Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS April Meeting 2022
Volume 67, Number 6
Saturday–Tuesday, April 9–12, 2022; New York
Session Z16: Beyond Einstein Gravity: Theories, Modeling, and Tests IIIRecordings Available

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Sponsoring Units: DGRAV Chair: Tatsuya Daniel, Brown University Room: Sky Lobby 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 3:45PM  3:57PM 
Z16.00001: A morphologyindependent test of the mixed polarization content of transient gravitational wave signals Katerina Chatziioannou, Maximiliano Isi, CarlJohan O Haster, Tyson Littenberg The purely tensorial polarization content of gravitational waves is one of the fundamental predictions of General Relativity. Recent detections of compact binary mergers from groundbased detectors can be used to test this prediction. In this talk I will describe a morphologyindependent test of the polarization content of the signals. The test does not rely on knowledge of the intrinsic signal morphology, but depends only on the response of a detector network. I will also discuss results from signals GW190521 and GW170817. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 3:57PM  4:09PM 
Z16.00002: Testing Gravitational Theories with Broken Lorentz Symmetry by Gravitational Wave Observations Anzhong Wang In this talk, I shall present our recent studies on testing Einsteinaether theory by gravitational wave (GW) observations. In particular, I shall show that the GW observations and stability of black holes already reduce the four coupling constants of the theory to two, and future observations of GWs and quasinormal modes of black holes shall further reduce the parameter space of the theory. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 4:09PM  4:21PM 
Z16.00003: Improved bounds on higherorder curvature theories of gravity through gravitational wave catalogs Scott E Perkins, Remya Nair, Hector O Silva, Nicolas Yunes While Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been extremely successful at describing our observations for the past 100 years, there are a variety of alternative theories of gravity that can help solve some open problems in physics. In this search for physics beyond GR, gravitational wave astronomy is proving to be an effective tool at constraining these other theories. In this talk, I will discuss a recent work we have published in which we combined information from multiple GW sources to place tight, robust constraints on a few specific theories of gravity that involve higher order corrections to the EinsteinHilbert action, EinsteindilatonGaussBonnet (EdGB) and dynamical Chern Simons (dCS) gravity. To begin, I will first outline the methods used to analyze the data from each source. From there, I will discuss the conclusions these analyses led us to, including a tighter constraint on EdGB. Finally, I will present how we attempted to fully understand the sources of error, like uncertainties in the waveform model both within and outside GR, and how these factors do not significantly impact our results. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 4:21PM  4:33PM 
Z16.00004: Constraints on EinsteindilationGaussBonnet gravity from Black HoleNeutron Star Gravitational Wave Events Nan Jiang, Zhenwei Lyu, Kent Yagi Recent gravitational wave observations allow us to probe gravity in the strong and dynamical field regime. In this talk, we focus on testing Einsteindilation GaussBonnet gravity motivated by string theory. In particular, we use two new neutron star black hole binaries (GW200105 and GW200115). We also consider GW190814 which is consistent with both a binary black hole and a neutron star black hole binary. Adopting the leading postNewtonian correction and carrying out a Bayesian Markovchain Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the 90% credible upper bound on the coupling constant of the theory as √α_{GB} ≤ 1.33km, whose consistency is checked with an independent Fisher analysis. This bound is stronger than the bound obtained in previous literature by combining selected binary black hole events in GWTC1 and GWTC2 catalogs. We also derive a combined bound of √α_{GB} ≤ 1.18km, by stacking GW200105, GW200115, GW190814, and selected binary black hole events. In order to check the validity of the effect of higher postNewtonian terms, we derive corrections to the waveform phase up to second post Newtonian order by mapping results in scalartensor theories to Einsteindilation GaussBonnet gravity. We find that such higherorder terms improve the bounds by14.5% for GW200105 and 6.9% for GW200115 respectively. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 4:33PM  4:45PM 
Z16.00005: Tests of General Relativity with GWTC3 Krishnendu Naderi Varium Gravitationalwave observations deliver a unique way to perform tests of the general relativity (GR) in the dynamical strongfield regime. The detections of compact binary coalescences by the advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo detectors during the past observing runs have permitted us to perform several tests of general relativity (GR). We detail the various testing GR analyses performed on these events (GWTC3), focusing on the second part of the third observing run (O3b) of the LIGO and Virgo detectors. We report results from individual events and the combined results, including the GWTC2 events wherever appropriate. O3b consists of 15 new events satisfying the selection criteria. From the consistency tests, we find the residual power after subtracting the bestfit template being consistent with the instrumental noise. Also, the final mass and spin estimates obtained separately from the low and highfrequency parts of the gravitationalwave signal were found to agree. Measurements of parametric deviations of postNewtonian coefficients agreed to GR predictions, with an improvement by a factor of ∼ 2 in the −1PN parameter. The spininduced quadrupole moment estimates provide consistent results with a binary black hole system. We find no evidence of modified dispersion, extra polarization modes, and postmerger echoes. The tests performed for merger remnant properties provide consistent results. Furthermore, the graviton bound is updated to $1.23\times 10^{23}eV/c^{2}$ within the 90\% credibility. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 4:45PM  4:57PM 
Z16.00006: Tests of GravitationalWave Birefringence with the Open GravitationalWave Catalog Yifan Wang, Stephanie Brown, Lijing Shao, Wen Zhao The routine detection of gravitationalwave events from compact binary coalescences has allowed precise tests of gravity in a strong field, dynamical field, and high energy regimes. In this work, we report the results of testing gravitationalwave birefringence using compact binary coalescence events from the 3rd Open Gravitationalwave Catalog (3OGC). Birefringence, an effect where the left and righthanded polarizations of gravitational waves follow different equations of motion, occurs when the parity symmetry of gravity is broken. This arises naturally in the effective field theory extension of general relativity. Using Bayesian inference and stateoftheart waveform modeling, we use all events in 3OGC to constrain the lower limit of the energy scale at which parity violation effects emerge. Overall we do not find evidence for a violation of general relativity, and thus we constrain the parityviolating energy scale to 0.11 GeV at 90% confidence level, which is an improvement over previous results by one order of magnitude. Intriguingly, we find an outlier, GW190521, that supports the existence of birefringence over general relativity with a higher matchfiltering signaltonoise ratio and Bayes factor. The inclusion of birefringence for GW190521 gives consistent sky location estimation with a possible electromagnetic counterpart reported Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). However, the inferred MPVMPV from GW190521 is in tension with the combined constraints from other events, we thus hypothesize that the nonzero deviation may be caused by the limitations of the existing waveform approximants. More gravitational wave detections in the future from compact binary coalescence will further improve the constraints on birefringence and shed light on possible systematics for GW190521type events. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 4:57PM  5:09PM 
Z16.00007: Splitting the third hair: constraints on KerrNewman black holes from mergerringdown gravitationalwave observations Gregorio Carullo, Danny Laghi, Nathan K JohnsonMcDaniel, Oscar Dias, Walter Del Pozzo, Mahdi Godazgar, Jorge Santos Gravitational waves are providing increasingly stringent constraints on the properties of black holes. Dynamical processes involving such compact objects also represent engines of discovery for new particles and modifications of the EinsteinHilbert action. In this regard, we discuss a search for a U(1) charge in the postmerger signal of binary black hole coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo. Besides a “standard” electric charge, this "third hair” can be also identified with a hidden electromagnetic charge in models of minicharged dark matter, the vector charge in theories mediated by a gravitational vector field, or a topologically induced charge. We model the remnant object sourcing the postmerger signal as a KerrNewman black hole, and calculate the corresponding dominant quasinormal mode frequencies for arbitrary values of charge and angular momentum. Then, we construct a template to describe the ringdown of a charged remnant following a binary black hole coalescence. By applying this model to LIGOVirgo detections, we find no evidence for or against the KerrNewman hypothesis, and obtain upper bounds on the maximum amount of charge present in these mergers. Finally, we outline the prospects to detect black hole charge with LIGO and Virgo at their design sensitivity. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 5:09PM  5:21PM 
Z16.00008: GW190521: Quantifying the Evidence for NearHorizon Quantum effects Luís F Longo Micchi The exceptionally loud ringdown of GW190521 makes it an ideal candidate to search for gravitational wave echoes, a proposed smoking gun for the quantum structure of black hole horizons. We perform an unprecedented multipronged search for echoes via two wellestablished and independent pipelines: a templatebased search for stimulated emission of Hawking radiation (or Boltzmann echoes), and the modelagnostic coherent WaveBurst (cWB) search. Given GW190521 parameters, stimulated Hawking radiation from the merger is expected to lead to postmerger echoes at horizon mode frequency of ~ 50 Hz, repeating at intervals of ~ 1 second, due to partial reflection off Planckian quantum structure of the horizon. In this talk, I will be presenting the results found when performing two independent searches and discussing their results. I will argue how both methods agree on the existence of evidence in favor of echoes and also their agreement in the echo parameters. The statistical significance of these findings will also be discussed. 
Tuesday, April 12, 2022 5:21PM  5:33PM 
Z16.00009: Testing the Weak Equivalence Principle near black holes Cosimo Bambi Today we have quite stringent constraints on possible violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle from the comparison of the acceleration of testbodies of different composition in Earth's gravitational field. In this talk, I show how we can test the Weak Equivalence Principle in the strong gravitational field of black holes by studying the reflection features of their accretion disks. Constraints on a possible violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle by massive particles and Xray photons are inferred from a NuSTAR observation of the black hole binary EXO 1846031. 
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