Bulletin of the American Physical Society
51st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Volume 65, Number 4
Monday–Friday, June 1–5, 2020; Portland, Oregon
Session D07: Atom InterferometersLive

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Chair: Paul Hamilton, University of California at Los Angeles Room: E145146 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 2:00PM  2:12PM Live 
D07.00001: Rotation Sensing with a Trapped Barium Ion Randy Putnam, Adam West, Wes Campbell, Paul Hamilton We present progress toward a trapped ion gyroscope [1]. We perform Ramsey interferometry between Zeeman states of a $^{138}$Ba$^+$ ion using a modified version of the spindependent kicks technique [2]. Rotation of the apparatus at rate $\Omega$ during the interferometer sequence produces a Sagnac phase: $\Phi=\frac{4\pi E}{hc^2}(N\vec{A})\cdot \vec{\Omega}$, with $E=mc^2$ the particle energy and $N\vec{A}$ the interferometer's effective area. Ions provide a $10^{11}$ increase in particle energy compared to photons and together with the ability for ions to orbit many times ($N$) in the trap, we will reach sensitivities comparable to commercially available gyros \sim1$ \mu$rad s$^{1}$Hz$^{1/2}$. A recent study of systematics shows the feasibility of the technique [3]. We show ultrafast coherent control of a Zeeman qubit using a 36 W modelocked Nd:YAG laser with 76 MHz rep rate, performing both Rabi and Ramsey experiments using two orthogonal Raman beams which allows us to impart momentum on the ion. We are currently working towards freeoscillation interferometry.\\ $[1]$ W. C. Campbell and P. Hamilton, J. Phys. B. 50, 064002 (2017)\\ $[2]$ J. Mizrahi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203001 (2013)\\ $[3]$ A. West, Phys. Rev. A 100, 063622 (2019) [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 2:12PM  2:24PM Live 
D07.00002: Simultaneous MultiAxis Inertial Sensing with Compact Point Source Atom Interferometry Azure Hansen, YunJhih Chen, Elizabeth A. Donley, John E. Kitching Pointsource atom interferometry (PSI) makes use of the thermal velocity distribution in a cloud of cold atoms to measure two axes of rotation and one axis of acceleration in a single measurement run. With a simpler experimental implementation than typical atom interferometer gyroscopes, PSI has potential as a compact instrument in resilient positioning and navigation. Given the limited expansion time in a centimeterscale PSI system, such measurements are typically done outside the pointsource limit. The gyroscope scale factor therefore depends on the initial and final cold atom cloud sizes and shapes and their stability over time. Here we characterize the biases and challenges specific to compact systems and methods to overcome them. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 2:24PM  2:36PM Live 
D07.00003: \textbf{Entanglement Enhanced Matterwave Interferometry} Matthew N. Chow, Bethany J. Little, L. Paul Parazzoli, Jonathan E. Bainbridge, Brandon P. Ruzic, Constantin Brif, Grant Biedermann Matterwave interferometers have become leading platforms for inertial and gravitational sensing. As these devices compete for ever greater precision, understanding and improving the limits of their sensitivity becomes paramount. We propose exploiting advances in Rydbergmediated entanglement of neutral atoms to construct a near Heisenbergscaling interferometer. We report on the experimental progress in extending the capability of our apparatus, which has previously demonstrated two atom entanglement, and discuss the impact of various error sources on the sensitivity of our interferometer. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 2:36PM  2:48PM Live 
D07.00004: Large Momentum Transfer Clock Atom Interferometry on the 689 nm Intercombination Line of Strontium Thomas Wilkason, Jan Rudolph, Megan Nantel, Hunter Swan, Connor M. Holland, Yijun Jiang, Benjamin E. Garber, Samuel P. Carman, Jason M. Hogan We report the first realization of large momentum transfer (LMT) clock atom interferometry. Using singlephoton interactions on the strontium ${}^1S_0\,  {}^3P_1$ transition, we demonstrate MachZehnder interferometers and gradiometers with stateoftheart momentum separation. Moreover, we circumvent excited state decay limitations and extend the gradiometer duration to 50 times the excited state lifetime. Due to the broad velocity acceptance of the interferometry pulses, all experiments are performed with lasercooled atoms at a temperature of $3\,\mu \text{K}$. We will discuss applications of this technique in stateoftheart gravity gradiometry and in compact and mobile inertial sensors. This work paves the way towards pursuing LMTenhanced clock atom interferometry on even narrower transitions, a key ingredient in proposals for gravitational wave detection and dark matter searches. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 2:48PM  3:00PM Live 
D07.00005: Precision GrossPitaevskii modeling of a dualSagnac interferometer Mark Edwards, Charles Henry, Stephen Thomas, Colson Sapp, Charles Clark A recent experiment$^{1}$, performed in the group of Cass Sackett, implemented a dual Sagnac interferometer for rotation sensing using a BoseEinstein condensate confined in an harmonic potential. The condensate is first split into two pieces using standingwave Bragg lasers and then allowed to fly apart until the two pieces come to a stop. These two pieces are then split again along a perpendicular direction creating two pairs of condensates moving around a circle in opposite directions. They reoverlap after one trip around the circle at which point they are split a third time and the number of stationary atoms is measured. We have simulated this experiment using a a model based on the Lagrangian Variational Method where the condensate pieces are represented by Gaussian clouds. We have mapped out the region of validity of this model by direct numerical simulation using the 3D GrossPitaevskii equation. In addition to performing simulations under experimental conditions where the number of atoms was $N=10^{4}$, we also simulated the interferometer operation for larger condensates where atomatom interactions must be accounted for. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 3:00PM  3:12PM Live 
D07.00006: MAIUSB: Towards dual species matter wave interferometry in space Baptist Piest, Wolfgang Bartosch, Jonas Böhm, Maike Lachmann, Magdalena Misslisch, Vera Vollenkemper, Thijs Wendrich, Ernst Rasel After the successful launch of the MAIUS1 mission and the first demonstration of BoseEinstein condensation and coherent matter wave manipulation in space [1] we aim for twospecies atom interferometers on the sounding rocket missions MAIUS2 and 3. The new system contains, in addition to Rb87, K41 as a second species and will utilize Raman doublediffraction enhanced beam splitters. As part of our flight preparations we have set up a test bed including the original physics package and a groundbased laser and electronics system which closely resembles the flight configuration. In our groundbased experiments we succeeded in generating BoseEinstein condensates containing more than $3\cdot 10^{5}$ Rb87 atoms and $5\cdot 10^{4}$ K41 atoms in less than 2.5 s. Recently developed laser cooling schemes like subDoppler cooling of K41 on the D1line [2] and bluedetuned magnetooptical trapping of Rb87 [3] have been proven to work efficiently on our atom chip setup giving perspectives for future space missions using compact setups. Here, we give an overview of the planned sounding rocket missions and present the current status of the ongoing experiments. [1] D. Becker et al., Nature \textbf{562}, 391 395 (2018) [2] H. Chen et al., PRA \textbf{94}, 033408 (2016) [3] K. N. Jarvis et al. PRL \textbf{120}, 083201 (2018) [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 3:12PM  3:24PM Live 
D07.00007: High DynamicRange Atom Interferometry Dimitry Yankelev, Chen Avinadav, Ofer Firstenberg, Nir Davidson Cold atom interferometers are among the most sensitive instruments for measuring inertial forces, such as gravity, gravity gradients, accelerations, and rotations. As a phase measuring instrument, the dynamic range of a single interferometer is limited to 2$\pi$ radians, and a tradeoff exists between dynamic range and sensitivity that is defined only by the experimental signaltonoise ratio. We propose and experimentally realize techniques that overcome this limitation by performing interferometric measurements with multiple scale factors, which vary between experimental cycles or within the same one. We demonstrate orders of magnitude gain in dynamic range with minimal loss of sensitivity. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 3:24PM  3:36PM On Demand 
D07.00008: Decoherence and Dynamics in a Continuous Atom Interferometer Jonathan Kwolek, Mark Bashkansky, Adam Black We present new measurements studying an atomic beam source for continuous, cold atom interferometry. The atomic beam is prepared with an offaxis twodimensional magnetooptical trap (MOT) as well as an onaxis, far detuned threedimensional moving molasses stage. This method provides a beam of atoms with temperatures comparable to pulsedatom interferometers with far less nearresonant light. We will quantify the reduction in nearresonant scattered light from the atom source by exploring decoherence and light induced phaseshift mechanisms in a simple atom interferometer. Additionally, we quantify the theoretical performance of this system as a coldatom gyroscope under platform dynamics. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 3:36PM  3:48PM On Demand 
D07.00009: Correlated inertial sensors using a single BoseEinstein condensate Matthias Gersemann, Martina Gebbe, Sven Abend, Christian Schubert, Ernst M. Rasel Atom interferometers inherently feature longterm stabilities and accuracies but can face challenging environments where they are limited by e.g. vibration noise. We introduce novel schemes for such atom interferometers exploiting the narrow momentum widths of deltakick collimated BoseEinstein condensates (BEC). An inertial sensitive measurement setup is presented combining correlated MachZehnder like atom interferometers to simultaneously measure rotations and accelerations. This geometry correlates three sets of two simultaneously operated interferometers generated from a single BEC. For each set an initial double Bragg diffraction pulse is applied to split the condensate symmetrically into two sources prior to the interferometry pulse sequence each with a nonvanishing relative motion. In this way, the interferometer is sensitive to accelerations as well as rotations. As an addition, we also present a method to increase the dynamic range by employing beam splitters with different diffraction orders in a correlated geometry. The main benefit of these dual interferometer geometries is the common rejection of vibration noise. [Preview Abstract] 
Tuesday, June 2, 2020 3:48PM  4:00PM On Demand 
D07.00010: Optimal Robust Pulses for Atomic Fountain Interferometry Michael Goerz, Paul Kunz, Mark Kasevich, Vladimir Malinovky Atomic Fountain interferometers allow for unprecedented precision in the measurement of accelerations and gravitational gradients. They enable advances in fundamental research such as tests of the equivalence principle and gravitational wave detection, as well as technological applications such as inertial navigation. The signal contrast of large area interferometers depends on the precision and robustness of the laser pulses that implement the effective atomic beamsplitter and mirrors. We numerically map the robustness of the full atom interferometer with respect to variations both in the laser intensity and in the initial velocity of the atoms in the atomic cloud, comparing the relative merits of pulse schemes based on a train of Rabi pulses, respectively on rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) with linearly chirped pulses. Building on the RAP scheme, we further use optimal control theory to modulate the laser amplitude with the goal of making the interferometer insensitive to deviations in the pulse intensity and the initial velocity distribution, demonstrating an order of magnitude improvement in the interferometer's robustness. [Preview Abstract] 
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