Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2018
Monday–Friday, March 5–9, 2018; Los Angeles, California
Session Y47: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics 
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Sponsoring Units: GSNP Chair: Stephen Teitsworth, Duke Univ Room: LACC 507 
Friday, March 9, 2018 11:15AM  11:27AM 
Y47.00001: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics from First Principles Atanu Chatterjee, Germano Iannacchione In this talk we present a fundamental first principles approach to understand nonequilibrium phenomena and the onset of complexity in nature. We begin by putting forward a simple observation, the analogous of the Principle of Equivalence in mechanics to its counterpart in (nonequilibrium) thermodynamics. We introduce our formulation by laying out an equivalent fieldtheoretic approach to classical thermodynamics. The central core of this idea is to identify a thermodynamically open system as a scalar field over a symplectic energymanifold. Once the Lagrangian density is defined in terms of thermodynamic state variables, the EulerLagrange equations yield the steadystate energy conservation law. The salient feature of this formulation is the emergence of the spatial and temporal derivatives of these state variables as nonequilibrium corrections to the First Law of Thermodynamics. We thus put forward a generalized expression for the First Law of Thermodynamics, which has a viriallike expansion of the state variables and their higherorder spatial and temporal derivatives. Moreover, this generalized First Law hints at the presence of pairs of conjugate constants, that correspond to characteristic time and length scales for physical systems at various orders of complexity. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 11:27AM  11:39AM 
Y47.00002: Microscopic basis of stochastic thermodynamics Dibyendu Mandal, Katherine Klymko

Friday, March 9, 2018 11:39AM  11:51AM 
Y47.00003: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Entropy is Not Shannon Entropy Ronald Dickman, Leonardo Ferreira Calazans Defining entropy out of equilibrium is an outstanding challenge. For certain stochastic lattice models in nonequilibrium steady states, consistent definitions of temperature and chemical potential have been verified; we define the entropy S_{th} via integration of thermodynamic relations, e.g., (∂S/∂E)_{V,N} = 1/T. In equilibrium, the thermodynamic entropy equals the Shannon entropy, 
Friday, March 9, 2018 11:51AM  12:03PM 
Y47.00004: Generic properties of stochastic entropy production Simone Pigolotti, Izaak Neri, Édgar Roldán, Frank Julicher Entropy production is a central quantity in stochastic thermodynamics, satisfying the fluctuation relations under very general conditions. Recently, new (and surprising) generic properties of entropy production have been discovered, such as uncertainty inequalities and the "infimum law". It is unclear if there are even more generic properties of entropy production, and how these properties are related. In this talk, I will present a general theory for nonequilibrium physical systems described by overdamped Langevin equations. For these system, entropy production evolves according to a simple stochastic differential equation, which depends on the underlying physical model. However, at steady state, a random time transformation maps this evolution into a modelindependent form. This implies several generic properties for the entropy production, such as a finitetime uncertainty equality, universal distributions of the infimum and the supremum before the infimum, and universal distribution of the number of zerocrossings. I will conclude with generalizing some of the results to systems out of steady state. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 12:03PM  12:15PM 
Y47.00005: Converting nearly all available information into work by a nearly errorfree Brownian information engine Hyuk Kyu Pak, Govind Paneru, Dong yun Lee, Tsvi Tlusty We report on a lossless information engine that converts nearly all available information from an errorfree feedback protocol into mechanical work. Combining highprecision detection at resolution of 1 nm with ultrafast feedback control, the engine is tuned to extract the maximum work from information on the position of a Brownian particle. We show that the work produced by the engine achieves a bound set by a generalized second law of thermodynamics, demonstrating for the first time the sharpness of this bound. We validate a generalized Jarzynski equality for errorfree feedbackcontrolled information engines. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 12:15PM  12:27PM 
Y47.00006: Dissipationbased uncertainty bounds for currents Todd Gingrich, Jordan Horowitz Markov jump processes can generate steadystate probability currents at the expense of dissipation. I will discuss how the dissipation also constraints the fluctuations in those currents. A small deviations corollary proves a "thermodynamic uncertainty principle"to reduce the uncertainty in the estimate of nonequilibrium currents, a process must dissipate more. I will furthermore discuss corresponding dissipationbased uncertainty bounds for first passage time fluctuations. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 12:27PM  12:39PM 
Y47.00007: New results in stochastic thermodynamics derived using informational divergences David Wolpert, Artemy Kolchinsky In prior work we derived simple formulas for how the amount of work dissipated during a timeextended process depends on the initial distribution over states. Here we extend these results to analyze how various rates of change of thermodynamic quantities depend on the current state distribution, thereby deriving novel stochastic thermodynamics results. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 12:39PM  12:51PM 
Y47.00008: Mixed Entropy Power Inequalities and LogConcavity of Equilibrium Distribution with application to the Physical Limits of Computation James Melbourne, Saurav Talukdar, Shreyas Bhaban, Murti Salapaka Landauer's bound establishes a quantitative relationship between logically irreversible manipulations of information and the associated energy consumption. Explicitly, it asserts that the amount of energy required to erase one bit of information is kT ln 2, and thus proportional to the decrease in entropy of the system. A Brownian particle in a bistable potential is a commonly used model for a single bit of memory. We show that the equilibrium distribution of the Brownian particle before and after erasure can be modeled as a weighted mixture of mixed random variables(product of a continuous log concave and Bernoulli random variable), where the discreteness is associated with the success of the erasure and the continuous log concave aspect is associated to the potential being a continous convex function. Additionally, we prove that the equilibrium distribution obeys an Entropy Power Inequality analogous to Shannon's. In this framework of log concave distributions, we present bounds on the decrease in entropy associated with erasure and show convergence to the Landauer's bound when the log concave distributions for the two states of a memory do not overlap. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 12:51PM  1:03PM 
Y47.00009: Mixture of Gaussians perspective on the Landauer Bound Saurav Talukdar, Shreyas Bhaban, James Melbourne, Murti Salapaka Landauer's bound states that succesful erasure of a bit of information results in an average dissipation of at least kTln 2. We analyze the effect of 'imperfections' on the minimum heat dissipation associated with a quasi static erasure of a bit of information. Two types of imperfections are considered  overlap between the two states which define a bit of memory and the asymmetry between the two states of a bit of memory. We conclude that, the two types of imperfections presented could lower the heat dissipation associated with erasure of a bit of information as compared to the Landauer's bound. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 1:03PM  1:15PM 
Y47.00010: Relaxation to GGE after quantum quenches to quadratic Hamiltonians Chaitanya Murthy, Mark Srednicki The generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) conjecture concerns the longtime behavior of local observables in thermodynamically large integrable closed quantum systems. It states that, for generic nonequilibrium initial states, local observables relax at late times to stationary values that can be computed using the GGE density matrix, which maximizes the entropy subject to constraints imposed by all local conserved charges of the integrable system. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 1:15PM  1:27PM 
Y47.00011: Population Inversion without Pumping: Supradegeneracy Daniel Sheehan

Friday, March 9, 2018 1:27PM  1:39PM 
Y47.00012: Excess entropy production in quantum systems Yasuhiro Tokura For open systems described by the quantum master equation (QME), we investigate the excess entropy production under quasistatic operations between nonequilibrium steady states[1]. The average entropy production is composed of the time integral of the instantaneous steady entropy production rate and the excess entropy production. We propose to define average entropy production rate using the average energy and particle currents, which are calculated by using the full counting statistics with QME. The excess entropy production is given by a line integral in the control parameter space and its integrand is called the Berry–Sinitsyn–Nemenman (BSN) vector. In the weakly nonequilibrium regime, we devied the BSN vector with is described with the density operator of the instantaneous steady state of the QME and the density operator given by the QME with reversing the sign of the Lamb shift term. If the system Hamiltonian is nondegenerate or the Lamb shift term is negligible, the excess entropy production approximately reduces to the difference between the von Neumann entropies of the system. 
Friday, March 9, 2018 1:39PM  1:51PM 
Y47.00013: Selfdissimilarity, irreversibility and robustness in modelocked lasers Tesfay Teamir, Ghaith Makey, Serim Ilday, Fatih Ilday Passive modelocking of lasers corresponds to a selforganized farfromthermalequilibrium steady state. These lasers also generate ultrafast pulses, which have a diverse range of scientific and industrial applications. Given their importance it is perhaps surprising that a fundamental question of great practical importance has remained unanswered to this date: When is a modelocked laser robust against noise? When is it fragile? What is the origin of different levels of robustness of different lasers, such as soliton and similariton lasers? Here, we borrow the concept of selfdissimilarity from complexity science and apply it as a measure of complexity of the phase space of modelocking. Robustness is shown to be directly linked to low selfdissimilarity and irreversibility of noiseinduced transitions. Further, we show that all laser types develop low selfdissimilarity as nonlinearity is increased (higher power), but at different paces. At even higher powers, they all eventually approach a critical transition, where the phase space evolves into a random fractal, exhibiting scale independence, measured over 7 decades. Thus, the well known but hitherto unexplained differences in robustness are intuitively explained and quantified. 
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