, and (c) conserves energy exactly.~ We extend the scheme to additionally capture the finite Larmor radius effects that appear in many applications.~ This is done by alternating large and small timesteps in a coordinated fashion.~ New restrictions on timestep size are derived, which leads to an adaptive timestepping strategy.~ Results from simple test problems verify the AP behavior and strict conservation properties.~ Finally, we report on progress in implementing the new method in an implicit PIC scheme [2].~ ~ [1] L.F. Ricketson, and L. Chac\'{o}n. Journal of Computational Physics (2020): 109639. [2] G. Chen, L. Chac\'{o}n, and D.C. Barnes. Journal of Computational Physics 230.18 (2011): 70187036. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00021: Fast and rigorous gridbased verification for particleincell methods in multiple dimensions Paul Tranquilli, Lee Ricketson, Luis Chacón Particleincell (PIC) methods are a critical tool for the computer simulation of plasmas.~ As important as obtaining a solution is to assess confidence in the solution's accuracy.~ Historically, PIC schemes have been validated via analytical solutions for very simple problems, codetocode comparisons, or the identification of specific solution features.~ However, as the size and complexity of both the PIC implementation and the hardware on which they run increases, a more rigorous framework is necessary.~ The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a standard, and well understood, approach for verifying codes for the solution of partial differential equations, which appears to have limited applicability to PIC codes due to the use of particles to represent a continuous probability distribution function (PDF).~ Here, we present a mathematically rigorous MMSbased verification approach for PIC methods. Unlike earlier proposed MMS approaches [1], which required estimating errors on the PDF, our approach only requires errors computed from grid quantities, avoiding the need to estimate errors in the PDF entirely.~ We also find  both analytically and empirically  that the particle sampling error scales differently for different field quantities in the manufactured solution context.~ This observation guides our choice of convergence metric.~ The new method has the advantage of being relatively low cost, avoiding unnecessary implementation overhead and unwieldy statistical metrics. We will demonstrate the approach with numerical experiments. ~ [1] Riva et al, Phys. Plasmas (2017) [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00022: The ZPIC educational code suite Ricardo Fonseca, Anton Helm, Bernardo Malaca, Miguel Pardal, Jorge Vieira, Luis O. Silva ParticleinCell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. ZPIC includes a set 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes (with both finite difference and spectral field solvers), as well as 1D electrostatic. To improve performance, we wrote the core of the codes is in C (C99) and developed a complete interface for Python using Cython. In this paper we will discuss the implementation of this interface and focus on the use of the code in Python environments, including its use in Python / Jupyter notebooks. The distribution includes welldocumented notebooks with example problems, that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms and including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the notebooks comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on \textbf{GitHub} at https://github.com/ricardo.fonseca/zpic [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00023: PlasmaPy as an educational resource David Schaffner, E.T. Everson, D. Stańczak, S. Vincena, B. Maruca, N.A. Murphy As a software ecosystem, the PlasmaPy Project aims to incorporate a multitude of educational resources for the plasma community in addition to developing an open source Python package for plasma physics research. Potential educational resources include: 1) extensive documentation for diagnostic analysis tools that go beyond code function and aim to clearly explain how such diagnostics operate, 2) a suite of Jupyter notebooks that introduce plasma concepts using functionality from PlasmaPy, and 3) development of PlasmaPybased code and tools for incorporation into undergraduate laboratory curricula. Many of these educational elements will be designed with an eye toward expanding the pipeline of students into plasma physics careers, with resources aimed at introducing students to both plasma concepts and software best practices at graduate, undergraduate and even high school levels. In this poster, we will discuss current capabilities and future plans for using PlasmaPy as an educational resource. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00024: The PlasmaPy Project: Building an open source software ecosystem for plasma science E. T. Everson, D. Sta\'nczak, N. A. Murphy, J. P. Beckers, K. Bryant, S. Fordin, P. Heuer, F. Khan, P. M. Kozlowski, S. J. Langendorf, A. J. Leonard, R. Malhotra, B. Maruca, S. J. Mumford, T. N. Parashar, D. Schaffner, D. Stansby, F. Tamboli, R. Qudsi, T. Varnish, S. Vincena The mission of the PlasmaPy Project is to grow an open source software ecosystem for plasma research and education. A software ecosystem is a collection of software projects that are developed and coevolve in the same environment. The PlasmaPy package is being developed to contain the functionality needed by most plasma scientists. Affiliated or addon packages will provide more specialized functionality. While the PlasmaPy package is the cornerstone of this effort, the project has the overarching goals of fostering a community of active users and contributors, creating educational resources, and improving interoperability between open source packages. This poster will provide an opportunity to talk with members of the PlasmaPy community about both the package and the project as a whole. [Preview Abstract] 

NP12.00025: How to Contribute to an Open Source Project Such as PlasmaPy N. A. Murphy, E. T. Everson, D. Sta\'nczak This presentation will describe how to contribute to an open source scientific software project, using PlasmaPy as an example. We will describe the necessary steps to contribute code, documentation, and tests using git and GitHub: forking and cloning a repository, creating a branch, and making a request for the upstream repository to pull in your change. The pull request then undergoes code review before being accepted. Contributions of new code generally also require documentation and tests. Finally, we will discuss ways to contribute an open source project besides code: by creating and using educational resources, participating in community discussions, organizing events, providing constructive code reviews, and supporting new members of the community as they make their first contributions. [Preview Abstract] 
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