Bulletin of the American Physical Society
APS March Meeting 2015
Volume 60, Number 1
Monday–Friday, March 2–6, 2015; San Antonio, Texas
Session J35: Optomechanics and Hybrid Systems |
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Sponsoring Units: DAMOP Chair: Tongcang Li, Purdue University Room: 210B |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 2:30PM - 2:42PM |
J35.00001: Self-energy of a Cold Atom Interacting with an Elastic Membrane Sanghita Sengupta, Weishuang Xu, Dennis Clougherty The interaction of an atom with an elastic membrane is studied using Feynman-Dyson perturbation theory. The self-energy $\Sigma(E)$ of an atom with incident energy $E$ is calculated analytically to second-order in the atom-membrane interaction. We explicitly show that while the first-order contribution to the self-energy is well-behaved, the second-order contribution is divergent in the limit of infinite membrane size, and we identify the various divergent contributions. These results are discussed in the context of the ``quantum sticking'' and scattering of cold atoms from two dimensional materials such as graphene and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 2:42PM - 2:54PM |
J35.00002: Effects of quantum coherence and interference in atoms near nano-particle Suman Dhayal, Yuri Rostovtsev Optical properties of ensembles of realistic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic systems are studied using a self-consistent model. In particular, the coherent effects such as forming ``dark states,'' optical pumping, coherent Raman scattering, and the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are revisited in the presence of metalic nanoparticles. It is shown that the ``dark states'' are still formed but have more complicated structure, the optical pumping and the STIRAP cannot be employed in the vicinity of plasmonic nanostructures. The STIRAP technique should be used carefully, because it may not work or has at least new features in the presence of nanoparticles. We have also found difference of the local atomic polarization and the atomic polarization averaged over ensemble of atoms homogeneously spread near nanoparticles. The averaged polarization is stricly related to the polarization of the external field, meanwhile the local polarization can be very different from the one induced by the external field. The obtained results are important for excitation of single molecules, e.g. new components of scattering from single molecules can be used for efficient detection of nanoparticles. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 2:54PM - 3:06PM |
J35.00003: Observations of parity-time symmetry in optical systems: microtoroid resonators and moving hot atoms Jianming Wen, Liang Jiang, Yanhong Xiao, Xiaoshun Jiang, Min Xiao Compound-photonic systems with gain and loss provide a powerful platform for testing various theoretical proposals on non-Hermitian parity-time (PT) symmetric quantum mechanics and initiate new possibilities for shaping optical beams and pulses beyond conservative structures. Such systems can be designed as optical analogues of complex PT-symmetric potentials with real spectra. However, the beam dynamics can exhibit unique features distinct from conservative systems due to non-trivial wave interference and phase-transition effects. Here, we report two of our recent experiments on the realizations of PT-symmetric optics in two different systems: one uses two directly coupled high-Q silica-microtoroid resonators with balanced effective gain and loss [1]; while the other is the first experimental implementation in an optical system using moving atoms, in which the coupling of two optical modes is realized by coherent diffusion of atomic coherence [2]. In both studies, our theories show excellent agreements with the experimental observations. [1] L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, Nature Photonics \textbf{8}, 524 (2014). [2] P. Peng, W. Qu, W. Cao, L. Zheng, S. Shen, J. Wen, L. Jiang, and Y. Xiao (submitted). [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 3:06PM - 3:18PM |
J35.00004: Thermodynamic considerations of mechanical oscillations Chiao-Hsuan Wang, Jacob Taylor Recent experimental efforts in large-scale optomechanical systems have been made to observe coherent superpositions of macroscopic oscillators. However, the quantum harmonic oscillator treatment of macroscopic optomechanics may need further verification due to the presence of enormous numbers of internal degrees of freedom. We examine models of a mechanical oscillator coupled to many degrees of freedom in thermal contact with a bath, and find that spring-like classical oscillations can occur even if there is no underlying quantum mechanical oscillator. We provide a microscopic description of this thermal oscillator mechanism, and consider methods for distinguishing between quantum harmonic oscillations and other oscillatory behaviors. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 3:18PM - 3:30PM |
J35.00005: Measurement and control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate Dalziel Wilson, Vivishek Sudhir, Nicolas Piro, Ryan Schilling, Amir Ghadimi, Tobias Kippenberg In real-time (Markovian) quantum feedback protocols, the outcome of a continuous measurement is used to stabilize a desired quantum state. Extending such protocols to macroscopic systems is a significant challenge, as the measurement must in this case compete with rapid environmental decoherence. We report on the realization of an interferometric sensor that approaches the requirements of quantum feedback for a solid-state, 4.3 MHz nanomechanical oscillator: namely, the ability to resolve its zero-point motion in the timescale of its thermal decoherence. The sensor is based on near-field cavity-optomechanical coupling, and realizes a measurement of the oscillator's displacement with an imprecision 40 dB below that at the standard quantum limit, while maintaining an imprecision-backaction product within a factor of 5 of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. As a demonstration of its utility, we use the measurement to feedback cool the oscillator to an phonon occupation of 5.4$\pm$0.7 (i.e, a ground state probablity of 16$\%$). Our results establish a new benchmark for the performance of a linear position sensor, and signal the emergence of engineered mechanical oscillators as practical subjects for measurement-based quantum control. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 3:30PM - 3:42PM |
J35.00006: Non-equilibrium quantum heating effects in driven, strongly-interacting optomechanics Aashish Clerk, Marc-Antoine Lemonde We study the influence of weak, nonlinear single-photon optomechanical interactions in a strongly driven cavity, focusing on the regime where these interactions become resonant due to the formation of optomechanical polaritons. We extend the Keldysh field-theory approach to this problem formulated in our previous work\footnote{M.-A. Lemonde et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 111}, 053602 (2013).} to now consider how zero-point fluctuations give rise to effective temperatures in this driven, interacting system. We show that this quantum heating has distinct signatures in the effective temperature of both the photonic and phononic degrees of freedom, and can in principle be detected by looking at the spectrum of the light leaving the cavity. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 3:42PM - 3:54PM |
J35.00007: Simulating a Parametric Oscillator-Based Dynamical Casimir Effect Enrique Guerrero, Alessandro Castelli, Luis A. Martinez, Raymond Chiao, Jay E. Sharping We present simulations of a cavity for use in demonstrating the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE). The successful demonstration of the DCE gives rise to interesting opportunities to study questions in Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. Crucial to this experiment is attaining resonant cavities with a high Q, a measurement of how purely our system resonates. Necessary Q values can and have been achieved using superconducting cavities, and the low losses in these cavities allows above threshold amplification of vacuum fluctuations. Simulations of the system are crucial to optimize cavity design parameters. Using COMSOL Multiphysics, we simulate a set of three resonant cavities to create and amplify radio frequency (11 GHz) electromagnetic wave. Coupling between different cavities is achieved via a membrane which is driven into motion by electromagnetic radiation pressure. The simulation is being conducted concurrently with preliminary cavity experiments. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 3:54PM - 4:06PM |
J35.00008: Optomechanical cooling in a correlated emission laser Wenchao Ge, M. Suhail Zubairy Optomechanical sideband cooling enables mechanical motion to be cooled close to its quantum ground state. Due to the phase noise of the cooling laser, ground state cooling is limited by using an external driving laser. We study the optomechanical sideband cooling in a correlated emission laser without an external driving. The relative laser phase noise in a correlated emission laser can be greatly suppressed due to the correlation transition. We utilize this effect to avoid the phase-noise limitation on optomechanical cooling. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 4:06PM - 4:18PM |
J35.00009: Regenerative Pulsations in Optomechanical Devices Hugh Ramp, Mohammad Bitarafan, Brad Hauer, Xavier Rojas, Ray DeCorby, John Davis In optomechanical devices, the presence of a strong cavity optical field is often desired to observe mechanical motion. In this case it becomes important to consider the effects of non-linear optical processes occurring in the device medium, which alter the effective refractive index and absorption coefficient of the device. We study the example of the buckled-dome Fabry-Perot microcavity, in which light is trapped in a spherical cap formed by two Si-SiO$_2$ Bragg mirrors of radius 125 $\mu$m. In the presence of strong optical fields the silicon in these devices undergo a combination of $\chi^{(3)}$ non-linear processes resulting in periodic shifts of the cavity optical resonance known as regenerative pulsations. We have found that the precise waveform and frequency of these pulsations can be tuned by altering the laser detuning and input power, and found that the study of the pulsations leads to interesting observations of the optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the device. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 4:18PM - 4:30PM |
J35.00010: Optomechanics with ripplons on superfluid helium Gerwin Koolstra, David McKay, Ge Yang, David Czaplewski, David Schuster Superfluid helium has arisen as a promising candidate for optomechanics systems. Due to extremely low loss well below the lambda point, vibrations on the helium -- ripplons -- are expected to have high quality factors [1]. Here we report on progress towards coupling microwave photons in a superconducting LC resonator to ripplons in SU8 microchannels. In our device, ripplons ($\omega_{\mathrm{m}}$/2$\pi \quad \approx $ 0.5 MHz) can be generated using interdigitated transducers and detected using superconducting resonators. We estimate the coupling of our device on the order of 5 kHz per nm of ripplon wave amplitude. In this talk, we will discuss our experiments probing the properties of ripplons and thermal vibrations of the helium. [1] P. Roche et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3316 (1995) [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 4:30PM - 4:42PM |
J35.00011: Superfluid Helium-4 as an Ultra-low Loss Optomechanical Element Laura De Lorenzo, Keith Schwab We investigate the low loss acoustic motion of superfluid He-4 parametrically coupled to a high Q, superconducting niobium TE$_{011}$ microwave resonator, forming a gram-scale, sideband resolved, optomechanical system. We demonstrate the detection of a series of acoustic modes with quality factors as high $3\cdot10^7$. The lowest dissipation modes are limited by an intrinsic three phonon process at higher temperatures, which leads to a $T^4$ dependent attenuation. In isotopically purified samples at temperatures below 10 mK, acoustic quality factors over $10^{10}$ may be possible. A system of this type may be utilized to study macroscopic quantized motion and as a freqency tunable, ultra-sensitive sensor of extremely weak displacements and forces, such as continuous gravity wave sources. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 4:42PM - 4:54PM |
J35.00012: Strong single-photon nonlinearities in a multimode optomechanical system in the weak coupling regime Kjetil Borkje, Stefan Walter We theoretically study the dynamics of two optomechanical cells, where each cell consists of an optical cavity mode whose resonance frequency is modulated by the position of a mechanical resonator. The two cells are furthermore coupled via photon and phonon tunneling, such that both the photon and the phonon modes hybridize to form symmetric and antisymmetric supermodes. This setup can for example be implemented in an optomechanical crystal. We show that by laser driving one of the optical supermodes with appropriately chosen power and frequency, the system can display strong single-photon effects already when the optomechanical single-photon cooperativity becomes larger than unity. This means that single-photon nonlinearities become important at significantly smaller coupling rates than in a single-mode system. We study how this system can be used to manipulate light at the single-photon level and to realize interactions between individual photons. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 4:54PM - 5:06PM |
J35.00013: Nested Trampoline Optomechanical Systems Matthew Weaver, Frank Buters, Hedwig Eerkens, Brian Pepper, Gesa Welker, Kier Heeck, Sven de Man, Dirk Bouwmeester Recently there has been much interest in isolating mechanical systems from the environment to increase coherence times in optomechanical systems. One technique is to use phononic crystals for isolation, but at low frequencies such crystals become prohibitively large. A nested resonator can produce 40 dB of isolation from the environment. We demonstrate such a nested resonator design with an extension of trampoline resonators. This design provides reliable quality factor, a critical parameter for testing quantum mechanics in large mass systems. Another challenge in optomechanics is controlling the amplitude of mechanical motion of an oscillator. By scanning the detuning of a laser with respect to an optomechanical cavity resonance, we access many states within an optomechanical attractor diagram. Our system passes through a point of bistability, which has been proposed as a sensitive force sensing technique. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 5:06PM - 5:18PM |
J35.00014: Quantum synchronization of two dissipatively coupled Van der Pol oscillators Stefan Walter, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Christoph Bruder Synchronization is a universal phenomenon that is important both in fundamental studies and in technical applications. Here we study synchronization of two dissipatively coupled Van der Pol oscillators in the quantum regime and analyze synchronization in terms of frequency entrainment and frequency locking \footnote{S.~Walter, A.~Nunnenkamp, and C.~Bruder, \\ Ann.~Phys.~DOI:~10.1002/andp.201400144 (2014)}. Due to quantum noise strict frequency locking is absent and is replaced by a crossover from weak to strong frequency entrainment. The differences to the behavior of one quantum Van der Pol oscillator subject to an external drive \footnote{S.~Walter, A.~Nunnenkamp, and C.~Bruder, \\ Phys.~Rev.~Lett. 112, 094102 (2014)} are discussed. Moreover, a possible experimental realization of two coupled quantum Van der Pol oscillators in an optomechanical setting is described. [Preview Abstract] |
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 5:18PM - 5:30PM |
J35.00015: Single-photon time-dependent spectrum in quantum optomechanics Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk Single-photon optomechanics in the strong coupling regime is promising to play a key role in the realization of superpositions of macroscopic objects (for testing the foundations of quantum theory) and enhancing the nonlinear optomechanical interactions (for possible applications in quantum information processing). The stationary/time-independent spectrum of a single-photon interacting with a tiny movable mirror (in the context of cavity quantum optomechanics) can exhibit the signatures of optomechanical interaction as the appearance of multiple side bands in the spectrum. Strong optomechanical coupling and the good cavity limit are the two main conditions that need to be satisfied in order to observe all resonances in the spectrum [J.-Q. Liao et. al, Phys. Rev. A, 85,025803 (2012)]. We investigate the time-dependent (TD) version of the spectrum in the weak mechanical damping limit [Single-photon time-dependent spectrum in quantum optomechanics, I. M. Mirza, S. van Enk, to appear in Phys. Rev. A (2014)], which reveals some novel effects that are not possible to observe otherwise. For instance, the TD spectrum indicates that a sufficient amount of time has to pass before one can observe the fully resolved spectrum, even if the strong coupling and good cavity conditions are respected. Moreover, the TD spectrum also exhibits the order (in time) in which different side bands appear, thus further explaining the different photon-phonon interactions responsible for the production of distinct resonances. [Preview Abstract] |
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